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Full text of "History of Tazewell county, Illinois ; together with sketches of its cities, villages and townships, educational, religious, civil, military, and political history; portraits of prominent persons and biographies of representative citizens. History of Illinois ... Digest of state laws"

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LI E) R.A FlY 





















Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1879, by 


In the Office of the Libnirian of Congress, at Wasliington, D. C. 





• The earlj' historj' of Tazewell county is peculiarly interesting, and we 
are enabled to give it from the very earliest occupancy of Illinois by the 
whites. In point of time of its soil being disturbed by Europeans, it is 
more remote than any other section of our great Prairie State. The second 
centennial of its first settlement is at hand. In the county are places of 
unusual historic interest, and to those who have located here we judge it 
will be a source of no little gratification to inform themselves on the ante- 
pioneer history of the county, which we detail at considerable length. In 
the compilation of this work we pass over a period of two hundred years. 

We have taken much care in recording the pioneer history, that future 
generations, those who will not have the early settler to relate to them 
the history incident to the settlement and development of this county, 
may familiarize themselves with it through this medium; and that the 
reader may see the county in all its various stages of progression. We do 
not profess to have fully delineated the trials, suflTerings, and hardships 
that were experience*! in converting even this fertile land from its virgin 
wildness into the luxuriant and densely populate<l country it now is. No! 
for human tongue or pen is far from being adequate to that task. 

Different persons have given us honest and sincere, but nevertheless 
conflicting accounts of the same events, and it has been both a difficult 
and delicate task to harmonize them, and draw therefrom reasonable and 
approximately correct conclusions. We had only one aim in view, one 
plan to carry out, and that was, to record events impartially — to detail 
them as they have actually occurred. 

That we have completed our work, fulfilled all our promises to the 
uttermost, we feel conscientiously assured, and we submit the result of 
our labors to the charitable consideration of this intelligent an<l liberal 
people. It must not be expected that, in the multiplicity of names, dates, 
and events, no errors will be detected. We do not dare hope that, in the 
numerous and varied details, this book is absolutely correct, nor is it ex- 


pected that it is beyoml (.riticisni, yet we believe it will be found to be 
nieasurablj' correct and reliable. We have labored assiduously and with 
studious care to make it a standard work of reference, as well as an 
authoritative record for future historians to build upon. 

Believing a work of this nature would be comparatively incomplete 
without speaking of the history of the State, of which Tazewell county 
forms no unimportant portion, we have carefully prepared a condensed, 
yet very complete history of Illinois, which we incorporate in this volume. 
And as a valuable aid in transacting every-day business, we append a 
carefully compiled digest of Illinois State Laws, which both the l>;.isiness 
man and farmer will find of great value. *- 

Before laying aside our pen, we desire to express our warmest thanks 

to the editors of the various newspapers pul)lished throughout the county; 

to the county officials, and to the people in general for the assistance and 

lil)eral patronage given us- 

Pekin, June, 1879. 





Illinois Confodcnicv 23 

Starvfd Uock .". 2o 

Sites iiiul Foxes 24 

Miiiuiers and Cnslonis 27 

Sinj.'le-lnin(kMl Conihat with Indians ... 2'.) 


Nicholas I'errot :'.l 

)liet anil Marquette :!1 

LaSalle's Explorations ;!;5 

(Jreat Hattle of the Illinois :il 

Tonti safe at (irci'n liiiy ;. 11 

LaSalle's Assa.ssination i:! 


First Settlements 44 

Thi' .Mississii)i>i Coninanv 45 


(!ei). (.'lark's Exploits 51 


Coinitv of Illinois 55 


Onlinanee of 17s7 50 

St. Clair <;overnorof N. \V. TeiTitor>' .. 59 



Ma.ssiicre ()f Fort Dearborn till 

Exi>editions up the Missis.sippi 71 


Orpiniziition 74 

Derivation of the name Illinois 77 

State Hank 7.S 

LaFayette's Visit 

(iranimar luid Cook contrasted 



Settlement and Orpinization 1,VJ 

La.'^alle's Ex]>lorations 189 

The War of 1.S12 u. 19(; 

The I'ioneers 2()U 

Oriranizalion of I ho County '2117 

Fii-si Mill .". 2119 

A leu First Things 210 

The Di'e]) Snow '214 

Suilileii Change 217 

High Water 21.S 

The lieantiful Prairies 2-20 

Ini])ortant Labors of the County Comniis 
sioner's Court ". 


Black Hiiwk War i'>('> 

Geology 207 

Zoology and Rotjvny 272 

Criminal Record 28S 


Important Labors of the Board of Super- 
vLsors :«)0 

Blooded Stock ;!0s 

Under-ground Railroad 313 


Winnebago War 


Stillnian's Run 

Battle of Bad Axe 

Black Hawk Cajitured 

Biographical Skelcii of Black Hawk 

FROM l.s:;4 TO 1.S42 

Internal lni]inivemeiits 

Illinois and Michigan Canal 

Martvr for Liberty. 




Battle (»f Ihiena Vista 


States !<( 'ceiling 

The Fall of Sumter '. 

Call for Troops promptly answered 

The War ended — The Union restored 

Schedule of Regiment.s 






Lieiitenant (iovernors 

Stale Odieials 

U. S. Senators 

Representatives in Congress 


The (Jri'at Fire 

Commerce of (.'hicago 



Pioneer Life 


The Rebellion 

Tazewell County Volunteers 

Tazewell (.'ounty B:ir 

T0WN.SI111' IIi.sTiiKii:s:— 

Boy n ton 


Deer Creek 



I-:im (irovc 

Fond du Lac 




Little Mackinaw 





Sand Prairie 

Spring I^ake 













County Oflicials and Political Historj'. 
Election Returns 



Pikin Times 

Tiizewell County Repubii'(5^n.' 

\Nti.shiiif,'ion Ilcnilii.f. 

iK'hiviin AfivtriisLT 

Delavaii Times 

Miiiior News . 

'nu;i.,velIIn.JependentV.'.r.;:; n'^ 

Ia-k».\ Tfiider 

Frtie Presse 


Starved Rrxk . 






I-, B. <t w. Ry. 

f: K & J. K. R.;;; 

t;- A. 6, St. L. R. R ::::;;;:::;: 

P-, L. A: D. Ry. 

T„ P. ct w. R'y ..::::; 

111. Midland R R 

C, P. iV 8. \V. R. 



All Inxjiiois Chief •• ^' 

<;i'n. Cn-o. K. (lark '*' 


tieii. Artliur St. Clair 

Old Fort Deurboni ^ 

Old Kiiizic House... ''^ 

Pontiuc bo 

Scene on Fox River 

Lineoln .Monuiiant ^-^ 

A.sylum furFeel.le Minded.""" HI 

N..U hern Normal Iniver^ity }^ 

( entral In.sane Ilo.spital '' 

Indu.sinal Lniversliy iii;; "?" 

Black Hawk ...... ..'.'.'." G-* F:.\j)o.sitioii Building ^"^ 

'k '^- ^i iV ^ K- K. n^n:::::: .'S La«'>i,i« street Tunuei;;;;;.;;. ]^i 

Lve and I-Jir Iidir.nurv ^. ,1? J.^^ ^nb - 1^2 

louse ^^^ 



Evi a„u ijir iimr.nury . 
Deaf and Dumb Institute 


Allensworth, W P J'OKTRAIT.S, 

Alfs. Ovrd. ^^ 

BiKon, E. H -l-l 

Bemis, T. K. -^^ 

Iie<iueaith, Johii"'. tJ'-? 

Be<iueaith, KlizabethV.V.V. „!? 

Breniieman, Jacob .... ik^ 

< latoii, John... •^^' 

Crabb, Daniel . ■^^'^ 

Cobleigh, G. R....; 322 

Crawford, James .'^1 

Darah, Robert... ■^^' 

Frey, Rudolph ■'•'■♦' 

Gaines, John .. •**- 

(iolden, C. L.... -»-! 

<jt».lden, Mrs. Kliz,i ii. ■;.■;; ^J') 

Gnesemer, Adam Vii^ 

IIjuls, Kli ... 40/ 

IIa<i.s, Ann Catherine;;;:;:: SH 

iraa.s, hdward **^-' 

Hall. Ini B ftW 


Luuisey, Jean 

Luppen, Luppe 

McI)owell, Mrs. Kitty 
McKinstry, John ... 
Marshall, Horaces...' 
Martin, James p 
Minicr, Geo. W . 

Minier, .Sarah ^^'^ 

Minicr, T.L... ^^^ 

Minier, Ellen ^^^ 

Nichols, Geo '^^^ 

Orendorfi; G. P *^- 

R^mkjn, Daniel m"V ^ 

Rankin, John S ^-^ 

Reardon, John "'-^ 

bundle, wiiiiaui::;;;.;:; -^^ 

Shurtleir, Flavel ^^ 

Smith, D. c." 229 

Smith, Fred ^'^ 

Smith, Ties ^"5 

Hill, Xehemiah... ^'~ Stoehr, Geoitre ^'^ 

ilill, Einilv .^W Stoehr, Mar%- M -^-^ 

Jlippen. h! W ; o4S Studyviu, John •*-'•' 

Hottinan, John ... ^"•''•' ^Vil.son, Dr R ii yi ■''■'' 

Ireland, Fraiicis;:." ^'•'^ Woods, Abraham " "^ 

of Courts 


Irwin, Joe B . 39 

Larimore, TimoVhv'.V.'. fir 

Lindsey, James A '^^ 




Com. o 

Trespass of SU)Ck.'.'." J-*^ 

Kstravs im 

Horses ;;;:;; 749 

Marks and Brand.s "* 

Articles of AgreemeiitV." iJj 

Judgment N'ote...::: '^2 

Interest . 7.J3 

Wills ;"""'.v.'.v;;;;;;;;; i^ 

■-—•'', Abraham co^ 

\\oods, Harriet M ^l 

^^ood, Dr. E F 636 

Ziiiger, Louis.....::;;; ™i 

•■ 599 



'% *,v."!?' ;;.;;;;;;;;;;; ~fi ['y^^'^^-t for PereoiVara-nic^i ^, 

1. of Highways if* ^ e" si w^rt Libel. '^"»'^es ^4 

ees ^4-1 Lender "5 

nage .'.".V "4C. Drunkcnnes.s ; - "^^ 


Deeds .;;;;;;; 

Tr,T'rlf ^'^.""'^ '''"^"st Deedl': 

1 rust Deeds 

I-eiiis .. 

Bill of Sale ;;:.'.'.'.'.";; '••- 

Daysof (Jraoe "W 





Marriage Contract 

School Months 


Adoi.tion of ciiiidreVi v.: 

Church Organizations... 


Millers ;.■.■.■.■."; 


I'ublic and PrivaieConVeyancti' 
^N ages and Suikeholdera. f 

jA'gal Weights! " " 

Dogs '..; 

• and Meiusures .. 


. 778 

. 7S0 

. 780 

. 781 

. 781 

. 782 









Limitation of Action.'." ' ".' 

E.veiiipii,,„si^rom F\7rcedj^^^^^^^ 

Ijii) and Tenants '^' 

Criminal ]jiw.. '67 

Taxes ! 770 

cnieity toAiVimak;::;;;;;;; Zfj? 

f. S. Mail.*!.....""' 
Itates of Postage 
Rates of p 


i^^-:t:?k.W!?ter' ^''-'•■^^"-Matte-r:::::: m 

Mc.iey urriers .;: i^f 








,c'ri*^' tr. :v.,,^ 


3^7l';)yj';f.L €IIUNT¥ 



Scale ■/' Miles lo f/ir ineJi. 

/Mm '/I /ari/,rI/isforxo/'7hznM'ff('oXl 




The numerous and well-authenticated accounts of antiquities 
found in various parts of our country, clearlj' demonstrate that a 
people civilized, and even highly cultivated, occupied the broad 
surface of our continent before its possession by the present In- 
dians; but the date of their rule of the Western World is so re- 
mote that all traces of their history, their progress and decay, lie 
buried in deepest obscurity. Nature, at the time the first Euro- 
peans came, had asserted her original dominion over the earth; the 
forests were all in their full luxuriance, the growth of many cen- 
turies; and naught existed to point out who and what they were 
who formerly lived, and loved, and labored, and died, on the conti- 
nent of America. This pre-historic race is known as the Mound- 
Builders, from the numerous large mounds of earth-works left by 
them. The remains of the works of this people form the most in- 
teresting class of antiquities discovered in the United States. Their 
character can be but partially gleaned from the internal evidences 
and the peculiarities of the only remains left, — the mounds. They 
consist of remains of what were apparently villages, altars, temples, 
idols, cemeteries, monuments, camps, fortifications, pleasure 
grounds, etc., etc. Their habitations must have been tents, struc- 
tures of wood, or other perishable material; otherwise their remains 
would be numerous. If the Mound-Builders were not the ancestors 
of the Indians, who were they'^ The oblivion which has closed over 
them is so complete that only conjecture can be given in answer to 
the question. Those who do not believe in the common parentage 
of mankind contend that they were an indigenous race of the West- 
ern hemisphere; others, with more plausibility, think they came 
from the East, and imagine they can see coincidences in the religion 
of the Hindoos and Southern Tartars and the supposed theology of 


the Mound-Builders. They were, no doubt, idolators, and it has 
been conjectured that the sun was the object of their adoration. The 
mounds were generally built in a situation affording a view of the 
rising Bun: when enclosed in walls their gateways were toward the 
east; the caves in which their dead were occasionally buried always 
opened in the same direction; whenever a mound was partially en- 
closed by a semi-circular pavement, it was on the east side; when 
bodies were buried in graves, as was frequently the case, they were 
laid in a direction east and west; and, finally, medals have been 
found representing the sun and his rays of light. 

At what period they came to this countr}', is likewise a matter of 
speculation. From the comparatively rude state of the arts among 
them, it has been inferred that the time was very remote. Their 
axes were of stone. Their raiment, judging from fragments which 
have been discovered, consisted of the bark of trees, interwoven 
with feathers; and their military works were such as a people 
would erect who had just passed to che pastoral state of society 
from that dependent alone upon hunting and fishing. 

The mounds and other ancient earth-works constructed by this 
people are far more abundant than generally supposed, from the fact 
that while some are quite large, tlie greater part of them are small 
and inconspicuous. Along nearly all our water courses that are 
large enough to be navigated with a canoe, the mounds are almost 
invariably found, covering the base points and headlands of the 
bluffs which border the narrower valleys; so that when one finds him- 
self in such positions as to command the grandest views for river 
Bcenery, he may almost always discover that he is standing upon, 
or in close proximity to, some one or more of these traces of the 
labors of an ancient people. 


On the top of the high bluffs that skirt the west bank of the Mis- 
sissippi, about two and a half miles from Galena, are a number of 
these silent monuments of a pre-historic age. The spot is one of 
surpassing beauty. From that point may be obtained a view of a 
portion of three States, — Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin. A hundred 
feet below, at the foot of the perpendicular cliffs, the trains of the 
Illinois Central Railroad thunder around the curve, the portage is 
in full yiew^ and the " Father of Waters," with its numerous bayous 


and islands, sketches a grand paraoraina for miles above and below. 
Here, probably tlioiisands of years ago, a race of men now extinct, 
and unknown even in the traditions of the Indians who inhabited 
that section for centuries before the discovery of America by Colum- 
bus, built these strangely wonderful and enigmatical mounds. At 
this point these mounds are circular and conical in form. The larg- 
est one is at least forty feet in diameter at the b&. 9, and not less 
than fifteen feet high, even yet, after it has been bt, ten by the 
storms of many centuries. On its top stands the large stump of an 
oak tree that was cut down about fifty years ago, and its annual 
rings indicate a growth of at least 200 years. 

One of the most singular earth-works in the State was found on 
the top of a ridge near the east bank of the Sinsinawa creek in the 
lead region. It resembled some huge animal, the head, ears, nose, 
legs and tail, and general outline of which being as perfect as 
if made bv men versed in modern art. The ridore on which it was 
situated stands on the prairie, 300 yards wide, 100 feet in height, 
and rounded on the top by a deep deposit of clay. Centrally, 
along the line of its summit, and thrown up in the form of an 
embaiikment three feet high, extended the outline of a quadruped 
measuring 250 feet from the tip of the nose to the end of the 
tail, and having a width of IS feet at the center of the body. The 
head was 35 feet in length, the ears 10 feet, legs 60 and tail 75. The 
curvature in both the fore and hind legs was natural to an animal 
lying on its side. The general outline of the figure most nearly 
resembled the extinct animal known to geologists as the Megathe- 
rium. The question naturally arises. By whom and for what pur- 
pose was this earth figure raised? Some have conjectured that 
numbers of this now extinct animal lived and roamed over the prai- 
ries of Illinois when the Mound-Builders first made their appearance 
on the upper part of the Mississippi Valley, and that their wonder 
and admiration, excited by the colossal dimensions of these huge 
creatures, found some expression in the erection of this figure. 
The bones of some similar gigantic animals were exhumed on this 
stream about three miles from the same place. 


Mr. Breckenridge, who examined the antiquities of the Western 
country in ISIT, speaking of the mounds in the American Bottom, 
says: "The great number and extremely large size of some of 


them may be regarded as furnishing, with other circumstances, 
evidences of their antiquity. I have sometimes been induced to 
think that at the period when they were constructed there was a 
population here as numerous as that which once animated the 
borders of the Nile or Euphrates, or of Mexico. The most num- 
erous, as well as considerable, of these remains are found in pre- 
cisely those parts of the country where the traces of a numerous 
population might be looked for, namely, from the mouth of the 
Ohio on the east side of the Mississippi, to the Illinois river, and 
on the west from the St. Francis to the Missouri. I am perfectly 
satisfied that cities similar to those of ancient Mexico, of several 
hundred thousand souls, have existed in this country." 

It must be admitted that whatever the uses of these mounds — 
whether as dwellings or burial places — these silent monuments 
were built, and the race who built them vanished from the face 
of the earth, ages belbre the Indians occupied the land, but their 
date must probably forever baffle human skill and ingenuity. 

It is sometimes difficult to distinguish the places of sepulture 
raised by the Mound-Builders from the more modern graves of the 
Indians. The tombs of the former were in general larger than 
those of the latter, and were used as receptacles for a greater number 
of bodies, and contained relics of art, evincing a higher degree of civ- 
ilization than that attained by the Indians. The ancient earth- 
works of the Mound-Builders have occasionally been appropriated 
as burial places by the Indians, but the skeletons of the latter may 
be distinguished from the osteological remains of the former by 
their greater stature. 

What finally became of the Mound-Builders is another query 
which has been extensively discussed. The fact that their works 
extend into Mexico and Peru has induced the belief that it was 
their posterity that dwelt in these countries when they were first 
visited by the Spaniards. The Mexican and Peruvian works, with 
the exception of their greater magnitude, are similar. Relics com- 
mon to all of them have been occasionally found, and it is believed 
that the religious uses whicii they subserved were the same. If, 
indeed, the Mexicans and Peruvians were the progeny of the 
more ancient Mound-Builders, Spanish rapacity for gold was the 
cause of their overthrow and final extermination. 

A thousand other queries naturally arise respecting these nations 


which now repose under the ground, but the most searching investi- 
gation can give us only vagae speculations for answers. No histo- 
rian has preserved the names of their mighty chieftains, or given an 
account of their exploits, and even tradition is silent respecting 


Following the Mound-Builders as inhabitants of North America, 
were, as it is supposed, the people who reared the magnificent 
cities the rains of which are found in Central America. This peo- 
ple was far more civilized and advanced in the arts than were the 
Mound-Builders. The cities built by them, judging from the ruins 
of broken columns, fallen arches and crumbling walls of temples, 
palaces and pyramids, which in some places for miles bestrew the 
ground, mast have been of great extent, magnificent and very pop- 
ulous. When we consider the vast period of time necessary to erect 
Buch colossal structures, and, again, the time required to reduce 
them to their present ruined state, we can conceive something of 
their antiquity. These cities must have been old when many of 
the ancient cities of the Orient were beino: bailt. 

The third race inhabiting North America, distinct from the 
former two in every particular, is the present Indians. They 
were, when visited by the early discoverers, without cultivation, 
refinement or literature, and far behind the Mound-Builders in 
the knowledge of the arts. The question of their origin has long 
interested archieologists, and is the most difficult they have been 
called upon to answer. Of their predecessors the Indian tribes 
knew nothing; they even had no traditions respecting them. It is 
quite certain that they were the successors of a race which had 
entirely passed away ages before the discovery of the New "World. 
One hypothesis is that the American Indians are an original race 
indigenous to the Western hemisphere. Those who entertain this 
view think their peculiarities of physical structure preclude the 
possibility of a common parentage with the rest of mankind. 
Prominent among those distinctive traits is the hair, which in the 
red man is round, in the white man oval, and in the black man flat. 
A more common supposition, however, is that they are a derivative 
race, and sprang from one or more of the ancient peoples of Asia. 
In the absence of all authentic history, and when even tradition is 


wanting, any attempt to point out the particular location of their 
origin must prove unsatisfactory. Though the exact place of origin 
may never be known, yet the striking coincidence of physical 
organization between the Oriental type of mankind and the Indians 
point unmistakably to some part of Asia as the place whence they 
emigrated, which was originally peopled to a great extent by the 
children of Shem. In this connection it has been claimed that the 
meeting of the Europeans, Indians and Africans on the continent 
of America, is the fulfillment of a prophecy as recorded in Gen- 
esis ix. 27: "God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the 
tents of Shem ; and Canaan shall be his servant." Assuming the 
theory to be true that the Indian tribes are of Shemitic origin, 
they were met on this continent in the fifteenth century by the 
Japhetic race, after the two stocks had passed around the globe by 
directly different routes. A few years afterward the Hamitic 
branch of the human family were brought from the coast of Africa. 
During the occupancy of the continent by the three distinct races, 
the children of Japheth have grown and prospered, while the called 
and not voluntary sons of Ham have endured a servitude in the 
wider stretching valleys of the tents of Shem. 

When Christopher Columbus had finally succeeded in demon- 
strating the truth of his theory that by sailing westward from Eu- 
rope land would be discovered, landing on the Island of Bermuda 
he supposed he had reached the East Indies. This was an error, 
but it led to the adoption of the name of " Indians " for the inhab- 
itants of the Island and the main land of America, by which name 
the red men of America have ever since been known. 

Of the several great branches of Korth American Indians the 
only ones entitled to consideration in Illinois history are the Algon- 
quins and Iroquois. At the time of the discovery of America the 
former occupied the Atlantic seaboard, while the home of the 
Iroquois was as an island in this vast area of Algonquin popula- 
tion. The latter great nation spread over a vast territory, and various 
tribes of Algonquin lineage sprung up over the country, adopting, 
in time, distinct tribal customs and laws. An almost continuous 
warfare was carried on between tribes; but later, on the entrance of 
the white man into their beloved homes, every foot of territory 
was fiercely disputed by the confederacy of many neighboring tribes. 
The Algonquins formed the most extensive alliance to resist the 
encroachment of the whites, especially the English. Such was the 


nature of King Philip's war. This King, with his Algonquin 
braves, spread terror and desolation throughout New England.With 
the Algonquins as the controlling spirit, a confederacy of conti- 
nental proportions was the result, embracing in its alliance the tribes 
of every name and lineage from the Northern lakes to the gulf. 
Pontiac, having breathed into them his implacable hate of the 
English intruders, ordered the conflict to commence, and all the 
British colonies trembled before the desolating fury of Indian 


The Illinois confederacy, the various tribes of which comprised 
most of the Indians of Illinois at one time, was composed of five 
tribes: the Tamaroas, Michigans, Kaskaskias, Cahokas, and Peorias. 
The Illinois, Miamis and Delawares were of the same stock. As 
early as 1670 the priest Father Marquette mentions frequent visits 
made by individuals of this confederacy to the missionary station at 
St. Esprit, near the western extremity of Lake Superior. At that 
time they lived west of the Mississippi, in eight villages, whither 
they had been driven from the shores of Lake Michigan by the 
Iroquois. Shortly afterward they began to return to their old 
hunting ground, and most of them finally settled in Illinois. 
Joliet and Marquette, in 1673, met with a band of them on their 
famous voyage of discovery down the Mississippi. They were 
treated with the greatest hospitality by the principal chief. On their 
return voyage up the Illinois river they stopped at the principal 
town of the confederacy, situated on the banks of the river seven 
miles below the present town of Ottawa. It was then called Kas- 
kaskia. Marquette returned to the village in 1675 and established 
the mission of tlie Immaculate Conception, the oldest in Illinois. 
When, in 1679, LaSalle visited the town, it had greatly increased, 
numbering 460 lodges, and at the annual assembly of the difierent 
tribes, from 6,000 to 8,000 souls. In common with other western 
tribes, they became involved in the conspiracy of Pontiac, although 
displaying no very great warlike spirit. Pontiac lost his life by 
the hands of one of the braves of the Illinois tribe, which so enraged 
the nations that had followed him as their leader that they fell upon 
the Illinois to avenge his death, and almost annihilated them. 


Tradition states that a band of this tribe, in order to escape the 
general slaughter, took refuge upon the high rock on the Illinois 


river since known as Starved Rock. Nature has made this one of 
the most formidable military fortresses in the world. From the 
waters which wash its base it rises to an altitude of 125 feet. Three 
of its sides it is impossible to scale, while the one next to the land 
may be climbed with difficulty. From its summit, almost as inac- 
cessible as an eagle's nest, the valley of the Illinois is seen as 
a landscape of exquisite beauty. The river near by struggles 
between a number of wooded islands, while further below it quietly 
meanders through vast meadows till it disappears like a thread of 
light in the dim distance. On the summit of this rock the Illinois 
were besieged by a superior force of the Pottawatomies whom the 
great strength of their natural fortress enabled them to keep at bay. 
Hunger and thirst, however, soon accomplished what the enemy 
was unable to effect. Surrounded by a relentless foe, without food 
or water, they took a last look at their beautiful hunting grounds, 
and with true Indian fortitude lay down and died from starvation. 
Years afterward their bones were seen whitening in that place. 

At the beginning of the present century the remnants of this 
once powerful confederacy were forced into a small compass around 
Kaskaskia. A few years later they emigrated to the Southwest, 
and in 1850 they were in Indian Territory, and numbered but 84: 


The Sacs and Foxes, who figured most conspicuously in the later 
history of Illinois, inhabited the northwestern portion of the State. 
By long residence together and intermarriage they had substan- 
tially become one people. Drake, in his "Life of Black Hawk," 
speaks of these tribes as follows : " The Sacs and Foxes fought their 
way from the waters of the St. Lawrence to Green Bay, and after 
reaching that place, not only sustained themselves against hostile 
tribes, but were the most active and courageous in the subjugation, 
or rather the extermination, of the numerous *and powerful Illinois 
confederacy. They had many wars, ofiensive and defensive, with 
the Sioux, the Pawnees, the Osages, and other tribes, some of which 
are ranked among the most fierce and ferocious warriors of the 
whole continent; and it does not appear that in these conflicts, run- 
ning through a long period of years, they were found wanting in 
this, the greatest of all savage virtues. In the late war with Great 
Britain, a party of the Sacs and Foxes fought under the British 



Standard as a matter of choice; and in the recent contest between a 
fragment of these tribes and the United States, although deteated 
and literally cut to pieces by an overwhelming force, it is very 
questionable whether their reputation as braves would sufler by a 
comparison with that of their victors. It is believed that a caretul 
review of their history, from the period when they lirst established 
themselves on the waters of the Mississippi down to the present 
time will lead the inquirer to the conclusion that the bacs and 
Foxes were trulv a courageous people, shrewd, politic, and enter- 
prising, with no" more ferocity and treachery of character than is 
common among the tribes by whom they were surrounded." These 
tribes at the time of the Black Hawk War were divided into twenty 
families, twelve of which were Sacs and eight Foxes. The lollow- 
ino- were other prominent tribes occupying Illinois: the Kickapoos, 
Slilwuees, Eascoulins, Piaukishaws, Pottawatomies, Chippewas, 
and Ottawas. 


The art of hunting not only supplied the Indian with food, but, 
like that of war, was a means of gratifying his love of distinction 
The male children, as soon as they acquired sufficient age and 
strength, were furnished with a bow and arrow and taught to shoot 
birds°and other small game. Success in killing large quadrupeds 
required years of careful study and practice, and the art was as 
sedulously inculcated iu the minds of the rising generation as are 
the elements of reading, writing and arithmetic in the common 
schools of civilized communities. The mazes of the forest and the 
dense, tall grass of the prairies were the best fields for the exercise 
of the hunter's skill. No feet could be impressed in the yielding 
soil but that the tracks were the objects of the most searching 
scrutiny, and revealed at a glance the animal that made them, the 
direction it was pursuing, and the time that had elapsed since it 
had passed. In a forest country he selected the valleys, because 
they were most frequently the resort of game. The most easily 
taken, perhaps, of all the animals of the chase was the deer. It is 
endowed with a curiosity which prompts it to stop in its flight and 
look back at the approaching hunter, who always avails himself of 
this opportunity to let fly the fatal arrow. 

Their general councils were composed of the chiefs and old men. 
When in'' council, they usually sat in concentric circles around the 


speaker, and each individual, notwithstanding the fiery passions 
that rankled within, preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Before commencing business a person appeared with 
the sacred pipe, and another with fire to kindle it. After being 
lighted, it was first presented to heaven, secondly to the earth, 
thirdly to the presiding spirit, and lastly the several councilors, 
each of whom took a wliift'. These formalities were observed with 
as close exactness as state etiquette in civilized courts. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the simplest and rudest 
character. On some pleasant spot by the bank of a river, or near 
an ever-running spring, they raised their groups of wigwams, con- 
structed of the bark of trees, and easily taken down and removed 
to another spot. The dwelling-places of the chiefs were sometimes 
more spacious, and constructed with greater care, but of the same 
materials. Skins taken in the chase served them for repose. 
Though principally dependent upon hunting and fishing, the 
uncertain supply from those sources led them to cultivate small 
patches of corn. Every family did everything necessary within 
itself, commerce, or an interchange of articles, being almost unknown 
to them. In cases of dispute and dissension, each Indian relied 
upon himself for retaliation. Blood for blood was the rule, and 
the relatives of the slain man were bound to obtain bloody revenge 
for his death. This principle gave rise, as a matter of course, to 
innumerable and bitter feuds, and wars of extermination where such 
were possible. War, indeed, rather than peace, was the Indian's 
glory and delight, — war, not conducted as civilization, but war 
where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and cruelty were prime 
requisites. For such a purpose as revenge the Indian would make 
great sacrifices, and display a patience and perseverance truly heroic; 
but when the excitement was over, he sank back into a listless, un- 
occupied, well-nigh useless savage. During the intervals of his 
more exciting pursuits, the Indian employed his time in decorating 
his person with all the refinement of paint and feathers, and in the 
manufacture of his arms and of canoes. These were constructed of 
bark, and so light that they could easily be carried on the shoulder 
from stream to stream. His amusements were the war-dance, ath- 
letic games, the narration of his exploits, and listening to the ora- 
tory of the chiefs; but during long periods of such existence he 
remained in a state of torpor, gazing listlessly upon the trees of 
the forests and the clouds that sailed above them; and this vacancy 



imprinted an habitual gravity, and even melancholy, upon his gen- 
eral deportment. 

The main labor and drudgery of Indian communities fell upon 
the women. The planting, tending and gathering of the crops,^ 
making mats and baskets, carrying burdens,— in fact, all things of 
the kind were performed by them, thus making their condition but 
little better than that of slaves. Marriage was merely a matter of 
bargain and sale, the husband giving presents to the father of the 
bride. In general they had but few children. They were sub- 
jected to many and severe attacks of sickness, and at times famine 
and pestilence swept away whole tribes. 


The most desperate single-handed combat with Indians ever 
fought on the soil of Illinois was that of Tom Higgins, August 21, 
1814. Higgins was 25 years old, of a muscular and compact 
build, not tin, but strong and active. In danger he possessed a 
quick and discerning judgment, and was without fear. He was a 
member of Journey's rangers, consisting of eleven men, stationed 
at Hill's Fort, eight miles southwest of the present Greenville, Put- 
nam county. Discovering Indian signs near the fort, the company, 
early the following morning, started on the trail. They had not 
gone far before they were in an ambuscade of a larger party. At 
the first fire their commander, Journey, and three men fell, and 
six reti-eated to the fort; but Higgins stopped to "have another 
pull at the red-skins," and, taking deliberate aim at a stragglmg 
savage, shot him down. Higgins' horse had been wounded at the 
first fire, as he supposed, mortally. Coming to, he was about to 
efi'ect his escape, when the tamiliar voice of Burgess hailed him 
from the long grass, " Tom, don't leave me." Higgins told him to 
come along, but Burgess replied that his leg was smashed. Hig- 
gins attempted to raise him on his horse, but the animal took fright 
and ran away. Higgins then directed Burgess to limp off" as well 
as he could; and by crawling through the grass he reached the fort, 
\^diile the former loaded his gun and remained behind to protect 
him- against the pursuing enemy. When Burgess was well out of 
the way, Higgins took another route, which l6d by a small thicket, 
to throw any wandering enemy off the trail. Here he was con- 
fronted by three savages approaching. He ran to a little ravine 
near for shelter, but in the efi'ort discovered for the first time that 


he was badly wounded in the leg. He was closely pressed by the 
largest, a powerful Indian, who lodged a ball in his thigh. He fell, 
but instantly rose again, only, however, to draw the fire of the other 
two, and again fell wounded. The Indians now advanced upon him 
with their tomahawks and scalping knives; but as he presented his 
gun first at one, then at another, from his place in the ravine, each 
wavered in his purpose. Neither party had time to load, and the 
large Indian, supposing finally that Higgins' gun was empty, rushed 
forward with uplifted tomahawk and a yell; but as he came near 
enough, was shot down. At this the others raised the war-whoop, 
and rushed upon the wounded Higgins, and now a hand-to-hand 
conflict ensued. They darted at him with their knives time and 
again, inflicting many ghastly flesh-wounds, which bled profusely. 
One of the assailants threw his tomahawk at him with such pre- 
cision as to sever his ear and lay bare his skull, knocking him down. 
They now rushed in on him, but he kicked them ofi^, and grasping 
one of their spears thrust at him, was raised up by it. He quickly 
seized his gun, and by a powerful blow crushed in the skull of one, 
but broke his rifle. His remaining antagonist still kept up the con- 
test, making thrusts with his knife at the bleeding and exhausted 
Higgins, which he parried with his broken gun as well as he could. 
Most of this desperate engagement was in plain view of the fort; 
but the rangers, having been in one ambuscade, saw in this fight 
only a ruse to draw out the balance of the garrison. But a Mrs. 
Pursely, residing at the fort, no longer able to see so brave a man 
contend for his life unaided, seized a gun, mounted a liorse, and 
started to his rescue. At this the men took courage and hastened 
along. The Indian, seeing aid coming, fled. Higgins, being near- 
ly hacked to pieces, fainted from loss of blood. He was carried to 
the fort. There being no surgeon, his comrades cut two balls from 
his flesh; others remained in. For days his life was despaired of; 
but by tender nursing he ultimately regained his liealth, although 
badly crippled. He resided in Fayette county for many years after, 
and died in 1829. 




The first white man who ever set foot on the soil embraced within 
the boundary of the present populous State of Illinois was Nich- 
olas Perrot, a Frenchman. He was sent to Chicago in the year 1671 
by M. Talon, Intendant of Canada, for the purpose of inviting the 
Western Indians to a great peace convention to be held at Green 
Bay. This convention had for its chief object the promulgation of 
a plan for the discovery of the Mississippi river. This great river 
had been discovered by De Soto, the Spanish explorer, nearly one 
hundred and fifty years previously, but his nation left the country 
a wilderness, without further exploration or settlement within its 
borders, in which condition it remained until the river was dis- 
covered by Joliet and Marquette in 1673. It was deemed a wise 
policy to secure, as far as possible, the friendship and co-operation 
of the Indians, far and near, before venturing upon an enterprise 
which their hostility might render disastrous. Thus the great con- 
vention was called. 


Although Perrot was the first European to visit Illinois, he was 
not the first to make any important discoveries. This was left for 
Joliet and Marquette, which they accomplished two years thereafter. 
The former, Louis Joliet, was born at Quebec in 1615. He was 
educated for the clerical profession, but he abandoned it to 
engage in the fur trade. His companion, Father Jacques Mar- 
quette, was a native of France, born in 1637. He was a Jesuit 
priest by education, and a man of simple faith and great zeal and 
devotion in extending the Roman Catholic religion among the In- 
dians. He was sent to America in 1666 as a missionary. To con- 
vert the Indians he penetrated the wilderness a thousand miles 
in advance of civilization, and by his kind attention in their afilic- 
tions he won their affections and made them his lasting friends. 
There were others, however, who visited Illinois even prior to the 
famous exploration of Joliet and Marquette. In 1672 the Jesuit 


missionaries, Fathers Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon, bore the 
standard of the Cross from their mission at Green Bay through 
western Wisconsin and northern Illinois. 

According to the pre-arranged plan referred to above, at the Jes- 
uit mission on the Strait of Mackinaw, Joliet joined Marquette, 
and with five other Frenchmen and a simple outfit the daring ex- 
plorers on the 17th of Maj^, 1673, set out on their perilous voyage 
to discover the Mississippi. Coasting along the northern shore of 
Lake Michigan, they entered Green Bay, and passed thence up Fox 
river and Lake "Winnebago to a village of the Muscatines and 
Miamis, where great interest was taken in the expedition by the 
natives. With guides thej^ proceeded down the river. Arriving 
at the portage, they soon carried their light canoes and scanty bag- 
gage to the Wisconsin, about three miles distant. Their guides 
now refused to accompany them further, and endeavored, by re- 
citing the dangers incident to the voyage, to induce them to return. 
They stated that huge demons dwelt in the great river, whose voices 
could be heard a long distance, and who engulfed in the raging 
waters all who came within their reach. They also represented that 
if any of them should escape the dangers of the river, fierce tribes of 
Indians dwelt upon its banks ready to complete the work of de- 
struction. They proceeded on their journey, however, and on the 
17th of June pushed their frail barks on the bosom of the stately 
Mississippi, down which they smoothly glided for nearly a hundred 
miles. Here Joliet and Marquette, leaving their canoes in charge 
of their men, went on the western shore, where they discovered an 
Indian village, and were kindly treated. They journeyed on down 
the unknown river, passing the mouth of the Illinois, then run- 
ning into the current of the muddy Missouri, and afterwaid the 
waters of the Ohio joined with them on their journey southward. 
Near the mouth of the Arkansas they discovered Indians who 
showed signs of hostility; but when Marquette's mission of peace 
was made known to them, they were kindly received. After pro- 
ceeding up the Arkansas a short distance, at the advice of the 
natives they turned their faces northward to retrace their steps. Af- 
ter several weeks of hard toil they reached the Illinois, up which 
stream they proceeded to Lake Michigan. Following the western 
shore of the lake, they entered Green Bay the latter part of Sep- 
tember, having traveled a distance of 2,500 miles. 


On his way np the Illinois, Marquette visited the Kaskaskias, 
near what is now Utica, in LaSalle county. The following year 
he returned and established among them the mission of the Im- 
maculate Virgin Mary. This was the last act of his life. He died 
in Michigan, May 18, 1675. 

lasalle's explokations. 

The first French occupation of Illinois was eifected by LaSalle, 
in 16S0. Having constructed a vessel, the " Griffin," above the 
falls of Niagara, he sailed to Green Bay, and passed thence in 
canoe to the mouth of the St. Joseph river, by which and the Kan- 
kakee he reached the Illinois in January, 1680; and on the 3d he 
entered the expansion of the river now called Peoria lake. Here, 
at the lower end of the lake, on its eastern bank, now in Tazewell 
county, he erected Fort Crevecoeur. The place where this ancient 
fort stood may still be seen just below the outlet of Peoria lake. It 
had, however, but a temporary existence. From this point LaSalle 
determined, at that time, to descend the Mississippi to its mouth. 
This he did not do, however, until two years later. Returning to 
Fort Frontenac for the purpose of getting material with which to 
rig his vessel, he left the fort at Peoria in charge of his lieutenant, 
Henri Tonti, an Italian, who had lost one of his hands by the 
explosion of a grenade in the Sicilian wars. Tonti had with him 
fifteen men, most of whom disliked LiiSalle, and were ripe for a 
revolt the first opportunity. Two men who had, previous to LaSalle's 
departure, been sent to look for the " Griffin " now returned and 
reported that the vessel was lost and that Fort Frontenac was in 
the hands of LaSalle's creditors. This disheartening intelligence 
had the effect to enkindle a spirit of mutiny among the garrison. 
Tonti had no sooner left the fort, with a few men, to fortify what 
was afterward known as Starved Kock, than the garrison at the 
fort refused longer to submit to authority. They destroyed the 
fort, seized the ammunition, provisions, and other portables of value, 
and fied. Only two of their number remained true. Tliese hast- 
ened to apprise Tonti of what had occurred. He thereupon sent 
four of the men with him to inform LaSalle. Tims was Tonti in 
the midst of treacherous savages, with only five men, two of whom 
were the friars Ribourde and Membre. With these he immediately 
returned to the fort, collected what tools had not been destroyed, 
and conveyed them to the great town of the Illinois Indians. 


By this voluntary display of confidence he hoped to remove the 
jealousy created in the minds of the Illinois by the enemies of La- 
Salle. Here he awaited, unmolested, the return of LaSalle. 


Neither Tonti nor his wild associates suspected that hordes of Iro- 
quois were gathering preparatory to rushing down upon their 
country and reducing it to an uninhabited waste. Already these 
hell-hounds of the wilderness had destroyed the Hurous, Eries, and 
other natives on the lakes, and were now directing their attention 
to the Illinois for new victims. Five hundred Iroquois warriors 
set out for the home of the Illinois. All was fancied security and 
idle repose in the great town of this tribe, as the enemy stealthily 
approached. Suddenly as a clap of thunder from a cloudless sky 
the listless inhabitants were awakened from their lethargy. A 
Shawnee Indian, on his return home after a visit to the Illinois, 
first discovered the invaders. To save his friends from the im- 
pending danger, he hurriedly returned and apprised them of the 
coming enemy. This intelligence spread with lightning rapidity 
over the town, and each wigwam disgorged its boisterous and as- 
tounded inmates. Women snatched their children, and in a delirium 
of fright wandered aimlessly about, rending the air with their 
screams. The men, more self-possessed, seized their arms ready 
for the coming fray. Tonti, long an object of suspicion, was soon 
surrounded by an angry crowd of warriors, who accused him of be- 
ing an emissary of the enemy. His inability to defend himself 
properly, in consequence of not fully understanding their language 
left them still inclined to believe him guilty, and they seized his 
effects from the fort and threw them into the river. The women 
and children were sent down the river for safety, and the warriors, 
not exceeding four hundred, as most of their young men were off 
hunting, returned to the village. Along the shores of the river 
they kindled huge bonfires, and spent the entire night in greasing 
their bodies, painting their faces, and performing the war-dance, 
to prepare for the approaching enemy. At early dawn the scouts 
who had been sent out returned, closely followed by the Iroquois. 
The scouts had seen a chief arrayed in French costume, and re- 
ported their suspicions that LaSalle was in the camp of the enemy, 
and Tonti again became an object of jealousy. A concourse of 
wildly gesticulating savages immediately gathered about him, de- 


manding his life, and nothing s^ved him from their uplifted weap- 
ons but a promise that he and his men would go with them to meet 
the enemy. With their suspicions partly lulled, they hurriedly 
crossed the river and met the foe, when both commenced firing. 
Tonti, seeing that the Illinois were outnumbered and likely to 
be defeated, determined, at the imminent risk of his life, to stay 
the fight by an attempt at mediation. Presuming on the treaty of 
peace then existing between the French and Iroquois, he exchanged 
hia gun for a belt of wampum and advanced to meet the savage 
multitude, attended by three companions, who, being unnecessarily 
exposed to danger, were dismissed, and he proceeded alone. A 
short walk brought him in the midst of a pack of yelping devils, 
writhing and distorted with fiendish rage, and impatient to shed 
his blood. As the result of his swarthy Italian complexion and 
half-savage costume, he was at first taken for an Indian, and before 
the mistake was discovered a young warrior approached and stabbed 
at his heart. Fortunately the blade was turned aside by coming 
in contact with a rib, yet a large flesh wound was inflicted, which 
bled profusely. At this juncture a chief discovered his true char- 
acter, and he was led to the rear and efforts were made to staunch 
his wound. When sufiiciently recovered, he declared the Illinois 
were under the protection of the French, and demanded, in consid- 
eration of the treaty between the latter and the Iroquois, that they 
should be suffered to remain without further molestation. During 
this conference a young warrior snatched Tonti's hat, and, fleeing 
with it to the front, held it aloft on the end of his gun in view of 
the Illinois. The latter, judging that Tonti had been killed, 
renewed the fight with great vigor. Simultaneously, intelligence 
was brought to the Iroquois that Frenchmen were assisting their 
enemies in the fight, when the contest over Tonti was renewed 
with redoubled fury. Some declared that he should be immediately 
put to death, while others, friendly to LaSalle, with equal earnest- 
ness demanded that he should be set at liberty. During their 
clamorous debate, his hair was several times lifted by a huge sav- 
age who stood at his back with a scalping knife ready for execution. 
Tonti at length turned the current of the angry controversy in his 
favor, by stating that the Illinois were 1,200 strong, and that there 
were 60 Frenchmen at the village ready to assist them. This state- 
ment obtained at least a partial credence, and his tormentors now 


determined to use him as an instrument to delude the Illinois with a 
pretended truce. The old warriors, therefore, advanced to the front 
and ordered the firing to cease, while Tonti, dizzy from the loss of 
blood, was furnished with an emblem of peace and sent staggering 
across the plain to rejoin the Illinois. The two friars who had just 
returned from a distant hut, whither thej had repaired for prayer 
and meditation, were the first to meet him and bless God for wliat 
they regarded as a miraculous deliverance. With the assurance 
brouo-ht by Tonti, the Illinois re-crossed the river to their lodges, 
followed by the enemy as far as the opposite bank. Not long after, 
large numbers of the latter, under the pretext of hunting, also crossed 
the river and hung in threatening groups about the town. These 
hostile indications, and the well-known disregard which the Iroquois 
had always evinced for their pledges, soon convinced the Illinois 
that their only safety was in flight. With this conviction they set 
tire to their village, and while the vast volume of flames and smoke 
diverted the attention of the enemy, they quietly dropped down the 
river to join their women and children. As soon as the flames would 
permit, the Iroquois entrenched themselves on the site of the vil- 
lao-e. Tonti and his men were ordered by the suspicious savages 
to leave their hut and take up their abode in the fort. 

At first the Iroquois were much elated at the discomfiture of the 
Illinois, but when two days afterward they discovered them recon- 
noitering their intrenchments, their courage greatly subsided. 
With fear they recalled the exaggerations of Tonti respecting their 
numbers, and concluded to send him with a hostage to make over- 
tures of peace. He and his hostage were received with delight by 
the Illinois, who readily assented to the proposal which he brought, 
and in turn sent back with him a hostage to the Iroquois. On his 
return to the fort his life was again placed in jeopardy, and the 
treaty was with great difficulty ratified. The young and inexpe- 
rienced Illinois hostage betrayed to his crafty interviewers the nu- 
merical weakness of his tribe, and the savages immediately rushed 
upon Tonti, and charged him with having deprived them of the spoils 
and honors of victory. It now required all the tact of which he was 
master to escape. After much difficulty however, the treaty was con- 
cluded, but the savages, to show their contempt for it, immediately 
commenced constructing canoes in which to descend the river and 
attack the Illinois. 





Tonti managed to apprise the latter of their designs, and he and 
Membre were soon after summoned to attend a council of the Iro- 
quois, who still labored under a wholesome fear of Count Frontenac, 
and disliking to attack the Illinois in the presence of the French, 
thej thought to try to induce them to leave the country. At the 
assembling of the council, six packages of beaver skins were intro- 
duced, and the savage orator, presenting them separately to Tonti, 
explained the nature of each. "The first two," said he, " were to de- 
clare that the children of Count Frontenac, that is, the Illinois, 
should not be eaten; the next was a plaster to heal the wounds of 
Tonti; the next was oil wherewith to anoint him and Membre, 
that they might not be fatigued in traveling; the next proclaimed 
that the sun was bright; and the sixth and last required them to 
decamp and go home." 

At the mention of going home, Tonti demanded of them when 
they intended to set the example by leaving the Illinois in the 
peaceable possession of their country, which they had so unjustly in- 
vaded. The council grew boisterous and angry at the idea that 
they should be demanded to do what they required of the French, 
and some of its members, forgetting their previous pledge, declared 
that they would "eat Illinois flesh before they departed." Tonti, in 
imitation of the Indians' manner of expressing scorn, indignantly 
kicked away the presents of fur, saying, since they intended to de- 
vour the children of Frontenac with cannibal ferocity, he would not 
accept their gifts. This stern rebuke resulted in the expulsion of 
Tonti and his companion from the council, and the next day the 
chiefs ordered them to leave the country. 

Tonti had now, at the great peril of his life, tried every expedient 
to prevent the slaughter of the Illinois. There was little to be ac- 
complished by longer remaining in the^country, and as longer delay 
might imperil the lives of his own men, he determined to depart, not 
knowing where or when he would be able to rejoin LaSalle. With 
this object in view, the party, consisting of six persons, embarked in 
canoes, which soon proved leaky, and they were compelled to land 
for the purpose of making repairs. "While thus employed, Father Ri- 
bourde, attracted by the beauty of the surrounding landscape, wan- 
dered forth among the groves for meditation and prayer. Not return- 
ing in due time, Tonti became alarmed, and started with a compan- 


ion to ascertain the cause of the long delay. They soon discovered 
tracks of Indians, by whom it was supposed he had been seized, and 
guns were fired to direct his return, in case he was alive. Seeing 
nothing of him during the day, at night they built fires along the 
bank of the river and retired to the opposite side, to see who might 
approach them. Near midnight a number of Indians were seen 
flitting about the light, by whom, no doubt, had been made the tracks 
Been the previous day. It was afterward learned that they were a 
band of Kickapoos, who had for several days been hovering about 
the camp of the Iroquois in quest of scalps. They had fell in 
with the inofiensive old friar and scalped him. Thus, in the 65th 
year of his age, the only heir to a wealthy Burgundian house per- 
ished under the war-club of the savages for whose salvation he had 
renounced ease and affluence. 


During this tragedy a far more revolting one was being enacted 
in the great town of Illinois. The Iroquois were tearing open the 
graves of the dead, and wreaking their vengeance upon the bodies 
made hideous by putrefaction. At this desecration, it is said, they 
even ate portions of the dead bodies, while subjecting them to every 
indignity that brutal hate could inflict. Still unsated by their hell- 
ish brutalities, and now unrestrained by the presence of the French, 
they started in pursuit of the retreating Illinois. Day after day 
they and the opposing forces moved in compact array down the 
river, neither being able to gain any advantage over the other. At 
length the Iroquois obtained by falsehood that which number and 
prowess denied them. They gave out that their object was to pos- 
sess the country, not by destroying, but by driving out its present 
inhabitants. Deceived by this false statement, the Illinois separa- 
ted, some descending the Mississippi and others crossing to the 
western shore. The Tamaroas, more credulous than the rest, re- 
mained near the mouth of the Illinois, and were suddenly attacked 
by an overwhelming force of the enemy. The men fled in dismay, 
and the women and children, to the number of 700, fell into the 
hands of the ferocious enemy. Then followed the tortures, butch- 
eries and burnings which only the infuriated and imbruted Iroquois 
could perpetrate. LaSalle on his return discovered the half-charred 
bodies of women and children still bound to the stakes where they 
had suffered all the tornjents hellish hate could devise. In addition 


to those who had been burnt, the mangled bodies of women and 
children thickly covered the ground, many of which bore marks of 
brutality too horrid for record. 

After the ravenous horde had sufficiently glutted their greed for 
carnage, they retired from the country. The Illinois returned and 
rebuilt their town. 


After the death of Ribourde, Tonti and his men again resumed 
their journey. Soon again their craft became disabled, when they 
abandoned it and started on foot for Lake Michigan, Their 
supply of provisions soon became exhausted, and they were 
compelled to subsist in a great measure on roots and herbs. 
One of their companions wandered off in search of game, and lost 
his way, and several days elapsed before he rejoined them. In his 
absence he was without flints and bullets, yet contrived to shoot 
some turkeys by using slugs cut from a pewter porringer and afire- 
brand to discharge his gun. Tonti fell sick of a fever and greatly 
retarded the progress of the march. Nearing Green Bay, the cold 
increased and the means of subsistence decreased and the party would 
have perished had they not found a few ears of corn and some froz- 
en squashes in the fields of a deserted village. Near the close of 
November they had reached the Pottawatomies, who warmly greet- 
ed them. Their chief was an ardent admirer of the French, and 
was accustomed to say: " There were but three great captains in the 
world, — himself, Tonti and LaSalle." For the above account of 
Tonti's encounter with the Iroquois, we are indebted to Davidson 
and Stuve's History of Illinois. 

lasalle's return. 

LaSalle returned to Peoria only to meet the hideous picture of 
devastation. Tonti had escaped, but LaSalle knew not whither. Pass- 
ins down the lake in search of him and his men, LaSalle discov- 
ered that the fort had been destroyed; but the vessel which he had 
partly constructed was still on the stocks, and but slightly injured. 
After further fruitless search he fastened to a tree a painting repre- 
senting himself and party sitting in a canoe and bearing a pipe of 
peace, and to the painting attached a letter addressed to Tonti. 

LaSalle was.born in France in 1643, of wealthy parentage, and edu- 
cated in a college of the Jesuits, from which he separated and came 
to Canada, a poor man, in 1666. He was a man of daring genius, 


and outstripped all his competitors in exploits of travel and com- 
merce with the Indians. He was granted a large tract of land at 
LaChine, where he established himself in the fur trade. In 1669 
he visited the headquarters of the great Iroquois confederacy, at 
Onondaga, New York, and, obtaining guides, explored the Ohio 
river to the falls at Louisville, For many years previous, it must 
be remembered, missionaries and traders were obliged to make their 
way to the Northwest through Canada on account of the fierce 
hostility of the Iroquois along the lower lakes and Niagara river, 
which entirely closed this latter route to the upper lakes. They 
carried on their commerce chiefly by canoes, paddling them through 
Ottawa river to Lake Nipissing, carrying them across the portage 
to French river, and descending that to Lake Huron. This being 
the route by which they reached the Northwest, we have an explana- 
tion of the fact that all the earliest Jesuit missions were established 
in the neighborhood of the upper lakes. LaSalle conceived the 
grand idea of opening the route by Niagara river and the lower 
lakes to Canada commerce. by sail vessels, connecting it with the 
navigation of the Mississippi, and thus opening a magnificent water 
communication from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico, This truly grand and comprehensive purpose seems to have 
animated him in his wonderful achievements, and the matchless 
difliculties and hardships he surmounted. As the first step in the 
accomplishment of this object he established himself on Lake 
Ontario, and built and garrisoned Fort Frontenac, the site of the 
present city of Kingston, Canada. Here he obtained a grant of 
land from the French crown, and a body of troops, by which he 
repulsed the Iroquois and opened passage to Niagara Falls, Hav- 
ing by this masterly stroke made it safe to attempt a hitherto 
untried expedition, his next step, as we have seen, was to build a 
ship with which to sail the lakes. He was successful in this under- 
taking, though his ultimate purpose was defeated by a strange com- 
bination of untoward circumstances. The Jesuits evidently hated 
LaSalle and plotted against him, because he had abandoned them 
and united with a rival order. The fur traders were also jealous of 
his success in opening new channels of commerce. While they were 
plodding with their bark canoes through the Ottawa, he was con- 
structing sailing vessels to command the trade of the lakes and the 
Mississippi. These great plans excited the jealousy and envy of 


small traders, introduced treason and revolt into the ranks of his 
men, and finally led to the foul assassination by which his great 
achievements were permanently ended. 

lasalle's assassination. 
Again visiting the Illinois in the year 1682, LaSalle de- 
scended the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. He erected a 
standard upon which he inscribed the arms of France, and took 
formal possession of the whole valley of this mighty river in the 
name of Louis XIY., then reigning, and in honor of whom he named 
the country Louisiana. LaSalle then returned to France, was 
appointed Governor, and returned with a fleet of immigrants for the 
purpose of planting a colony in Illinois. They arrived in due time 
in the Gulf of Mexico, but failing to find the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi, up which they intended to sail, his supply ship, with the 
immigrants, was driven ashore and wrecked on Matagorda Bay. 
"With the fragments of the vessel he constructed rude huts and 
stockades on the shore for the protection of his followers, calling 
tiie post Fort St. Louis. He then made a trip into New Mexico 
in search of silver mines, but, meeting with disappointment, 
returned to find his colony reduced to forty souls. He then resolved 
to travel on foot to Illinois. With some twenty of his men they 
filed out of their fort on the 12th of January, 1GS7, and after the part- 
ing, — which was one of sighs, of tears, and of embraces, all seeming 
intuitively to know that they should see each other no more, — they 
started on their disastrous journey. Two of the party, Du Haut 
and Leotot, when on a hunting expedition in company with a 
neohew of LaSalle, assassinated him while asleep. The long 
absence of his nephew caused LaSalle to go in search of him. On 
approaching the murderers of his nephew, they fired upon him, kill- 
ing him instantly. They then despoiled the body of its clothing, 
aiic left it to be devoured by the wild beasts of the forest. Thus, 
at the age of 43, perished one whose exploits have so greatly 
enriched the history of the New World. To estimate aright the 
marvels of his patient fortitude, one must follow on his track 
through the vast scene of his interminable journeyings, those thou- 
sands of weary miles of forest, marsh and river, where, again and 
again, in the bitterness of baffled striving, the untiring pilgrim 
pushed onward toward the goal he never was to attain. America 
owes him an enduring memory ; for in this masculine figure, cast 


in iron, she sees the heroic pioneer who guided her to the possession 
of her richest heritage. 

Tonti, who liad been stationed at the fort on the Illinois, learning 
of LaSalle's unsuccessful voyage, immediately started down the 
Mississippi to his relief. Reaching the Gulf, he found no traces of 
the colony. He then returned, leaving some of his men at the 
mouth of the Arkansas. These were discovered by the remnant of 
LaSalle's followers, who guided them to the fort on the Illinois, 
where they reported that LaSalle was in Mexico. The little band 
left at Fort St. Louis were finally destroyed by the Indians, and the 
murderers of LaSalle were shot. Thus ends the sad chapter of 
"Robert Cavalier de LaSalle's exploration. 



The first mission in Illinois, as we have already seen, was com- 
menced by Marquette in April, 1675. He called the religious 
society which he established the " Mission of the Immaculate Con- 
ception," and the town Kaskaskia. The first military occupation of 
the country was at Fort Crevecoeur, erected in 1680; but there is no 
evidence that a settlement was commenced there, or at Peoria, on 
the lake above, at that early date. The first settlement of which there 
is any authentic account was commenced with the building of Fort 
St. Louis on the Illinois river in 1682; but this was soon abandoned. 
The oldest permanent settlement, not only in Illinois, but in the val- 
ley of the Mississippi, is at Kaskaskia, situated six miles above the 
mouth of the Kaskaskia river. This was settled in 1690 by the 
removal of the mission from old Kaskaskia, or Ft. St. Louis, on the 
Illinois river. Cahokia was settled about the same time. Tlie 
reason for the removal of the old Kaskaskia settlement and mission, 
was probably because the dangerous and difficult route by Lake 
Michigan and the Chicago portage had been almost abandoned, and 
travelers and traders traveled down and up the Mississippi by the 
Fox and Wisconsin rivers. It was removed to the vicinity of the 
Mississippi in order to be in the line of travel from Canada to 
Louisiana, that is, the lower part of it, for it was all Louisiana then 
south of the lakes. Illinois came into possession of the French in 
1682, and was a dependency of Canada and a part of Louisiana. 
During the period of French rule in Louisiana, the population 


probably never exceeded ten thousand. To the year 1730 the fol- 
lowing five distinct settlements were made in the territory of 
Illinois, numbering, in population, 140 French families, about 600 
" converted " Indians, and many traders ; Cahokia, near the mouth 
of Cahokia creek and about five miles below the present city of 
St, Louis; St. Philip, about forty-five miles below Cahokia; Fort 
Chartres, twelve miles above Kaskaskia; Kaskaskia, situated on the 
Kaskaskia river six miles above its confluence with the Mississippi, 
and Prairie du Kocher, near Fort Chartres. Fort Chartres was 
built under the direction of the Mississippi Company in 1718, and 
was for a time the headquarters of the military commandants of 
the district of Illinois, and the most impregnable fortress in North 
America. It was also the center of wealth and fashion in the West. 
For about eighty years the French retained peaceable possession 
of Illinois. Their amiable disposition and tact of ingratiating them- 
selves with the Indians enabled them to escape almost entirely the 
broils which weakened and destroyed other colonies. Whether 
exploring remote rivers or traversing hunting grounds in pursuit 
of game, in the social circle or as participants in the religious exer- 
cises of the church, the red men became their associates and were 
treated with the kindness and consideration of brothers. For more 
than a hundred years peace between the white man and the red was 
unbroken, and when at last this reign of harmony terminated it 
was not caused by the conciliatory Frenchman, but by the blunt 
and sturdy Anglo-Saxon. During this century, or until the coun- 
try was occupied by the English, no regular court was ever held. 
When, in 1765, the country passed into the hands of the English, 
many of the French, rather than submit to a change in their insti- 
tutions, preferred to leave their homes and seek a new abode. 
There are, however, at the present time a few remnants of the old 
French stock in the State, who still retain to a great extent the 
ancient habits and customs of their fathers. 


During the earliest period of French occupation of this country, 
M. Tonti, LaSalle's attendant, was commander-in-chief of all the 
territory embraced between Canada and the Gulf of Mexico, and 
extending east and west of the Mississippi as far as his ambition or 
imagination pleased to allow. He spent twenty-one years in estab- 
lishing forts and organizing the first settlements of Illinois. Sep- 


tember 14, 1712, the Frencli government granted a monopoly of all 
the trade aud commerce of the country to M. Crozat, a wealthy 
merchant of Paris, who established a trading company in Illinois, 
and it was by this means that the early settlements became perma- 
nent and others established. Crozat surrendered his charter in 
1717, and the Company of the West, better known as the Missis- 
sippi Company, was organized, to aid and assist the banking system 
of John Law, the most famous speculator of modern times, and 
perhaps at one time the wealthiest private individual the world 
has ever known; but his treasure was transitory. Under the 
Company of the West a branch was organized called the Company 
of St. Philip's, for the purpose of working the rich silver mines sup- 
posed to be in Illinois, and Philip Kenault was appointed as its 
agent. In 1719 he sailed from France with two hundred miners, 
laborers and mechanics. During 1719 the Company of the West 
was by royal order united with the Royal Company of the Indies, 
and had the influence and support of the crown, who was deluded 
by the belief that immense wealth would flow into the empty treas- 
ury of France. This gigantic scheme, one of the most extensive 
and wonderful bubbles ever blown up to astonish, deceive and ruin 
thousands of people, was set in operation by the fertile brain of 
John Law. Law was born in Scotland in 1671, and so rapid had 
been his career that at the age of twenty-three he was a " bankrupt, 
an adulterer, a murderer and an exiled outlaw." But he possessed 
great financial ability, and by his agreeable and attractive manners, 
and his enthusiastic advocacy of his schemes, he succeeded in 
inflaming the imagination of the mercurial Frenchmen, whose greed 
for gain led them to adopt any plans for obtaining wealth. 

Law arrived in Paris with two and a half millions of francs, 
which he had gained at the gambling table, just at the right time. 
Louis XIY. had just died and left as a legacy empty cofiers and an 
immense public debt. Every thing and everybody was taxed to 
the last penny to pay even the interest. All the sources of in- 
dustry were dried up; the very wind which wafted the barks of 
commerce seemed to have died away under the pressure of the 
time; trade stood still; the merchant, the trader, the artificer, once 
flourishing in affluence, were transformed into clamorous beggars. 
The life-blood that animated the kingdom was stagnated in all 
its arteries, and the danger of an awful crisis became such that 


the nation was on the verge of bankruptcy. At this critical junc- 
ture John Law arrived and proposed his grand scheme of the 
Mississippi Company; 200,000 shares of stock at 500 livres each were 
at first issued. Tliis sold readily and great profits were realized. 
More stock was issued, speculation became rife, the fever seized 
everybody, and the wildest speculating frenzy pervaded the whole 
nation. Illinois was thought to contain vast and rich mines of 
minerals. Kaskaskia, then scarcely more than the settlement of a 
few savages, was spoken of as an emporium of the most extensive 
traffic, and as rivaling some of the cities of Europe in refinement, 
fashion and religious culture. Law was in the zenith of his glory, and 
the people in the zenith of their infatuation. The high and the low, 
the rich and the poor, were at once filled with visions of untold 
wealth, and every age, set, rank and condition were buying and selling 
stocks. Law issued stock again and again, and readily sold until 
2,235,000,000 livres were in circulation, equaling about $450,000,000. 
While confidence lasted an impetus was given to trade never before 
known. An illusory policy everywhere prevailed, and so dazzled 
the eye that none could see in the horizon the dark cloud announc- 
ing the approaching storm. Law at the time was the most influ- 
ential man in Europe. His house was beset from morning till 
night with eager applicants for stock. Dukes, marquises and 
counts, with their wives and daughters, waited for hours in the 
street below his door. Finding his residence too small, he changed 
it for the Place Vendome, whither the crowd followed him, and the 
spacious square had the appearance of a public market. The boule- 
vards and public gardens were forsaken, and the Place Vendome 
became the most fashionable place in Paris; and he was unable to 
wait upon even one-tenth part of his applicants. The bubble burst 
after a few years, scattering ruin and distress in every direction. 
Law, a short time previous the most popular man in Europe, fled 
to Brussels, and in 1729 died in Venice, in obscurity and poverty. 


As early as 1750 there could be perceived the first throes of the 
revolution, which gave a new master and new institutions to Illi- 
nois. France claimed the whole valley of the Mississippi, and Eng- 
land the right to extend her possessions westward as far as she 
might desire. Through colonial controversies the two mother 


countries were precipitated into a bloody war within the North- 
western Territory, George Washington firing the first gun of the 
military struggle which resulted in the overthrow of the French 
not only in Illinois but in North America. The French evinced a 
determination to retain control of the territory bordering the Ohio 
and Mississippi from Canada to the Gulf, and so long as the En- 
glish colonies were confined to the sea-coast there was little reason 
for controversy. As the English, however, became acquainted 
with this beautiful and fertile portion of our country, they not only 
learned the value of the vast territory, but also resolved to set up a 
counter claim to the soil. The French established numerous mili- 
tary and trading posts from the frontiers of Canada to New Or- 
leans, and in order to establish also their claims to jurisdiction over 
the country they carved the lilies of France on the forest trees, or 
sunk plates of metal in the ground. These measures did not, 
however, deter the English from going on with their explorations; 
and though neither party resorted to arms, yet the conflict was 
gathering, and it was only a question of time when the storm 
should burst upon the frontier settlement. The French based 
their claims upon discoveries, the English on grants of territory 
extending from ocean to ocean, but neither party paid the least 
attention to the prior claims of the Indians. From this posi- 
tion of affairs, it was evident that actual collision between the 
contending parties would not much longer be deferred. The En- 
glish Government, in anticipation of a war, urged the Governor 
of Yirginia to lose no time in building two forts, which were 
equipped by arms from England. The French anticipated the 
English and gathered a considerable force ta defend their possessions. 
The Governor determined to send a messenger to the nearest 
French post and demand an explanation. This resolution of the 
Governor brought into the history of our country for the first time 
the man of all others whom America most loves to'Jionor, namely, 
George Washington. He was chosen, although not yet twenty-one 
years of age, as the one to perform this delicate and difiicult mission. 
With five companions he set out on Nov. 10, 1753, and after a per- 
ilous journey returned Jan. 6, 1754. The struggle commenced and 
continued long, and was bloody and fierce; but on the 10th of Octo- 
ber, 1765, the ensign of France was replaced on the ramparts of 
Fort Chartres by tlie flag of Great Britain. This fort was the 




depot of supplies and the place of rendezvous for the united forces 
of the French. At this time the colonies of the Atlantic seaboard 
were assembled in preliminary congress at New York, dreaming of 
liberty and independence for the continent; and Washington, who 
led the expedition against the French for the English king, in less 
than ten years was commanding the forces opposed to the English 
tyrant. Illinois, besides being constructively a part of Florida for 
over one hundred years, during which time no Spaniard set foot 
upon her soil or rested his eyes upon her beautiful plains, for nearly 
ninety years had been in the actual occupation of the French, their 
puny settlements slumbering quietly in colonial dependence on the 
distant waters of the Kaskaskia, Illinois and Wabash. 

GEN. CLAKk's exploits. 

The Northwest Territory was now entirely under English rule, 
and on the breaking out of the Revolutionary war the British held 
every post of importance in the West. While the colonists of the 
East were maintaining a fierce struggle with the armies of England, 
their western frontiers were ravaged by merciless butcheries of In- 
dian warfare. The jealousy of the savage was aroused to action by 
the rapid extension of American settlement westward and the im- 
proper influence exerted by a number of military posts garrisoned by 
British troops. To prevent indiscriminate slaughters arising from 
these causes, Illinois became the theater of some of the most daring 
exploits connected with American history. The hero of the achieve- 
ments by which this beautiful land was snatclied as a gem from 
the British Crown, was George Rogers Clark, of Yirginia. He had 
closely watched the movements of the British throughout the 
Northwest, and understood their whole plan; he also knew the 
Indians were not unanimously in accord with the English, and 
therefore was convinced that if the British could be defeated and 
expelled from the Northwest, the natives might be easily awed into 
neutrality. Having convinced himself that the enterprise against 
the Illinois settlement might easily succeed, he repaired to the cap- 
ital of Yirginia, arriving Nov. 5, 1777. Wliile he was on his way, 
fortunately, Burgoyne was defeated (Oct. 17), and the spirits of the 
colonists were thereby greatly encouraged. Patrick Henry was 
Governor of Yirginia, and at once entered heartily into Clark's 
plans. After satisfying the Yirginia leaders of the feasibility of 
hie project, he received two sets of instructions, — one secret, the 



other open. The latter authorized him to enlist seven companies 
to go to Kentucky, and serve three months after their arrival in 
the West. The secret order authorized him to arm these troops, 
to procure his powder and lead of General Hand at Pittsburg, and 
to proceed at once to subjugate the country. 


With these instructions Col. Clark repaired to Pittsburg, choos- 
ing rather to raise his men west of the mountains, as he well knew 
all were needed in the colonies in the conflict there. He sent Col. 
"W. B. Smith to Holstein and Captains Helm and Bowman to 
other localities to enlist men; but none of them succeeded in rais- 
ing the required number. The settlers in these parts were afraid 
to leave their own firesides exposed to a vigilant foe, and but few 
could be induced to join the expedition. With these companies 
and several private volunteers Clark commenced his descent of the 
Ohio, which he navigated as far as the falls, where he took posses- 
sion of and fortified Corn Island, a small island between the present 
cities of Louisville, Ky., and New Albany, Ind. Here, after having 
completed his arrangements and announced to the men their real 
destination, he left a small garrison; and on the 24th of June, dur- 
ing a total eclipse of the sun, which to them augured no good, they 
floated down the river. His plan was to go by water as far as Fort 
Massac, and thence march direct to Kaskaskia. Here he intended to 
surprise the garrison, and after its capture go to Cahokia, then to 
Yincennes, and lastly to Detroit. Should he fail, he intended to 
march directly to the Mississippi river and cross it into the Spanish 
country. Before his start he received good items of information: 
one that an alliance had been formed between France and the United 
States, and the other that the Indians throughout the Illinois 
country and the inhabitants at the various frontier posts had been led 
by the British to believe that the " Long Knives," or Virginians, 
were the most fierce, bloodthirsty and cruel savages that ever scalped 
a foe. With this impression on their minds, Clark saw that 
proper management would cause them to submit at once from fear, 
if surprised, and then from gratitude would become friendly, if 
treated with unexpected lenity. The march to Kaskaskia was 
made through a hot July sun, they arriving on the evening of the 
4th of July, 1778. They captured the fort near tlie village and 
soon after the village itself, by surprise, and without the loss of 


a single man and without killing any of the enemy. After suffi- 
ciently working on the fears of the natives, Clark told them they 
were at perfect liberty to worship as they pleased, and to take 
whichever side of the great conflict they would; also he would pro- 
tect them against any barbarity from British or Indian foe. This 
had the desired efiect; and the inhabitants, so unexpectedly and so 
gratefully surprised by the unlooked-for turn of affairs, at once 
swore allegiance to the American arms; and when Clark desired 
to go to Cahokia on the 6th of July, they accompanied him, and 
through their influence the inhabitants of the place surrendered 
and gladly placed themselves under his protection. 

In the person of JVI. Gibault, priest of Kaskaskia, Clark found a 
powerful ally and generous friend. Clark saw that, to retain pos- 
session of the iSTorthwest and treat successfullj- with the Indians, he 
must establish a government for the colonies he had taken. St. Yin- 
cent, the post next in importance to Detroit, remained yet to be 
taken before the Mississippi valley was conquered. M. Gibault 
told him that he would alone, by persuasion, lead Yincennes to 
throw off its connection with England. Clark gladly accepted this 
offer, and July lith, in company with a fellow-townsman, Gibault 
started on his mission of peace. On the 1st of August he returned 
with the cheerful intelligence that everything was peaceably ad- 
justed at Yincennes in favor of the Americans. During the inter- 
val. Col. Clark established his courts, placed garrisons at Kaskaskia 
and Cahokia, successfully re-enlisted his men, and sent word to 
have a fort (which proved the germ of Louisville) erected at the 
falls of the Ohio. 

While the American commander was thus negotiatinof with the 
Indians, Hamilton, the British Governor of Detroit, heard of Clark's 
invasion, and was greatly incensed because the country which he 
had in charge should be wrested from him by a few ragged militia. 
He therefore hurriedly collected a force, marched by way of the 
Wabash, and appeared before the fort at Yincennes. The inhabi- 
tants made an effort to defend the town, and when Hamilton's 
forces arrived. Captain Helm and a man named Henry were the 
only Americans in the fort. These men had been sent by Clark. 
The latter charged a cannon and placed it in the open gateway, and 
the Captain stood by it with a lighted match and cried out, as Ham- 
ilton came in hailing distance, "Halt!" The British officer, not 


knowing the strength of the garrison, stopped, and demanded the 
surrender of tlie fort. Helm exclaimed, " No man shall enter here 
till I know the terms." Hamilton responded, " You shall have the 
honors of war." The entire garrison consisted of one officer and one 


On taking Kaskaskia, Clark made a prisoner of Rocheblave, 
commander of the place, and got possession of all his written 
instructions for the conduct of the war. From these papers he 
received important information respecting the plans of Col. Ham- 
ilton, Governor at Detroit, who was intending to make a vigorous 
and concerted attack upon the frontier. After arriving at Yin- 
cennes, liowever, he gave up his intended campaign for the winter, 
and trusting to his distance from danger and to the difficulty of 
approaching him, sent off his Indian warriors to prevent troops from 
coming down the Ohio, and to annoy the Americans in all ways. Thus 
he sat quietly down to pass the winter with only about eighty soldiers, 
but secure, as he thought, from molestation. But he evidently did 
not realize the character of the men with whom he was contending. 
Clark, although he could muster only one hundred and thirty men, 
determined to take advantage of Hamilton's weakness and security, 
and attack him as the only nieans of saving himself; for unless he 
captured Hamilton, Hamilton would capture him. Accordingly, 
about the beginning of February, 1779, he dispatched a small galley 
which he had fitted out, mounted with two four-pounders and four 
swivels and manned with a company of soldiers, and carrying stores 
for his men, with orders to force her way up the Wabash, to take 
her station a few miles below Yincennes, and to allow no person to 
pass her. He himself marched with his little band, and spent six- 
teen days in traversing the country from Kaskaskia to Yincennes, 
passing with incredible fatigue through woods and marshes. He 
was five days in crossing the bottom lands of the Wabash; and for 
five miles was frequently up to the breast in water. After over- 
coming difficulties which had been thought insurmountable, he 
appeared before the place and completely surprised it. The inhab- 
itants readily submitted, but Hamilton at first defended himself in 
the fort. Next day, however, he surrendered himself and his gar- 
rison prisoners-of-war. By his activity in encouraging the hostili- 
ties of the Indians and by the revolting enormities perpetrated by 


those savages, Hamilton had rendered himself so obnoxious that he 
was thrown in prison and put in irons. During his command of 
the British frontier posts he oifered prizes to the Indians for all the 
scalps of the Americans thej would bring him, and earned in con- 
sequence thereof the title, "Hair-Bujer General," by which he was 
ever afterward known. 

The services of Clark proved of essential advantage to his coun- 
trymen. They disconcerted the plans of Hamilton, and not only saved 
the western frontier from depredations by the savages, but also 
greatly cooled the ardor of the Indians for carrying on a contest in 
which they were not likely to be the gainers. Had it not been for 
this small army, a union of all the tribes from Maine to Georgia 
against the colonies might have been effected, and the whole current 
of our history changed. 



In October, 1778, after the successful campaign of Col. Clark, the 
assembly of Virginia erected the conquered country, embracing all 
the territory northwest of the Ohio river, into the County of Illi- 
nois, which was doubtless the largest county in the world, exceeding 
in its dimensions the whole of Great Britian and Ireland. To speak 
more definitely, it contained the territory now embraced in the great 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan. On the 
12th of December, 1778, John Todd was appointed Lieutenant- 
Commandant of this county by Patrick Henry, then Governor of 
Yirginia, and accordingly, also, the first of Illinois County. 


Illinois continued to form a part of Yirginia until March 1, 1784, 
when that State ceded all the territory north of the Ohio to the 
United States. Immediately the general Government proceeded to 
establish a form of government for the settlers in the territories 
thus ceded. This form continued until the passage of the ordi- 
nance of 1787, for the government of the Northwestern Terri- 
tory. No man can study the secret history of this ordinance and 
not feel that Providence was guiding with sleepless eye the des- 


tinies of these unborn States. American legislation has never 
achieved anything more admirable, as an internal government, 
than this comprehensive ordinance. Its provisions concerning the 
distribution of property, the principles of civil and religious liberty 
which it laid at the foundation of the communities since established, 
and the efficient and simple organization by which it created the 
first machinery of civil society, are worthy of all the praise that has 
ever been given them. 


This ordinance has a marvelous and interesting history. Con- 
siderable controversy has been indulged in as to who is entitled to 
the credit for framing it. This belongs, undoubtedly, to Nathan 
Dane; and to Eufus King and Timothy Pickering belong the 
credit for suggesting the proviso contained in it against slavery, 
and also for aids to religion and knowledge, and for assuring for- 
ever the common use, without charge, of the great national high- 
ways of the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and their tributaries to 
all the citizens of the United States. To Thomas Jeflferson is also 
due much credit, as some features of this ordinance were embraced 
in his ordinance of 1784. But the part taken by each in the long, 
laborious and eventful struggle which had so glorious a consum- 
mation in the ordinance, consecrating forever, by one imprescript- 
ible and unchangeable monument, the very heart of our country to 
Freedom, Knowledge, and Union, will forever lionor the names of 
those illustrious statesmen. 

Mr. Jeiferson had vainly tried to secure a system of government 
for the E"orthwestern Territory. He was an emancipationist and 
favored the exclusion of slavery from the territory, but the South 
voted him down every time he proposed a measure of this nature. 
In 1787, as late as July 10, an organizing act without the anti- 
slavery clause was pending. This concession to the South was 
expected to carry it. Congress was in session in New York. On 
July 5, Kev. Manasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came into New 
York to lobby on the Northwestern Territory. Everything 
seemed to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. The state of the 
public credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, the basis of his 
mission, his personal character, all combined to complete one of 
those sudden and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that 


once in five or ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like 
the breath of the Ahnighty. 

Cutler was a graduate of Yale. He had studied and taken de- 
grees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. 
He had published a scientific examination of the plants of New 
Eno-land, As a scientist in America liis name stood second only to 
that of Franklin He was a courtly gentleman of the old style, 
a man of commanding presence and of inviting face. The Southern 
members said they had never seen such a gentleman in the North. 
He came representing a Massachusetts company that desired to 
purchase a tract of land, now included in Ohio, for the purpose of 
planting a colony. It was a speculation. Government money was 
worth eighteen cents on the dollar. This company had collected 
enough to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in 
New York made Dr. Cutler their agent, which enabled him to 
represent a demand for 5,500,000 acres. As this would reduce the 
national debt, ai:d Jeiferson's policy was to provide for the public 
credit, it presented a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the North- 
western region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The South caught 
the inspiration, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The entire South ral- 
lied around him, Massachusetts could not vote against him, be- 
cause many of the constituents of her members were interested 
personally in the Western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends in the South, and doubtless using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convic- 
tions, he dictated one of the most compact and finished documents 
of wise statesmanship that has ever adorned any human law book. 
He borrowed from Jefferson the term "Articles of Compact," which, 
preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most sacred char- 
acter. He then followed very closely the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, adopted three years before. Its most prominent points 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a semi- 
nary and every section numbered 16 in each township; that is, one 
thirty-sixth of all the land for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or 


the enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 
Beit forever remembered that this compact declared that "re- 
ligion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of edu- 
cation shall always be encouraged." Dr. Cutler planted himself 
on this platform and would not yield. Giving his unqualified dec- 
laration that it was that or nothing,— that unless they could make 
the land desirable they did not want it,— he took his horse and buggy 
and started for the constitutional convention at Philadelphia. On 
July 13, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unani- 
mously adopted. Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan, and "Wisconsin, a vast empire, were consecrated to free- 
dom, intelligence, and morality. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared to save the union of States, for it was this act that was 
the salvation of the republic and the destruction of slavery. Soon 
the South saw their great blunder and tried to have the compact 
repealed. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee, of which 
John Kandolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact and opposed repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in the 
way of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 


With all this timely aid it was, however, a most desperate and 
protracted struggle to keep the soil of Illinois sacred to freedom. 
It was the natural battle-field for the irrepressible conflict. In the 
southern end of the State slavery preceded the compact. It ex- 
isted among the old French settlers, and was hard to eradicate. 
That portion was also settled from the slave States, and this popu- 
lation brought their laws, customs, and institutions with them. A 
stream of population from the North poured into the northern part 
of the State. These sections misunderstood and hated each other 
perfectly. The Southerners regarded the Yankees as a skinning, 
tricky, penurious race of peddlers, filling the country with tinware, 
brass clocks, and wooden nutmegs. The Northerner thought of the 
Southerner as a lean, lank, lazy creature, burrowing in a hut, and 
rioting in whisky, dirt, and ignorance. These causes aided in 
making the struggle long and bitter. So strong was the sympathy 
with slavery that, in spite of the ordinance of 1787, and in spite of 
the deed of cession, it was determined to allow the old French set- 
tlers to retain their slaves. Planters from the slave States might 



bring their slaves if they would give them an opportunity to choose 
freedom or years of service and bondage for their cliildren till they 
should become thirty years of age. If they chose freedom they 
must leave the State within sixty days, or be sold as fugitives. 
Servants were whipped for offenses for which white men were fined. 
Each lash paid forty cents of the fine. A negro ten miles from 
home without a pass was whipped. These famous laws were im- 
ported from the slave States, just as the laws for the inspection of 
flax and wool were imported when there was neither in the State. 


On October 5, 17S7, Maj, Gen. Arthur St. Clair was, by Congress, 
elected Governor of this vast territory. St. Clair was born in Scot- 
land and emigrated to America in 1755. He served in the French 
and English war, and was major general in the Revolution. In 
1786 he was elected to Congress and chosen President of that body. 


After the division of the jSTorth western Territory Illinois became 
one of the counties of the Territory of Indiana, from which it was 
separated by an act of Congress Feb. 3, 1809, forming the Territory 
of Illinois, with a population estimated at 9,000, and then included 
the present State of "Wisconsin. It was divided, at the time, into 
two counties, — St. Clair and Randolph. John Boyle, of Ken- 
tucky, was appointed Governor, by the President, James Madison, 
but declining, Ninian Edwards, of the same State, was then 
appointed and served with distinction; and after the organization 
of Illinois as a State he served in the same capacity, being its third 


For some years previous to the war between the United States 
and England in 1812, considerable trouble was experienced with the 
Indians. Marauding bands of savages would attack small settle- 
ments and inhumanly butcher all the inhabitants, and mutilate 
their dead bodies. To protect themselves, the settlers organized 
companies of rangers, and erected block houses and stockades in 
every settlement. The largest, strongest and best one of these was 
Fort Russell, near the present village of Edwardsville. This stockade 


was made the main rendezvous for troops and military stores, and 
Gov. Edwards, who during the perilous times of 1812, when Indian 
hostilities threatened on every hand, assumed command of the Illi- 
nois forces, established his headquarters at this place. The Indians 
were incited to many of these depredations by English emissaries, 
who for years continued their dastardly work of " setting the red 
men, like dogs, upon the whites." 

In the summer of 1811 a peace convention was held with the 
Pottawatomies at Peoria, when they promised that peace should 
prevail; but their promises were soon broken. Tecumseh, the great 
warrior, and fit successor of Pontiac, started in the spring of 1811, 
to arouse the Southern Indians to war against the whites. The pur- 
pose of this chieftain was well known to Gov. Harrison, of Indiana 
Territory, who determined during Tecumseh's absence to strike and 
disperse the hostile forces collected at Tippecanoe. This he success- 
fully did on Nov. 7, winning the sobriquet of " Tippecanoe," by 
which he was afterwards commonly known. Several peace councils 
were held, at which the Indians promised good behavior, but only 
to deceive the whites. Almost all the savages of the Northwest 
were thoroughly stirred up and did not desire peace. The British 
agents at various points, in anticipation of a war with the United 
States, sought to enlist the favor of the savages by distributing to 
them large supplies of arms, ammunition and other goods. 

The English continued their insults to our flag upon the high 
seas, and their government refusing to relinquish its offensive course, 
all hopes of peace and safe commercial relations were abandoned, 
and Congress, on the 19th of June, 1812, formally declared war 
against Great Britain. In Illinois the threatened Indian troubles 
had already caused a more thorough organization of the militia and 
greater protection by the erection of forts. As intimated, the In- 
dians took the war-path long before the declaration of hostilities 
between the two civilized nations, committing great depredations, 
the most atrocious of which was the 


During the war of 1812 between the United States and England, 
the greatest, as well as the most revolting, massacre of whites that 
ever occurred in Illinois, was perpetrated by the Pottawatomie In- 
dians, at Fort Dearborn. This fort was built by the Government, 
in 1804, on the south side of the Chicago river, and was garrisoned 



by 54 men under command of Capt. Nathan Heald, assisted by 
Lieutenant Helm and Ensign Ronan; Dr. Voorhees, surgeon. The 
residents at the post at that time were the wives of officers Heald 
and Helm and a few of the soldiers, Mr. Kinzie and his family, and 
a few Canadians. The soldiers and Mr, Kinzie were on the most 
friendly terms with the Pottawatomies and Winuebagoes, the prin- 
cipal tribes around them. 

On the 7th of August, 1812, arrived the order from Gen, Hull, at 
Detroit, to evacuate Fort Dearborn, and distribute all United States 
property to the Indians. Chicago was so deep in the wilderness 


that this was the first intimation the garrison received of the dec- 
laration of war made on the 19th of June. The Indian chief who 
brought the dispatch advised Capt. Heald not to evacuate, and 
that if he should decide to do so, it be done immediately, and by 
forced marches elude the concentration of the savages before the 
news could be circulated among them. To this most excellent ad- 
vice the Captain gave no heed, but on the 12th held a council with 


the Indians, apprising them of the orders received, and offering a 
liberal reward for an escort of Pottawatomies to Fort Wayne. The 
Indians, with many professions of friendship, assented to all he 
proposed, and promised all he required. The remaining officers re- 
fused to join in the council, for they had been informed that treach- 
ery was designed, — that the Indians intended to murder those in 
the council, and then destroy those in the fort. The port holes were 
open, displaying cannons pointing directly upon the council. This 
action, it is supposed, prevented a massacre at that time. 

Mr. Kinzie, who knew the Indians well, begged Capt. Heald 
not to confide in their promises, or distribute the arms and ammu- 
nitions among them, for it would only put power in their hands to 
destroy the whites. This argument, true and excellent in itself, 
was now certainly inopportune, and would only incense the treach- 
erous foe. But the Captain resolved to follow it, and accordingly on 
the night of the 13tli, after the distribution of the other property, the 
arms were broken, and the barrels of whisky, of which there was a 
large quantity, were rolled quietly through the sally-port, their 
heads knocked in and their contents emptied into the river. On that 
night the lurking red-skins crept near the fort and discovered the 
destruction of the promised booty going on within. The next morn- 
ing the powder was seen floating on the surface of the river, and 
the Indians asserted that such an abundance of " fire-water" had 
been emptied into the river as to make it taste " groggy." Many 
of them drank of it freely. 

On the 14th the desponding garrison was somewhat cheered by 
the arrival of Capt. Wells, with 15 friendly Miamis. Capt. Wells 
heard at Fort Wayne of the order to evacuate Fort Dearborn, and 
knowing the hostile intentions of the Indians, made a rapid march 
through the wilderness to protect, if possible, his niece, Mrs. Heald, 
and the officers and the garrison from certain destruction. But 
he came too late. Every means for its defense had been destroyed 
the night before, and arrangements were made for leaving the fort 
on the following morning. 

The fatal morning of the 16th at length dawned brightly on the 
world. The sun shone in unclouded splendor upon the glassy waters 
of Lake Michigan. At 9 a. m., the party moved out of the south- 
ern gate of the fort, in military array. The band, feeling the solem- 
nity of the occasion, struck up the Dead March in Saul. Capt. 


Wells, with his face blackened after the manner of the Indians, led 
the advance guard at the head of his friendly Miamis, the garrison 
with loaded arms, the baggage wagons with the sick, and the women 
and children following, while the Pottawatomie Indians, about 500 
in number, who had pledged their honor to escort the whites in 
safety to Fort Wayne, brought up the rear. The party took the 
road along the lake shore. On reaching the range of sand-hills 
separating the beach from the prairie, about one mile and a half- 
from the fort, the Indians defiled to the right into the prairie, bring 
ing the sand-hills between them and the whites. This divergence 
was scarcely effected when Capt. Wells, who had kept in advance 
with his Indians, rode furiously back and exclaimed, "They are 
about to attack us. Form instantly and charge upon them!" 
These words were scarcely uttered before a volley of balls from 
Indian muskets was poured in upon them. The troops were hastily 
formed into line, and charged up the bank. One veteran of 70 fell 
as they ascended. The Indians were driven back to the prairie, and 
then the battle was waged by 54 soldiers, 12 civilians, and three or 
four women — the cowardly JVFiamis having fled at the outset — 
against 500 Indian warriors. The whites behaved gallantly, and 
sold their lives dearly. They fought desperately until two-thirds 
of their number were slain; the remaining 27 surrendered. And 
now the most sickening and heart-rending butchery of this calam- 
itous day was committed by a young savage, who assailed one of 
the baggage wagons containing 12 children, every one of which fell 
beneath his murderous tomahawk. When Capt. Wells, who with 
the others had become prisoner, beheld this scene at a distance, he 
exclaimed in a tone loud enough to be heard by the savages, " If 
this be your game, I can kill too;" and turning his horse, started 
for the place where the Indians had left their squaws and children. 
The Indians hotly pursued, but he avoided their deadly bullets for 
a time. Soon his horse was killed and he severely wounded. With 
a yell the young braves rushed to make him their prisoner and re- 
serve him for torture. But an enraged warrior stabbed him in the 
back, and he fell dead. His heart was afterwards taken out, cut in 
pieces and distributed among the tribes. Billy Caldwell, a half- 
breed Wyandot, well-known in Chicago long afterward, buried his 
remains the next day. Wells street in Chicago, perpetuates his 


In this fearful combat women bore a conspicuous part. A wife 
of one of the soldiers, who had frequently heard that the Indians 
subjected their prisoners to tortures worse than death, resolved not 
to be taken alive, and continued fighting until she was literally cut 
to pieces. Mrs. Heald was an excellent equestrian, and an expert 
in the use of the rifle. She fought bravely, receiving several wounds. 
Though faint from loss of blood, she managed to keep in her saddle. 
A savage raised his tomahawk to kill her, when she looked him full 
in the face, and with a sweet smile and gentle voice said, in his 
own language, " Surely you will not kill a squaw." The arm of 
of the savage fell, and the life of this heroic woman was saved. 
Mrs. Helm had an encounter with a stalwart Indian, who attempted 
to tomahawk her. Springing to one side, she received the glancing 
blow on her shoulder, and at the same time she seized the savage 
round the neck and endeavored to get his seal ping-knife which 
hung in a sheath at his breast. While she was thus struggling, she 
was dragged from his grasp by another and an older Indian. The 
latter bore her, struggling and resisting, to the lake and plunged 
her in. She soon perceived it was not his intention to drown her, 
because he held her in such a position as to keep her head out of 
the water. She recognized him to be a celebrated chief called 
Black Partridge. When the firing ceased she was conducted up 
the sand-bank. 


The prisoners were taken back to the Indian camp, when a new 
scene of horror was enacted. The wounded not being included in 
the terms of /the surrender, as it was interpreted by the Indians, 
and the British general, Proctor, having offered a liberal bounty for 
American scalps, nearly all the wounded were killed and scalped, 
and the price of the trophies was afterwards paid by the British 
general. In the stipulation of surrender, Capt. Heald had not 
particularly mentioned the wounded. These helpless sufferers, on 
reaching the Indian camp, were therefore regarded by the brutal 
savages as fit subjects upon which to display their cruelty and satisfy 
their desire for blood. Keferring to the terrible butchery of the 
prisoners, in an account given by Mrs. Helm, she says: "An old 
squaw, infuriated by the loss of friends or excited by the sanguin- 
ary scenes around her, seemed possessed of demoniac fury. She 
seized a stable-fork and assaulted one miserable victim, who lay 



groaning and writhing in the agonies of his wounds, aggravated by 
the scorching beams of the sun. With a delicacy of feeling, scarcely 
to have been expected under such circumstances, Wan-bee-nee-wan 
stretched a mat across two poles, between me and this dreadful scene. 
I was thus spared, in some degree, a view of its horrors, although I 
could not entirely close my ears to the cries of the sufferer. The 
following night live more of the wounded prisoners were toma- 


That evening, about sundown, a council of chiefs was held to 
decide the fate of the prisoners, and it was agreed to deliver them 


to the British commander at Detroit. After dark, many warriors 
from a distance came into camp, who were thirsting for blood, and 
were determined to murder the prisoners regardless of the terms of 
surrender. Black Partridge, with a few of his friends, surrounded 
Kinzie's house to protect the inmates from the tomahawks of the 
bloodthirsty savages. Soon a band of hostile warriors rushed by 
them into the house, and stood with tomahawks and scalping-knives, 
awaiting the signal from their chief to commence the work of death. 


Black Partridge said to Mrs. Kinzie: "We are doing everything 
in our power to save you, but all is now lost; you and your friends, 
together with all the prisoners of the camp, will now be slain," At 
that moment a canoe was heard approaching the shore, when Black 
Partridge ran down to the river, trying in the darkness to make out 
the new comers, and at the same time shouted, "Who are you?" 
In the bow of the approaching canoe stood a tall, manly personage, 
with a rifle in his hand. He jumped ashore exclaiming, " I am 
Sau-ga-nash." " Then make all speed to the house; our friends are 
in danger, and you only can save them." It was Billy Caldwell, 
the half-breed Wyandot. He hurried forward, entered the house 
with a resolute step, deliberately removed his accouterments, placed 
his rifle behind the door, and saluted the Indians: " How now, my 
friends! a good day to you. I was told there were enemies here, 
but am glad to find only friends." Diverted by the coolness of his 
manner, they were ashamed to avow their murderous purpose, and 
simply asked for some cotton goods to wrap their dead, for burial. 
And thus, by his presence of mind, Caldwell averted the murder of 
the Kinzie family and the prisoners. The latter, with their wives 
and children, were dispersed among the Pottawatomie tribes along 
the Illinois, Rock and Wabash rivers, and some to Milwaukee. 
The most of them were ransomed at Detroit the following spring. 
A part of them, however, remained in captivity another year. 


By the middle of August, through the disgraceful surrender of 
Gen. Hull, at Detroit, and the evacuation of Fort Dearborn and 
massacre of its garrison, the British and Indians were in possession of 
the whole Northwest. The savages, emboldened by their successes, 
penetrated deeper into the settlements, committing great depre- 
dations. The activity and success of the enemy aroused the people 
to a realization of the great danger their homes and families were 
in. Gov. Edwards collected a force of 350 men at Camp Russell, 
and Capt. Russell came from Yincennes with about 50 more. Being 
oflicered and equipped, they proceeded about the middle of October 
on horseback, carrying with them 20 days' rations, to Peoria. Capt. 
Craig was sent with two boats up the Illinois, with provisions 
and tools to build a fort. The little army proceeded to Peoria 
Lake, where was located a Pottawatomie village. They arrived late 


at night, within a few miles of the village, without their presence 
being known to the Indians. Four men were sent out that night 
to reconnoiter the position of the village. The four brave men who 
volunteered for this perilous service were Thomas Carlin (after- 
ward Governor), and Robert, Stephen and Davis Whiteside. Thej 
proceeded to the village, and explored it and the approaches to it 
thoroughly, without starting an Indian or provoking the bark of a 
dog. The low lands between the Indian village and the troops were 
covered with a rank growth of tall grass, eo highland dense as to 
readily conceal an Indian on horseback, until within a few feet of 
him. The ground had become still more yielding by recent rains, 
rendering it almost impassable by mounted men. To prevent de- 
tection, the soldiers had camped without lighting the usual camp- 
fires. The men lay down in their cold and cheerless camp, with 
many misgivings. They well remembered how the skulking sav- 
ages fell upon Harrison's men at Tippecanoe during the night. To 
add to their fears, a gun in the hands of a soldier was carelessly 
discharged, raising great consternation in the camp. 


Through a dense fog which prevailed the following morning, the 
army took up its line of march for the Indian town, Capt. Judy 
with his corps of spies in advance. In the tall grass they came up 
with an Indian and his squaw, both mounted. The Indian wanted 
to surrender, but Judy observed that he "did not leave home to take 
prisoners,^' and instantly shot one of them. With the blood 
streaming from his mouth and nose, and in his agony " singing the 
death song," the dying Indian raised his gun, shot and mortally 
wounded a Mr. Wright, and in a few minutes expired. Many guns 
were immediately discharged at the other Indian, not then known 
to be a squaw, all of which missed her. Badly scared, and her hus- 
band killed by her side, tlie agonizing wails of the squaw were 
heart-rending. She was taken prisoner, and afterwards restored 
to her nation. 


On nearing the town a general charge was made, the Indians 
fleeing to the interior wilderness. Some of their warriors made a 
stand, when a sharp engagement occurred, but the Indians were 
routed. In their flight they left behind all their winter's store of 


provisions, which was tcaken, and their town burned. Some Indian 
children were found wlio had been left in 1 he hurried flight, also 
some disabled adults, one of whom was in a starving condition and 
with a voracious appetite partook of the bread given him. He is 
said to have been killed bj a cowardly trooper straggling behind, 
after the main army had resumed its retrograde march, who wanted 
to be able to boast that he had killed an Indian. 

About the time Gov. Edwards started with his little band against 
the Indians, Gen. Hopkins, with 2,000 Kentucky riflemen, left 
Vincennes to cross the prairies of Illinois and destroy the Indian 
villages along the Illinois river. Edwards, with his rangers, ex- 
pected to act in concert with Gen. Hopkins' riflemen. After 
marching 80 or 90 miles into the enemy's country. Gen. Hopkins' 
men became dissatisfied, and on Oct. 20 the entire army turned 
and retreated homeward before even a foe had been met. After the 
victory of the Illinois rangers they heard nothing of Gen. Hopkins 
and his 2,000 mounted Kentucky riflemen ; and apprehensive that a 
laro-e force of warriors would be speedily collected, it was -deemed 
prudent not to protract their stay, and accordingly the retrograde 
march was commenced the very day of the attack. 


The force of Capt. Craig, in charge of the provision boats, was 
not idle during this time. They proceeded to Peoria, where they 
were fired on by ten Indians during the night, who immediately 
fled. Capt. Craig discovered, at daylight, their tracks leading up 
into the French town. He inquired of the French their where- 
abouts, who denied all knowledge of them, and said they " had 
heard or seen nothing; " but he took the entire number prisoners, 
burned and destroyed Peoria, and bore the captured inhabitants 
away on his boats to a point below the present city of Alton, where 
he landed and left them in the woods, — men, women, and children, — 
in the inclement month of November, without shelter, and without 
food other than the slender stores they had themselves gathered up 
before their departure. They found their way to St. Louis in an 
almost starving condition. The burning of Peoria and taking its 
inhabitants prisoners, on the mere suspicion that they sympathized 
with the Indians, was generally regarded as a needless, if not 
wanton, act of military power. 




In the early part of 1813, the country was put in as good defense 
as the sparse population admitted. In spite of the precaution taken, 
numerous depredations .and murders were committed by the In- 
dians, which again aroused the whites, and another expedition was 
sent against the foe, who had collected in large numbers in and 
around Peoria. This army was composed of about 900 men, collect- 
ed from both Illinois and Missouri, and under command of Gen. 
Howard. They marched across the broad prairies of Illinois to 
Peoria, where there was a small stockade in charge of United States 
troops. Two days previously the Indians made an attack od the 
fort, but were repulsed. Being in the enemy's country, knowing 
their stealthy habits, and the troops at no time observing a high de- 
gree of discipline, many unnecessary night alarms occurred, yet the 
enemy were far away. The army marched up the lake to Chili- 
cothe, burning on its way two deserted villages. At the present 
site of Peoria the troops remained in camp several weeks. While 
there they built a fort, which they named in honor of Gen, George 
Rogers Clark, who with his brave Virginians wrested Illinois from 
the English during the Revolutionary struggle. This fort was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1818, It gave a name to Peoria which it wore for 
several years. After the building of Fort Crevecoeur, in 1680, Peo- 
ria lake was very familiar to Western travel and history; but there 
is no authentic account of a permanent Eiu'opean settlement there 
until 1778, when Laville de Meillet, named after its founder, was 
started. Owing to the quality of the water and its greater salu- 
brity, the location was changed to the present site of Peoria, and by 
1796 the old had been entirely abandoned for the new village. 
After its destruction in 1812 it was not settled again until 1819, 
and then by American pioneers, though in 1813 Fort Clark was 
built there. 


The second campaign against the Indians at Peoria closed with- 
out an engagement, or even a sight of the enemy, yet great was the 
benefit derived from it. It showed to the Indians the power and 
resources of his white foe. Still the calendar of the horrible deeds 
of butchery of the following year is long and bloody. A joint ex- 
pedition again moved against the Indians in 1814, under Gov. 


Clark of Missouri. This time tliej went up the Mississippi in 
barges, Prairie du Cliien being the point of destination. There they 
found a small garrison of British troops, which, however, soon fled, 
as did the inhabitants, leaving Clark in full possession. He im- 
mediately set to work and erected Fort Shelby. The Governor 
returned to St. Louis, leaving his men in peaceable possession of 
the place, but a large force of British and Indians came down upon 
them, and the entire garrison surrendered. In the mean time Gen. 
Howard sent 108 men to strengthen the garrison. Of this number 
66 were Illinois rangers, under Capts. Rector and Riggs, who oc- 
cupied two boats. The remainder were with Lieut. Campbell. 


At Rock Island Campbell was warned to turn back, as an attack 

was contemplated. The other boats passed on up the river and 

were some two miles ahead when Campbell's barge was struck by a 

strong gale which forced it against a small island near the Illinois 

shore. Thinking it best to lie to till the wind abated, sentinels 

were stationed while the men went ashore to cook breakfast. At 

this time a large number of Indians on the ,.iain shore under 

Black Hawk commenced an attack. The savages in canoes passed 

rapidly to the island, and with a war-whoop rushed upon the men, 

who retreated and sought refuge in the barge. A battle of brisk 

musketry now ensued between the few regulars aboard the stranded 

barge and the hordes of Indians under cover of trees on the island, 

with severe loss to the former. Meanwhile Capt. Rector and Riggs, 

ahead with their barges, seeing the smoke of battle, attempted to 

return; but in the strong gale Riggs' boat became unmanageable 

and was stranded on the rapids. Rector, to avoid a similar disaster, 

let go his anchor. The rangers, however, opened with good aim 

and telling effect upon the savages. The unequal combat having 

raged for some time and about closing, the commander's barge, 

with many wounded and several dead on board, — among the former 

of whom, very badly, was Campbell himself, — was discovered to be 

on fire. Now Rector and his brave Illinois rangers, comprehending 

the horrid situation, performed, without delay, as cool and heroic a 

deed — and did it well — as ever imperiled the life of mortal man. 

In the howling gale, in full view of hundreds of infuriated savages, 

and within range of their rifles, they deliberately raised anchor, 


lightened their barge by casting overboard quantities of provisions, 
and guided it with the utmost labor down the swift current, to the 
windward of the burning barge, and under the galling fire of the 
enemy rescued all the survivors, and removed the wounded and 
dying to their vessel. This was a deed of noble daring and as 
heroic as any performed during the war in the "West. Rector hur- 
ried with his over-crowded vessel to St. Louis. 

It was now feared that Riggs and his company were captured 
and sacrificed by the savages. His vessel, which was strong and well 
armed, was for a time surrounded by the Indians, but the whites 
on the inside were well sheltered. The wind becoming allayed in 
the evening, the boat, under cover of the night, glided safely down 
the river without the loss of a single man. 


Notwithstanding the disastrous termination of the two expedi- 
tions already sent out, during the year 1814, still another was pro- 
jected. It was under Maj, Zachary Taylor, afterward President. 
Rector and Whiteside, with the Illinoisan, were in command of 
boats. The expedition passed Rock Island unmolested, when it 
was learned the country was not only swarming with Indians, but 
that the English were there in command with a detachment of regu- 
lars and artillery. The advanced boats in command of Rector, White- 
side and Hempstead, turned about and began to descend the rapids, 
fighting with great gallantry the hordes of the enemy, who were 
pouring their fire into them from the shore at every step. 

Near the mouth of Rock river Maj. Taylor anchored his fleet out 
in the Mississippi. During the nigjht the English planted a battery 
of six pieces down at the water's edge, to sink or disable the boats, 
and filled the islands with red-skins to butcher the whites, who 
might, unarmed, seek refuge there. But in this scheme they were 
frustrated. In the morning Taylor ordered all the force, except 20 
boatmen on each vessel, to the upper island to dislodge the enemy. 
The order was executed with great gallantry, the island scoured, 
many of the savages killed, and the rest driven to the lower island. 
In the meantime the British cannon told with effect upon the fleet. 
The men rushed back and the boats were dropped down the stream 
out of range of the cannon. Capt. Rector was now ordered with 
his company to make a sortie on the lower island, which he did, 


driving the Indians back among the willows ; but they being re-in- 
forced, in turn hurled Rector back upon the sand-beach. 

A council of officers called by Taylor had by this time decided 
that their force was too small to contend with the enemy, who 
outnumbered them three to one, and the boats were in full retreat 
down the river. As Rector attempted to get under way bis boat 
grounded, and the savages, with demoniac yells, surrounded it, 
when a most desperate hand-to-hand conflict ensued. The gallant 
ranger, Samuel Whiteside, observing the imminent peril of his 
brave Illinois comrade, went immediately to his rescue, who but for 
his timely aid would undoubtedly have been overpowered, with all 
his force, and murdered. 

Thus ended the last, like the two previous expeditions up the 
Mississippi during the war of 1812, in defeat and disaster. The 
enemy was in undisputed posession of all the country north of the 
Illinois river, and the prospects respecting those territories boded 
nothino- but gloom. With the approach of winter, however, Indian 
depredations ceased to be committed, and the peace of Ghent, Dec. 
24, 1814, closed the war. 



In January of 1818 the Territorial Legislature forwarded to 
Nathaniel Pope, delegate in Congress from Illinois, a petition pray- 
ing for admission into the national Union as a State. On April 
18th of the same year Congress passed the enabling act, and Dec. 
3, after the State government had been organized and Gov. Bond 
had signed the Constitution, Congress by a resolution declared Illi- 
nois to be "one of the United States of America, and admitted into 
the Union on an equal footing with the original States in all 

The ordinance of 1787 declared that there should be at least three 
States carved out of the Northwestern Territory. The boundaries 
of the three, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, were fixed by this law. 
Congress reserved the power, however, of forming two other States 
out of the territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn 
through the southern boundary of Lake Michigan. It was generally 
conceded that this line would be the northern boundary of Illinois ; 


but as this would give the State no coast on Lake Michigan; and 
rob her of the port of Chicago and the northern terminus of the 
Illinois & Michigan canal which was then contemplated, Judge 
Pope had the northern boundary moved fifty miles further north. 


Not only is Illinois indebted to Nathaniel Pope for the port where 
now enter and depart more vessels during the year than in any 
other port in the world, for the northern terminus of the Illinois 
& Michigan canal, and for the lead mines at Galena, but the nation, 
the undivided Union, is largely indebted to him for its perpetuity. 
It was he, — his foresight, statesmanship and energy, — that bound 
our confederated Union with bands of iron that can never be broken. 
The geographical position of Illinois, with her hundreds of miles 
of water-courses, is such as to make her the key to the grand arch 
of Northern and Southern States. Extending from the great chain 
of lakes on the north, with snow and ice of the arctic region, to the 
cotton-fields of Tennessee ; peopled, as it is, by almost all races, 
classes and conditions of the human family ; guided by the various 
and diversified political, agricultural, religious and educational 
teachings common to both North and South,— Illinois can control, 
and has controlled, the destinies of our united and beloved republic. 
Pope seemingly foresaw that a struggle to dissolve the Union would 
be made. With a prophetic eye he looked down the stream of time 
for a half century and saw the great conflict between the South and 
North, caused by a determination to dissolve the confederation of 
States; and to preserve the Union, he gave to Illinois a lake coast. 

Gov. Ford, in his History of Illinois, written in 1847, while 
speaking of this change of boundary and its iiifluence upon our 
nation, says: 

"What, then, was the duty of the national Government? Illinois 
was certain to be a great State, with any boundaries which that 
Government could give. Its great extent of territory, its unrivaled 
fertility of soil and capacity for sustaining a dense population, 
together with its commanding position, would in course of time 
give the new State a very controlling influence with her sister 
States situated upon the Western rivers, either in sustaining the 
federal Union as it is, or in dissolving it and establishing new gov- 
ernments. If left entirely upon the waters of these great rivers, it 


was plain that, in case of threatened disruption, the interest of the 
new State would be to join a Southern and Western confederacy; 
but if a large portion of it could be made dependent upon the com- 
merce and navigation of the great northern lakes, connected as they 
are with the Eastern States, a rival interest would be created to 
check the wish for a Western and Southern confederacy. 

" It therefore became the duty of the national Government not 
only to make Illinois strong, but to raise an interest inclining and 
binding her to the Eastern and Northern portions of the Union. 
This could be done only through an interest in the lakes. At that 
time the commerce on the lakes was small, but its increase was con- 
fidently expected, and, indeed, it has exceeded all anticipations, 
and is yet only in its infancy. To accomplish this object effectually, 
it was not only necessary to give to Illinois the port of Chicago and 
a route for the canal, but a considerable coast on Lake Michigan, 
with a country back of it sufficiently extensive to contain a popu- 
lation caj)able of exerting a decided influence upon the councils of 
the State. 

" There would, therefore, be a large commerce of the north, west- 
ern and central portion of the State afloat on the lakes, for it was 
then foreseen that the canal would be made; and this alone would 
be like turning one of the many mouths of the Mississippi into 
Lake Michigan at Chicago. A very large commerce of the center 
and south would be found both upon the lakes and rivers. Asso- 
ciations in business, in interest, and of friendship would be formed, 
both with the North and the Soutli. A State thus situated, having 
such a decided interest in the commerce, and in the preservation of 
the whole confederacy, can never consent to disunion; for the Union 
cannot be dissolved without a division and disruption of the State 
itself. These views, urged by Judge Pope, obtained the unquali- 
fied assent of the statesmen of 1818. 

" These facts and views are worthy to be recorded in history as 
a standing and perpetual call upon lUinoisans of every age to 
remember the great trust which has been reposed in them, as the 
peculiar champions and guardians of the Union by the great men 
and patriot sages who adorned and governed this country in the 
earlier and better days of the Republic." 

During the dark and trying days of the Rebellion, well did she 
remember this sacred trust, to protect which two hundred thousand 



of her sons went to the bloody field of battle, crowning their arms 
with the laurels of war, and keeping inviolate the solemn obliga- 
tions bequeathed to 'them by their fathers. 


In July and August of 1818 a convention was held at Kaskaskia 
for the purpose of drafting a constitution. This constitution was 
not submitted to a vote of the people for their approval or rejection, 
it being well known that they would approve it. It was about the 
first organic law of any State in the Union to abolish imprisonment 
for debt. The first election under the constitution was held on the 
third Thursday and the two succeeding days in September, 1818. 
Shadrach Bond was elected Governor, and Pierre Menard Lieuten- 
ant Governor. Their term of office extended four years. At this 
time che State was divided into fifteen counties, the population being 
about 40,000. Of this number by far the larger portion were from 
the Southern States. The salary of the Governor was $1,000, while 
that of the Treasurer was $500. The Legislature re-enacted, ver- 
batim, the Territorial Code, the penalties of which were unneces- 
sarily severe. Whipping, stocks and pillory were used for minor 
offenses, and for arson, rape, horse-stealing, etc., death by hanging 
was the penalty. These laws, however, were modified in 1821. 

The Legislature first convened at Kaskaskia, the ancient seat of 
empire for more than one hundred and fifty years, both for the 
French and Americans. Provisions were made, however, for the 
removal of the seat of government by this Legislature. A place in the 
wilderness on the Kaskaskia river was selected and named Yandalia. 
From Yandalia it was removed to Springfield in the year 1837. 


The name of this beautiful "Prairie State" is derived from 
Illini, an Indian word signifying superior men. It has a French 
termination, and is a symbol of the manner in which the two races, 
the French and Indians, were intermixed during the early history 
of the country. The appellation was no doubt well applied to the 
primitive inhabitants of the soil, whose prowess in savage warfare 
long withstood the combined attacks of the fierce Iroquois on the 
one side, and the no less savao^e and relentless Sacs and Foxes on the 
other. The Illinois were once a powerful confederacy, occupying 
the most beautiful and fertile region in the great valley of the 


Mississippi, which their enemies coveted and struggled long and 
hard to wrest from them. Bj the fortunes of war they were dimin- 
ished in number and finally destroyed. " Starved Rock," on the 
Illinois river, according to tradition, commemorates their last trag- 
edy, where, it is said, the entire tribe starved rather than surrender. 

The low cognomen of " Sucker," as applied to lUinoisans, is said 
to have had its origin at the Galena lead mines. In an early day, 
when these extensive mines were being worked, men would run up 
the Mississippi river in steamboats in the spring, work the lead 
mines, and in the fall return, thus establishing, as was supposed, a sim- 
ilitude between their migratory habits and those of the fishy tribe 
called "Suckers." For this reason the Illinoisans have ever since 
been distinguished by the epithet " Suckers." Those who stayed 
at the mines over winter were mostly from Wisconsin, and were 
called " Badgers." One spring the Missourians poured into the 
mines in such numbers that the State was said to have taken a puke, 
and the offensive appellation of " Pukes " was afterward applied to 
all Missourians. 

The southern part of the State, known as "Egypt," received this 
appellation because, being older, better settled and cultivated, grain 
was had in greater abundance than in the central and northern por- 
tion, and the immigrants of this region, after the manner of the 
children of Israel, went " thither to buy and to bring from thence 
that they might live and not die." 


The Legislature, during the latter years of territorial existence, 
granted charters to several banks. The result was that paper money 
became very abundant, times flush, and credit unlimited; and every- 
body invested to the utmost limit of his credit, with confident 
expectation of realizing a handsome advance before the expiration 
of his credit, from the throng of immigrants then pouring into the 
country. By 1819 it became apparent that a day of reckoning 
would aj)proach before their dreams of fortune could be realized. 
Banks everywhere began to waver, paper money became depreci- 
ated, and gold and silver driven out of the country. The Legisla- 
ture sought to bolster up the times by incorporating the " Bank 
of Illinois," which, with several branches, was created by the ses- 
sion of 1821. This bank, being wholly supported by the credit of 
the State, was to issue one, two, three, five, ten and twenty-dollar 


notes. It was the duty of the bank to advance, upon personal prop- 
erty, money to the amount of $100, and a larger amount upon real 
estate. All taxes and public salaries could be paid in such bills; 
and if a creditor refused to take them, he had to wait three years 
longer before he could collect his debt. The people imagined that 
simply because the government had issued the notes, they would 
remain at par; and altliough this evidently could not be the case, 
they were yet so infatuated with their project as actually to request 
the United States government to receive them in payment for their 
public lands! Although there were not wanting men who, like 
John McLean, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, fore- 
saw the dangers and evils likely to arise from the creation of such 
a bank, by far the greater part of the people were in favor of it. 
The new bank was therefore started. The new issue of bills by the 
bank of course only aggravated the evil, heretofore so grievously 
felt, of the absence of specie, so that the people were soon com- 
pelled to cut their bills in halves and quarters, in order to make 
small change in trade. Finally the paper currency so rapidly depre- 
ciated that three dollars in these bills were considered worth only 
one in specie, and the State not only did not increase its revenue, 
but lost full two-thirds of it, and expended three times the amount 
required to pay the expenses of the State government. 

Lafayette's visit. 

In the spring of 1825 the brave and generous LaFayette visited 
Illinois, accepting the earnest invitation of the General Assembly, 
and an aifectionately written letter of Gov. Cole's, who had formed 
his personal acquaintance in France in 1817. The General in reply 
said: " It has been my eager desire, and it is now my earnest inten- 
tion, to visit the Western States, and particularly the State of Illi- 
nois. The feelings which your distant welcome could not fail to 
excite have increased that patriotic eagerness to admire on that 
blessed spot the happy and rapid results of republican institutions, 
public and domestic virtues. I shall, after the 22d of February 
(anniversary day), leave here for a journey to the Southern States, 
and from New Orleans to the "Western States, so as to return to 
Boston on the 14th of June, when the corner-stone of the Bunker 
Hill monument is to be laid, — a ceremonv sacred to the whole Union 
and in which I have been engaged to act a peculiar and honorable 


General LaFajette and suite, attended by a large delegation of 
prominent citizens of Missouri, made a visit by the steamer Natcb. 
ez to the ancient town of Kaskaskia. No military parade was 
attempted, but a multitude of patriotic citizens made him welcome. 
A reception was held, Gov. Cole delivering a glowing address of 
welcome. During the progress of a grand ball held that night, a 
very interesting interview took place between the honored General 
and an Indian squaw whose father had served under him in the 
Eevolutionary war. The squaw, learning that the great white chief 
was to be at Kaskaskia on that night, had ridden all day, from early 
dawn till sometime in the night, from her distant home, to see 
the man whose name had been so often on her father's tongue, and 
with which she was so familiar. In identification of her claim to 
his distinguished acquaintance, she brought with her an old, worn 
letter which the General had written to her father, and which the 
Indian chief had preserved with great care, and finally bequeathed 
on his death-bed to his daughter as the most precious legacy he had 
to leave her. 

By 12 o'clock at night Gen. LaFayette returned to his boat and 
started South. The boat was chartered by the State. 


In the year 1822 the term of ofiice of the first Governor, Shadrach 
Bond, expired. Two parties sprung up at this time, — one favorable, 
the other hostile, to the introduction of slaver}^, each proposing a 
candidate of its own for Governor. Both parties worked hard to 
secure the election of their respective candidates ; but the people at 
large decided, as they ever have been at heart, in favor of a free 
State. Edward Coles, an anti-slavery man, was elected, although a 
majority of the Legislature were opposed to him. The subject of 
principal interest during his administration was to make Illinois a 
slave State. The greatest effort was made in 1S24, and the propo- 
sition was defeated at the polls by a majority of 1,800. The aggre- 
gate vote polled was 11,612, l)eing about 6,000 larger than at the 
previous State election. African slaves were first introduced into 
Illinois in 1Y20 by Renault, a Frenchman. 

Senator Duncan, afterward Governor, presented to the Legisla- 
ture of 1824-5 a bill for the support of schools by a public tax; and 
WiUiam S. Hamilton presented another bill requiring a tax to be 



nsed for the purpose of constructing and repairing the roads, — both 
of which bills passed and became laws. But although these laws 
conferred an incalculable benetit upon the public, the very name of 
a tax was so odious to the people that, rather than pay a tax of the 
smallest possible amount, they preferred working as they formerly 
did, five days during the year on the roads, and would allow their 
children to grow up without any instruction at all. Consequently 
both laws were abolished in 1826. 

In the year 1826 the office of Governor became again vacant. 
Ninian Edwards, Adolphus F. Hubbard and Thomas C. Sloe were 
candidates. Edwards, though the successful candidate, had made 
himself many enemies by urging strict inquiries to be made into 
the corruption of the State bank, so that had it not been for his 
talents and noble personal appearance, he would most probably not 
have been elected. Hubbard was a man of but little personal merit. 
Of him tradition has preserved, among other curious sayings, a 
speech on a bill granting a bounty on wolf-scalps. This speech, 
delivered before the Legislature, is as follows: "Mr. Speaker, I rise 
before the question is put on this bill, to say a word for my constit- 
uents. Mr. Speaker, I have never seen a wolf. I cannot say that 
I am very well acquainted with the nature and habits of wolves. 
Mr. Speaker, I have said that I had never seen a wolf; but now I 
remember that once on a time, as Judge Brown and I were riding 
across the Bonpas prairie, we looked over the prairie about three 
miles, and Judge Brown said, ' Hubbard, look! there goes a wolf; ' 
and I looked, and 1 looked, and I looked, and I said, 'Judge, where?' 
and he said, 'There!' And I looked again, and this time in the 
edge of a hazel thicket, about three miles across the prairie, I think 
I saw the wolf's tail. Mr. Speaker, if I did not see a wolf that 
time, I think I never saw one; but I have heard much, and read 
more, about this animal. I have studied his natural history. 

"By the bye, history is divided into two parts. There is first 
the history of the fabulous; and secondly, of the non-fabulous, or 
unknown age. Mr. Speaker, from all these sources of information 
I learn that the wolf is a very noxious animal ; that he goes prowl- 
ing about, seeking something to devour; that he rises up in the 
dead and secret hours of night, when all nature reposes in silent 
oblivion, and then commits the most terrible devastation upon the 
rising generation of hogs and sheep. 


" Mr, Speaker, I have done ; and I return my thanks to the house 
for their kind attention to my remarks." 

Gov. Edwards was a large and well-made man, with a noble, 
princely appearance. Of him Gov. Ford says: "Ke never con- 
descended to the common low art of electioneering. Whenever he 
went out among the people he arrayed himself in the style of a 
gentleman of the olden time, dressed in fine broadcloth, with short 
breeches, long stockings, and high, fair- topped boots; was drawn in 
a fine carriage driven by a negro; and for success he relied upon his 
speeches, which were delivered in great pomp and in style of diffuse 
and florid eloquence. When he was inaugurated in 1826, he 
appeared before the General Assembly wearing a golden-laced cloak, 
and with great pomp pronounced his first message to the houses 
of the Legislature." 


Demagogism had an early development. One John Grammar, 
who was elected to the Territorial Legislature in 1816, and held the 
position for about twenty years, invented the policy of opposing 
every new thing, saying, " If it succeeds, no one will ask who 
voted against it: if it proves a failure, he could quote its record." 
When first honored with a seat in the Assembly, it is said that 
he lacked the apparel necessary for a member of the Legislature, 
and in order to procure them he and his sons gathered a large 
quantity of hazel-nuts, which were taken to the Ohio Saline and 
sold for cloth to make a coat and pantaloons. The cloth was the 
blue strouding commonly used by the Indians. 

The neighboring women assembled to make up the garments; the 
cloth was measured every way, — across, lengthwise, and from corner 
to corner,— and still was found to be scant. It was at last con- 
cluded to make a very short, bob-tailed coat and a long pair of leg- 
gins, which being finished, Mr. Grammar started for the State 
capital. In sharp contrast with Grammar was the character of D. 
P. Cook, in honor of whom Cook county was named. Such was 
his transparent integrity and remarkable ability that his will was 
almost the law of the State. In Congress, a young man and from 
a poor State, he was made Chairman of the Ways and Means Com- 
mittee. He was pre-eminent for standing by his committee, regard- 
less of consequences. It was his integrity that elected John Quincy 


Adams to the Presidency. There were four candidates in 1824, 
Jackson, Clay, Crawford and Adams. There being no choice by 
the people, the election was thrown into the House. It was so bal- 
anced that it turned on his vote, and that he cast for Adams, elect- 
ing him. He then came home to face the wrath of the Jackson 
party in Illinois. 

The first mail route in the State was established in 1805. This 
was from Vincennes to Cahokia. In 182-1 there was a direct mail 
route from Yandalia to Springfield. The first route irom the central 
part of the State to Chicago was established in 1832, from Shelby- 
ville. The difliculties and dangers encountered by the early mail 
carriers, in time of Indian troubles, were very serious. The bravery 
and ingenious devices of Harry Milton are mentioned with special 
commendation. When a boy, in 1812, he conveyed the mail on a 
wild French pony from Shawneetown to St. Louis, over swollen 
streams and through the enemy's country. So infrequent and 
irregular were the communications by mail a great part of the time, 
that to-day, even the remotest part of the United States is unable to 
appreciate it by example. 

The first newspaper published in Illinois was the Illinois Herald, 
established at Kaskaskia by Mathew Duncan. There is some va- 
riance as to the exact time of its establisliment. Gov. Reynolds 
claimed it was started in 1809. Wm. H. Brown, afterwards its 
editor, gives the date as 1814. 

In 1831 the criminal code was first adapted to penitentiary pun- 
ishment, ever since which time the old system of whipping and 
pillory for the punishment of criminals has been disused. 

There was no legal rate of interest till 1830. Previously the rate 
often reached as high as 150 per cent., but was usually 50 per cent. 
Then it was reduced to 12, then to 10, and lastly to 8 per cent. 



The Indians, who for some years were on peaceful terras with 
the whites, became troublesome in 1827. The Winnebagoes, Sacs 
and Foxes and other tribes had been at war for more than a hun- 
dred years. In the summer of 1827 a war party of the "Winnebagoes 
surprised a party of Chippewas and killed eight of them. Four 


of the murderers were arrested and delivered to the Chippewas, 
by whom they were immediately shot. This was the first irritation 
of the Winnebagoes. Red Bird, a chief of this tribe, in order to 
avenge the execution of the four warriors of his own people, attacked 
the Chippewas, but was defeated; and being determined to satisfy 
his thirst for revenge by some means, surprised and killed several 
white men. Upon receiving intelligence of these murders, the 
whites who were working the lead mines in the vicinity of Galena 
formed a body of volunteers, and, re-inforced by a company of United 
States troops, marched into the country of the Winnebagoes. To 
save their nation from the miseries of war, E,ed Bird and six other 
men of his nation voluntarily surrendered themselves. Some of 
the number were executed, some of them imprisoned and destined, 
like Red Bird, ingloriously to pine away within the narrow confines 
of a jail, when formerly the vast forests had proven too limited for 


In August, 1S30, another gubernatorial election was held. The 
candidates were William Kinney, then Lieutenant Governor, and 
John Reynolds, formerly an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, 
both Jackson Democrats. The opposition brought forward no can- 
didate, as they were in a helpless minority. Reynolds was the 
successful candidate, and under his administration was the famous 


In the year of 1804 a treaty was concluded between the United 
States and the chiefs of the Sac and Fox nations. One old chief of 
the Sacs, however, called Black Hawk, who had fought with great 
bravery in the service of Great Britain during the war of 1812, had 
always taken exceptions to this treaty, pronouncing it void. In 1831 
he established himself, with a chosen band of warriors, upon the dis- 
puted territory, ordering the whites to leave the country at once. The 
settlers complaining, Gov. Reynolds dispatched Gen. Gaines, with a 
company of regulars and 1,500 volunteers, to the scene of action. 
Taking the Indians by surprise, the troops burnt their villages and 
forced them to conclude a treaty, by which they ceded all lands east 
of the Mississippi, and agreed to remain on the western side of the 
river. Necessity forced the proud spirit of Black Hawk into 
submission, which made him more than ever determined to be 



avenged upoi: his enemies. Having rallied around him the warlike 
braves of the Sac, and Fox nations, he crossed the Mississippi in the 
spring of lo32. Upon hearing of the invasion, Gov. Reynolds 
hastily collect.- ' a body of 1,800 volunteers, placing them under the 
command >i iJiig-Gen. Samuel Whiteside. 

stillman's run. 

The army marched to the Mississippi, and having reduced to 
ashes the Indian village known as ''Prophet's Town,'' proceeded 
for several miles up the river to Dixon, to join the regular forces 
under Gen. Atkinson. They found at Dixon two companies of 
volunteers, who, sigliing for glory, were dispatched to reconnoiter 
the enemy. They advanced under command of Maj. Stillman, to a 
creek afterwards called "Stillman's run;" and while encamping 
there saw a party of mounted Indians at the distance of a mile. 
Several of Silllman's party mounted their horses and charged the 
Indians, killing three of them; but, attacked by the main body 
under Black Ilawk, they were routed, and by their precipitate 
flight spread such a panic through the camp that the whole company 
ran off to Dixon as fast as their legs could carry them. On their 
arrival it was found that there had been eleven killed. The party 
came s':;iggling into camp all night long, four or five at a time, 
each sqiM i positive that all who were left behind were massacred. 

It is fa.ii 1 that a big, tall Kentuckian, with a loud voice, who 
was a coloirji !;f the militia but a private with Stillman, upon. his 
arrival in ca.r.'- gave to Gen. Whiteside and the wondering multi- 
tude the foil'/.. ins: o-lowins: and bombastic account of the battle: 
"Sirs," sai'l lie, "our detachment was encamped among some scat- 
tering timber on the north side of Old Man's creek, with the prairie 
from the north gently sloping down to our encampment. It was 
just after twiliglit, in the gloaming of the evening, when we dis- 
covered Black Hawk's army coming down upon us in solid column; 
they displayed in the form of a crescent upon the brow of the prai- 
rie, and such accuracy and precision of military movements were 
never witnessed by tnan; they were equal to the best troops of 
Wellington in Spain. . have said that the Indians came down in 
solid columns, and dis;>layed in the form of a crescent; and what was 
most wonderful, there were large squares of cavalry resting upon 
the points of the curve, which squares were supported again by 


other columns fifteen deep, extending back through the woods and 
over a swamp three-quarters of a mile, which again rested on the 
main body of Black Hawk's army bivouacked upon the banks of the 
Kishwakee. It was a terrible and a glorious sight to see the tawny 
warriors as they rode along our flanks attempting to outflank us, 
with the glittering moonbeams glistening from their polished blades 
and burnished spears. It was a sight well calculated to strike con- 
sternation in the stoutest and boldest heart; and accordingly our 
men soon began to break in small squads, for tall timber. In a 
very little time the rout became general, the Indians were soon 
upon our flanks and threatened the destruction of our entire detach- 
ment. About this time Maj. Stillman, Col. Stephenson, Maj. 
Perkins, Capt. Adams, Mr. Hackelton, and myself, with some 
others, threw ourselves into the rear to rally the fugitives and pro- 
tect the retreat. But in a short time all my companions fell 
bravely fighting hand-to-hand with the savage enemy, and I alone 
was left upon the field of battle. About this time I discovered not 
far to the left a corps of horsemen which seemed to be in tolerable 
order. I immediately deployed to the left, when, leaning down and 
placing my body in a recumbent posture upon the mane of my 
horse so as to bring the heads of the horsemen between my eye 
and the horizon, I discovered by the light of the moon that they 
were gentlemen who did not wear hats, by which token I knew they 
were no friends of mine. I therefore made a retrogade movement 
and recovered my position, where I remained some time meditating 
what further I could do in the service of my country, when a ran- 
dom ball came whistling by my ear and plainly whispered to me, 
' Stranger, you have no further business here.' Upon hearing this I 
followed the example of my companions in arras, and broke for 
tall timber, and the way I ran was not a little." 

For a long time afterward Maj. Stillnan and his men were sub- 
jects of ridicule and merriment, which was as undeserving as their 
expedition was disastrous. Stillman's defeat spread consternation 
throughout the State and nation. The number of Indians was 
greatly exaggerated, and the name of Black Hawk carried with it 
associations of great military talent, savage cunning and cruelty. 


A regiment sent to spy out the country between Galena and Eock 
Island was surprised by a party of seventy Indians, and was on the 


point of being thrown into disorder when Gen. Whiteside, then 
serving as a private, shouted out that he would shoot the first man 
who should turn his back to the enemy. Order being restored, the 
battle began. At its very outset Gen. Whiteside shot the leader of 
the Indians, who thereupon commenced a hasty retreat. 

In June, 1832, Black Hawk, with a band of 150 warriors, attack- 
ed the Apple River Fort, near Galena, defended by 25 men. This 
fort, a mere palisade of logs, was erected to afford protection to the 
miners. For fifteen consecutive hours the garrison had to sustain 
the assault of the savage enemy ; but knowing very well that no 
quarter would be given them, they fought with such fury and des- 
peration that the Indians, after losing many of their best warriors, 
were compelled to retreat. 

Another party of eleven Indians murdered two men near Fort 
Hamilton. They were afterwards overtaken by a company of 
twenty men and every one of them was killed. 


A new regiment, under the command of Gen. Atkinson, assem- 
bled on the banks of the Illinois in the latter part of June. Maj. 
Dement, with a small party, was sent out to reconnoittr the move- 
ments of a large body of Indians, whose endeavors to surround him 
made it advisable for him to retire. Upon hearing of this engage- 
ment, Gen. Atkinson sent a detachment to intercept the Indians, 
while he with the main body of his army, moved north to meet the 
Indians under Black Hawk. They moved slowly and cautiously 
through the country, passed through Turtle village, and marched 
up along Bock river. On their arrival news was brought of the 
discovery of the main trail of the Indians. Considerable search 
was made, but they were unable to discover any vestige of Indians 
save two who had shot two soldiers the day previous. 

Hearing that Black Hawk was encamped on Bock river, at the 
Manitou village, they resolved at once to advance upon the enemy; 
but in the execution of their design they met with opposition from 
their officers and men. The officers of Gen. Henry handed to him 
a written protest; but he, a man equal to any emergency, ordered 
the officers to be arrested and escorted to Gen. Atkinson. Within 
a few minutes after the stern order was given, the officers all collected 
around the General's quarters, many of them with tears in their 


eyes, pledging themselves that if forgiven they would return to duty 
and never do the like again. The General rescinded the order, and 
they at once resumed duty. 


Gen. Henry marched on the 15th of July in pursuit of the 
Indians, reaching Rock river after three days' journey, where he 
learned Black Hawk was encamped further up the river. On July 
19th the troops were ordered to commence their march. After 
having made fifty miles, they were overtaken by a terrible thunder- 
storm which lasted all night. Notliing cooled, however, in their 
courage and zeal, they marched again fifty miles the next dav, 
encamping near the place where the Indians had encamped the 
night before. Hurrying along as fast as they could, the infantry 
keeping up an equal pace with the mounted force, the troops on the 
morning of the 21st crossed the river connecting two of the four 
lakes, by which the Indians had been endeavoring to escape. They 
found, on their way, the ground strewn with kettles and articles of 
baggage, which the haste of their retreat had obliged the Indians 
to throw away. The troops, inspired with new ardor, advanced so 
rapidly that at noon they fell in with the rear guard of the Indians. 
Those who closely pursued them were saluted with a sudden 
fire of musketry by a body of Indians who had concealed them- 
selves in the high grass of the prairie. A most desperate charge 
was made upon the Indians, who, unable to resist, retreated 
obliquely, in order to out-flank the volunteers on the right; but the 
latter charged the Indians in their ambush, and expelled them 
from their thickets at the point of the bayonet, and dispersed them. 
Night set in and the battle ended, having cost the Indians 6S of 
their bravest men, while the loss of the Illiuoisans amounted to but 
one killed and 8 wounded. 

Soon after this battle Gens. Atkinson and Henry joined their 
forces and pursued the Indians. Gen. Henry struck the main trail, 
left his horses behind, formed an advance guard of eight men, 
and marched forward upon their trail. When these eio-ht men 
came within sight of .the river, they were suddenly fired upon and 
five of them killed, the remaining three maintaining their ground 
till Gen. Henry came up. Then the Indians, charged upon with 
the bayonet, fell back upon their main force. The battle now 


became general; the Indians fought with desperate valor, but were 
furiously assailed by the volunteers with their bayonets, cutting 
many of the Indians to pieces and driving the rest into the river. 
Those who escaped from being drowned took refuge on an island. On 
hearing the frequent discharge of musketry, indicating a general 
engagement, Gen. Atkinson abandoned the pursuit of the twenty 
Indians under Black Hawk himself, and hurried to the scene of 
action, where he arrived too late to take part in the battle. He 
immediately forded the river with his troops, the water reaching 
up to their necks, and landed on the island where the Indians had 
secreted themselves. The soldiers rushed upon the Indians, killed 
several 'of them, took others prisoner, and chased the rest into 
the river, where they were either drowned or shot before reaching 
the opposite shore. Thus ended the battle, the Indians losing 300 
besides 50 prisoners; the whites but 17 killed and 12 wounded. 


Many painful incidents occurred during this battle. A Sac 
woman, the sister of a warrior of some notoriety, found herself in 
the thickest of the fight, but at length succeeded in reaching the 
river, when, keeping her infant child safe in its blankets by means 
of her teeth, she plunged into the water, seized the tail of a horse 
with her hands whose rider was swimming the stream, and was 
drawn safely across. A young squaw during the battle was stand- 
ing in the grass a short distance from the American line, holding 
her child — a little girl of four years — in her arms. In this posi- 
tion a ball struck the right arm of the child, shattering the bone, 
and passed into the breast of the young mother, instantly killing 
her. She fell upon the child and confined it to the ground till the 
Indians were driven from that part of the field. Gen. Anderson, 
of the United States army, hearing its cries, went to the spot, took 
it from under the dead body and carried it to the surgeon to have 
its wound dressed. The arm was amputated, and during the oper- 
ation the half-starved child did not cry, but sat quietly eating a 
hard piece of biscuit. It was sent to Prairie du Chien, where it 
entirely recovered. 


Black Hawk, with his twenty braves, retreated up the Wisconsin. 
river. The Winnebagoes, desirous of securing the friendship of 


the whites, went in pursuit and captured and delivered them to 
Gen. Street, the United States Indian agent. Among the prisoners 
were the son of Black Hawk and the prophet of the tribe. These 
with Black Hawk were taken to Washington, D. C, and soon con- 
signed as prisoners at Fortress Monroe. 

At the interview Black Hawk had with the President, he closed 
his speech delivered on the occasion in the following words: " We 
did not expect to conquer the whites. They have too many houses, 
too many men. I took up the hatchet, for my part, to revenge 
injuries which my people could no longer endure. Had I borne 
them longer without striking, my people would have said, ' Black 
Hawk is a woman; he is too old to be a chief; he is no Sac' These 
reflections caused me to raise the war-whoop. I say no more. It 
is known to you. Keokuk once was here; you took him by the 
hand, and when he wished to return to his home, you were willing. 
Black Hawk expects, like Keokuk, he shall be permitted to return 


Black Hawk, or Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah, was born in the prin- 
cipal Sac village, near the junction of Eock river with tlie Missis- 
sippi, in the year 1767. His father's name was Py-e-sa. Black 
Hawk early distinguished himself as a warrior, and at the age of 
fifteen was permitted to paint, and was ranked among the braves. 
About the year 1783 he went on an expedition against the enemies 
of his nation, the Osages, one of whom he killed and scalped; and 
for this deed of Indian bravery he was permitted to join in the 
scalp dance. Three or four years afterward he, at the head of two 
hundred braves, went on another expedition against the Osages, to 
avenge the murder of some women and children belonging to his 
own tribe. Meeting an equal number of Osage warriors, a fierce 
battle ensued in which the latter tribe lost one-half their number. 
The Sacs lost only about nineteen warriors. He next attacked the 
Cherokees for a similar cause. In a severe battle with them near 
the present city of St. Louis his father was slain, and Black Hawk, 
taking possession of the " Medicine Bag," at once announced him- 
self chief of the Sac nation. He had now conquered the Cherokees, 
and about the year 1800, at the head of five hundred Sacs and 
Foxes and a hundred lowas, he waged war against the Osage 


nation, and subdued it. For two years he battled successfully with 
Other Indian tribes, all of which he conquered. 

The year following the treaty at St. Louis, in 1804, the United 
States Government erected a fort near the head of Des Moines 
Kapids, called Fort Edwards. This seemed to enrage Black Hawk, 
who at once determined to capture Fort Madison, standing on the 
west side of the Mississippi, above the mouth of the Des Moines. 
The fort was garrisoned by about fifty men. Here he was defeated. 
The difliculties with the British Government arose about this time, 
and the war of 1812 followed. That government, extending aid to 
the Western Indians, induced them to remain hostile to the Ameri- 
cans. In August, 1812, Black Hawk, at the head of about five 
hundred braves, started to join the British forces at Detroit, passing 
on his way the site of Chicago, where the famous Fort Dearborn 
massacre had a few days before been perpetrated. Of his con- 
nection with the British but little is known. 

In the early part of 1815, the Indians west of the Mississippi 
were notified that peace had been declared between the United 
States and England, and nearly all hostilities had ceased. Black 
Hawk did not sign any treaty, however, until May of the following 
year. From the time of signing this treaty, in 1816, until the 
breaking out of the Black Hawk war, he and his band passed their 
time in the common pursuits of Indian life. 

Ten years before the commencement of this war, the Sac and 
Fox Indians were urged to move to the west of the Mississippi. 
All were agreed, save the band known as the Britisli Band, of which 
Black Hawk was leader. He strongly objected to the removal, and 
was induced to comply only after being threatened by the Govern- 
ment. This action, and various others on the part of the white 
settlers, provoked Black Hawk and his band to attempt the capture 
of his native village, now occupied by the whites. The war fol- 
lowed. He and his actions were undoubtedly misunderstood, and 
had his wishes been complied with at tlie beginning of the struggle, 
much bloodshed would have been prevented. 


By order of the President, Black Hawk and his companions, 
who were in confinement at Fortress Monroe, were set free on the 
4th day of June, 1833. Before leaving the fort Black Hawk 


made the following farewell speecli to the commander, which is not 
only eloquent but shows that within his chest of steel there beat a 
heart keenly alive to the emotions of gratitude: 

" Brother, I have come on my own part, and in behalf of my 
companions, to bid you farewell. Our great father has at length 
been pleased to permit us to return to our hunting grounds. We 
have buried the tomahawk, and the sound of the rifle hereafter will 
only bring death to the deer and the buffalo. Brothers, you have 
treated the red man very kindly. Your squaws have made them 
presents, and you have given them plenty to eat and drink. The 
memory of your friendship will remain till the Great Spirit says it 
is time for Black Hawk to sing his death song. Brother, your 
houses are as numerous as the leaves on the trees, and ycur young 
warriors like the sands upon the shore of the big lake that rolls 
before us. The red man has but few houses and few warriors, but 
the red man has a heart which throbs as warmly as the heart of his 
white brother. The Great Spirit has given us our hunting grounds, 
and the skin of the deer which we kill there is his favorite, for its 
color is white, and this is the emblem of peace. This hunting 
dress and these feathers of the eagle are white. Accept them, my 
brother. I have given one like this to the "White Otter. Accept it as 
a memorial of Black Hawk. When he is far away this will serve 
to remind you of him. May the Great Spirit bless you and your 
children. Farewell." 

After their release from prison they were conducted, in charge 
of Major Garland, through some of the principal cities, that 
they might witness the power of the United States and learn 
their own inability to cope with them in war. Great multitudes 
flocked to see them wherever they were taken, and the attention 
paid them rendered their progress through the country a triumphal 
procession, instead of the transportation of prisoners by an officer. 
At Eock Island the prisoners were given their liberty, amid great 
and impressive ceremony. In 1S38 Black Hawk built him a 
dwellino- near Des Moines, Iowa, and furnished it after the manner 
of the whites, and engaged in agricultural pursuits and hunting and 
fishing. Here, with his wife, to whom he was greatly attached, he 
passed the few remaining days of his life. To his credit, it may be 
said, that Black Hawk remained true to his wife, and served her 


with a devotion uncommon among Indians, living with her up- 
ward of forty years. 


At all times when Black Hawk visited the whites he was 
received with marked attention. He was an honored guest at the 
old settlers' re- union in Lee county, Illinois, at some of their 
meetings and received many tokens of esteem. In September, 
1838, while on his way to Kock Island to receive his annuity from 
the Government, he contracted a severe cold which resulted in a 
fatal attack of bilious fever, and terminated his life October 3. 
After his death, he was dressed in the uniform presented to him by 
the President while in Washington. He was buried in a grave six 
feet in depth, situated upon a beautiful eminence. The body was 
placed in the middle of the grave, in a sitting posture upon a seat 
constructed for the purpose. On his left side the cane given him 
by Henry Clay was placed upright, with his right hand resting 
upon it. Thus, after a long, adventurous and shifting life, Black 
Hawk was gathered to his fathers. 

FROM 1834 TO 1842. 


'No sooner was the Black Hawk war concluded than settlers 
began rapidly to pour into the northern part of Illinois, now free 
from Indian depredations. Chicago, from a trading post, had 
grown into a commercial center, and was rapidly coming into 

At the general election in 1834 Joseph Duncan was chosen 
Governor, by a handsome majority. His principal opponent was 
ex-Lieutenant Governor Kinney. A reckless and uncontrollable 
desire for internal public improvements seized the minds of the 
people. In his message to the Legislature, in 1835, Gov. Duncan 
said: " "When we look abroad and see the extensive lines of inter- 
communication penetrating almost every section of our sister States; 
when we see the canal boat and the locomotive bearing with seem- 
ing triumph the rich productions of the interior to the rivers, lakes 
and ocean, almost annihilating time, burthen and space, what 
patriot bosom does not beat high with a laudable ambition to give 
Illinois her full share of those advantages which are adorning her 


sister States, and which a magnificent Providence seems to invite 
bj a wonderful adaptation of our whole country to such improve- 
ments ? " 


The Legislature responded to the ardent words of the Governor, 
and enacted a system of internal improvements without a parallel 
in the grandeur of its conception. They ordered the construction 
of 1,300 miles of railroad, crossing the State in all directions. 
This was surpassed by the river and canal improvements. There 
were a few counties not touched by railroad, or river or canal, and 
they were to be comforted and compensated by the free distribution 
of $200,000 among them. To inflate this balloon bej'ond credence, it 
was ordered that work should commence on both ends of each of these 
railroads and rivers, and at each river-crossing, all at the same time. 
This provision, which has been called the crowning folly of the 
entire system, was the result of those jealous combinations ema- 
nating from the fear that advantages might accrue to one section 
over another in the commencement and completion of the works. 
We can appreciate better, perhaps, the magnitude of this grand 
system by reviewing a few figures. The debt authorized for these 
improvements in the first instance was $10,230,000. But this, as 
it was soon found, was based upon estimates at least too low by 
half. This, as we readily see, committed the State to a liability of 
over $20,000,000, equivalent to $200,000,000, at the present time, 
with over ten times the population and more than ten times the 

Such stupendous undertakings by the State naturally engendered 
the fever of speculation among individuals. That particular form 
known as the town-lot fever assumed the malignant type at first in 
Chicago, from whence it spead over the entire State and adjoining 
States, It was an epidemic. It cut up men's farms without regard 
to locality, and cut up the purses of the purchasers without regard 
to consequences. It was estimated that building lots enough were 
sold in Indiana alone to accommodate every citizen then in the 
United States. 

Chicago, which in 1830 was a small trading-post, had within a 
few years grown into a city. This was the starting point of the 
wonderful and marvelous career of that city. Improvements, 


unsurpassed by individual efforts in tlie annals of the world, were 
then begun and have been maintained to this daj. Though visited 
by the terrible fire fiend and the accumulations of years swept 
away in a night, yet she has arisen, and to-day is the best built city 
in the world. Eeports of the rapid advance of property in Chicago 
spread to the East, and thousands poured into her borders, bringing 
money, enterprise and industry. Every ship that left her port 
carried with it maps of splendidly situated towns and additions, 
and every vessel that returned was laden with immigrants. It was 
said at the time that the staple articles of Illinois export were town 
pleats, and that there was danger of crowding the State with towns 
to the exclusion of land for agriculture. 


The Illinois and Michigan canal again received attention. This 
enterprise is one of the most important in the early development 
of Illinois, on account of its magnitude and cost, and forming 
as it does the connectina: link between the great chain of lakes and 
the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Gov. Bond, the first Governor, 
recommended in his first message the building of the canal. In 
1821 the Legislature appropriated $10,000 for surveying the route. 
This work was performed by two young men, who estimated the 
cost at $600,000 or $700,000. It cost, however, when completed, 
$8,000,000. In 1825 a law was passed to incorporate the Canal 
Company, but no stock was sold. In 1826, upon the solicitation of 
Daniel P. Cook, Congressman from this State, Congress gave 
800,000 acres of land on the line of the work. In 1828 commis- 
sioners were appointed, and work commenced with a new survey 
and new estimates. In 1834-5 the work was again pushed forward, 
and continued until 1818, when it was completed. 


Bonds of the State were recklessly disposed of both in the East 
and in Europe. Work was commenced on various lines of railroad, 
but none were ever completed. On the Northern Cross Railroad, 
from Meredosia east eight miles, the first locomotive that ever 
turned a wheel in the great valley of the Mississippi, W'as run. 
The date of this remarkable event was Nov. 8, 1838. Large sums 
of money were being expended with no assurance of a revenue, 


and consequently, in 1840, the Legislature repealed the improve- 
ment laws passed three years previously, not, however, until the 
State had accumulated a debt of nearly $15,000,000. Thus fell, 
after a short but eventful life, by the hands of its creator, the most 
stupendous, extravagant and almost ruinous folly of a grand sys- 
tem of internal improvements that any civil community, perhaps, 
ever engaged in. The State banks failed, specie was scarce, an 
enormous debt was accumulated, the interest of which could not 
be paid, people were disappointed in the accumulation of wealth, 
and real estate was worthless. All this had a tendency to create a 
desire to throw off the heavy burden of State debt by repudiation. 
This was boldly advocated by some leading men. The fair fame 
and name, however, of the State was not tarnished by repudiation. 
Men, true, honest, and able, were placed at the head of affairs; and 
though the hours were dark and gloomy, and the times most try- 
ing, yet our grand old State was brought through and prospered, 
until to-day, after the expenditure of millions for public improve- 
ments and for carrying on the late war, she has, at present, a debt 
of only about $300,000. 


The year 1837 is memorable for the death of the first martyr for 
liberty, and the abolishment of American slavery, in the State. 
Elijah P. Lovejoy was shot by a mob in Alton, on the night of the 
Yth of November of that year. He was at the time editor of the 
Alton Ohaerver, and advocated anti-slavery principles in its 
columns. For this practice three of his presses had been destroyed. 
On the arrival of the fourth the tragedy occurred which cost him 
his life. In anticipation of its arrival a series of meetings were 
held in which the friends of freedom and of slavery were represented. 
The object was to effect a compromise, but it was one in which 
liberty was to make concessions to oppression. In a speech made 
at one of these meetings, Lovejoy said: "Mr. Chairman, what 
have I to compromise? If freely to forgive those who have so greatly 
injured me; if to pray for their temporal and eternal happiness; if 
still to wish for the prosperity of your city and State, notwith- 
standing the indignities I have suffered in them, — if this be the 
compromise intended, then do I willingly make it, I do not admit 
that it is the business of any body of men to say whether I shall 



or shall not publish a paper in this city. That right was given to 
me by my Creator, and is solemnly guaranteed by the Constitution 
of the United States and of this State. But if by compromise is 
meant that 1 shall cease from that which duty requires of me, I 
cannot make it, and the reason is, that I fear God more than man. 
It is also a very different question, whether I shall, voluntarily or 
at the request of my frieuds, yield up my position, or whether 
I shall forsake it at the hands of a mob. The former I am readv at 
all times to do when circumstances require it, as I will never put 
my personal wishes or interests in competition with the cause of 
that Master whose minister I am. But the latter, be assured I 
never will do. You have, as lawyers say, made a false issue. There 
are no two parties between whom there can be a compromise. I 
plant myself down on my unquestionable rights, and the ques- 
tion to be decided is, whether I shall be protected in those rights. 
You may hang me, as the mob hung the individuals at Vicksburg; 
you may burn me at the stake, as they did old Mcintosh at St. 
Louis; or, you may tar and feather me, or throw me into the Mis- 
sissippi as you have threatened to do; but you cannot disgrace me. 
I, and I alone, can disgrace myself, and the deepest of all disgrace 
would be at a time like this to deny my Maker by forsaking his 
cause. He died for me, and I were most unworthy to bear his 
name should I refuse, if need be, to die for him.'''' Not long 
afterward Mr. Lovejoy was shot. His brother Owen, being pres- 
ent on the occasion, kneeled down on the spot beside the corpse, 
and sent up to God, in the hearing of that very mob, one of the 
most eloquent prayers ever listened to by mortal ear. He was bold 
enough to pra}'- to God to take signal vengeance on the infernal 
institution of slavery, and he then and there dedicated his life to 
the work of overthrowing it, and hoped to see the day when slavery 
existed no more in this nation. He died, March 24, 1864, nearly 
three months after the Emancipation Proclamation of President 
Lincoln took effect. Thus he lived to see his most earnest and 
devout prayer answered. But few men in the nation rendered bet- 
ter service in overthrowing the institution of slavery than Elijah 
P. and Owen Lovejoy. 


Thomas Carlin, Democrat, was elected Governor in 1838, over 
Cyrus Edwards, Whig. In 1842 Adam W. Snyder was nominated 


for Governor on the Democratic ticket, but died before election, 
Thomas Ford was placed in nomination, and was elected, ex-Gov- 
ernor Duncan being his opponent. 


The northern part of the State also had its mob experiences, but 
of an entirely different nature from the one just recounted. There 
has always hovered around the frontier of civilization bold, desper- 
ate men, who prey upon the unprotected settlers rather than gain 
a livelihood by honest toil. Theft, robbery and murder were car- 
ried on by regularly organized bands in Ogle, Lee, Winnebago and 
DeKalb counties. The leaders of these gangs of cut-throats were 
among the first settlers of that portion of the State, and conse- 
quent! v had the choice of location. Among the most prominent of 
the leaders were John Driscoll, "William and David, his sons; John 
Brodie and three of his sons; Samuel Aikens and three of his sons; 
William K. Bridge and Norton B. Boyce. 

These were the representative characters, those who planned 
and controlled the movements of the combination, concealed them 
when danger threatened, nursed them when sick, rested them when 
worn by fatigue and forced marches, furnished hiding places for 
their stolen booty, shared in the spoils, and, under cover of darkness 
and intricate and devious ways of travel, known only to themselves 
and subordinates, transferred stolen horses from station to station; 
for it came to be known as a well-established fact that they had 
stations, and agents, and watchmen scattered throughout the coun- 
try at convenient distances, and signals and pass-words to assist 
and p-overn them in all their nefarious transactions. 

Ogle county, particularly, seemed to be a favorite and chosen 
field for the operations of these outlaws, who could not be convicted 
for their crimes. By getting some of their number on the juries, 
by producing hosts of witnesses to sustain their defense by per- 
jured evidence, and by changing the venue from one county to 
another, and by continuances from term to term, they nearly always 
managed to be acquitted. At last these depredations became too 
common for longer endurance; patience ceased to be a virtue, and 
determined desperation seized the minds of honest men, and they 
resolved that if there were no statute laws that could protect them 


against the ravages of thieves, robbers and counterfeiters, they 
would protect themselves. It was a desperate resolve, and desper- 
ately and bloodily executed. 


At the Spring term of court, 1841, seven of the "Pirates of the 
Prairie," as they were called, were confined in the Ogle county jail 
to await trial. Preparatory to holding court, the judge and lawyers 
assembled at Oregon in their new , court-house, which had just 
been completed. Near it stood the county jail in which were the 
prisoners. The " Pirates " assembled Sunday night and set the 
court-house on fire, in the hope that as the prisoners would have to 
be removed from the jail, they might, in the hurry and confusion 
of the people in attending to the fire, make their escape. The 
whole population were awakened that dark and stormy night, to 
see their new court edifice enwrapped in flames. Although the 
building was entirely consumed, none of the prisoners escaped. 
Three of them were tried, convicted and sent to the penitentiary 
for a year. They had, however, contrived to get one of their num- 
ber on the jury, who would not agree to a verdict until threatened 
to be lynched. The others obtained a change of venue and were 
not convicted, and finally they all broke jail and escaped. 

Thus it was that the law was inadequate to the protection of the 
people. The best citizens held a meeting and entered into a solemn 
compact with each other to rid the country of the desperadoes that 
infested it. They were regularly organized and known as " Regu- 
lators." They resolved to notify all suspected parties to leave the 
country within a given time; if they did not comply, they would 
be severely dealt with. Their first victim was a man named Hurl, 
who was suspected of having stolen his neighbor's horse. He was 
ordered to strip, his hands were tied, when thirty-six lashes of a 
raw-hide were applied to his bare back. The next was a man 
named Daggett, formerly a Baptist preacher. He was sentenced 
to receive five hundred lashes on his bare back. He was stripped, 
and all was ready, when his beautiful daughter rushed into the 
midst of the men, begging for mercy for her father. Her appeals, 
with Daggett's promise to leave the country immediately, secured 
his release. That night, new crimes having been discovered, he 
was taken out and whipped, after which he left the country, never 
again to be heard from. 


The friends and comrades of the men who had been whipped 
were fearfull}' enraged, and swore eternal and bloodj vengeance. 
Eighty of them assembled one night soon after, and laid plans to 
visit White Rock and murder every man, woman and child in that 
hamlet. They started on this bloody mission, but were prevailed 
upon by one of their number to disband. Their coming, however, 
had been anticipated, and every man and boy in the town was 
armed to protect himself and his family. 


John Campbell, Captain of the '• Kegulators," received a letter 
from William Driscoll, filled with most direful threats, — not only 
threatening Campbell's life, but the life of any one who should 
oppose their murderous, thieving operations. Soon after the re- 
ceipt of this letter, two hundred of the "Regulators" marched to 
Driscoll's and ordered him to leave the county within twenty days, 
but he refused to comply with the order. One Sunday evening, 
just after this, Campbell was shot down in his own door-yard by 
David Driscoll. He fell in the arms of his wife, at which time 
Taylor Driscoll raised his rifle and pointed it toward her, but low- 
ered it without firing. 

News of this terrible crime spread like wild-fire. The very air 
was filled with threats and vengeance, and nothing but the lives of 
the murderous gang would pay the penalty. Old John Driscoll 
was arrested, was told to bid his family good-bye, and then with 
his son went out to his death. The "Regulators," numbering 111, 
formed a large circle, and gave the Driscolls a fair hearing. They 
were found guilty, and the " Regulators" divided into two "death 
divisions," — one, consisting of fifty-six, with rifles dispatched the 
father, the other fifty -five riddled and shattered the body of the 
son with balls from as many guns. The measures thus inaugu- 
rated to free the countrv from the dominion of outlaws was a last 
desperate resort, and proved eflectual. 


In April, 1840, the "Latter-Day Saints," or Mormons, came in 
large numbers to Illinois and purchased a tract of land on the east 
side of the Mississippi river, about ten miles above Keokuk. Here 
they commenced building the city of Nauvoo. A more picturesque 
or eligible site for a city could not have been selected. 


The origin, rapid development and prosperity of this religious 
sect are the most remarkable and instructive historical events of 
the present century. That an obscure individual, without money, 
education, or respectability, should persuade hundreds of thousands 
of people to believe him inspired of God, and cause a book, con- 
temptible as a literary production, to be received as a continuation 
of the sacred revelation, appears almost incredible; yet in less than 
half a century, the disciples of this obscure individual have in- 
creased to hundreds of thousands; have founded a State in the dis- 
tant wilderness, and compelled the Government of the United 
States to practically recognize them as an independent people. 


The founder of Mormonism was Joseph Smith, a native of Yer- 
mont, who emigrated while quite young with his father's family to 
western New York. Here his youth was spent in idle, vagabond 
life, roaming the woods, dreaming of buried treasures, and in en- 
deavoring to learn the art of finding them by the twisting of a 
forked stick in his hands, or by looking through enchanted stones. 
Both he and his father became famous as " water wizards," always 
ready to point out the spot where wells might be dug and water 
found. Such was the character of the young profligate when he 
made the acquaintance of Sidney Rigdon, a person of considerable 
talent and information, who had conceived the design of foundinsr 
a new religion. A religious romance, written by Mr. Spaulding, a 
Presbyterian preacher of Ohio, then dead, suggested the idea, and 
finding in Smith the requisite duplicity and cunning to reduce it 
to practice, it was agreed that he should act as prophet; and the 
two devised a story that gold plates had been found buried in the 
earth containing a record inscribed on them in unknown characters, 
which, when deciphered by the power of inspiration, gave the his- 
tory of the ten lost tribes of Israel. 


After their settlement in and about Nauvoo, in Hancock county, 
great depredations were committed by them on the " Gentiles." 
The Mormons had been received from Missouri with great kind- 
ness by the people of this State, and every possible aid granted 
them. The depredations committed, however, soon made them 


odious, when the question of getting rid of them was agitated. In 
the fall of 1841, the Governor of Missouri made a demand on Gov. 
Carlin for the arrest and delivery of Joe Smith as a fugitive from 
justice. An executive warrant issued for that purpose was placed 
in the hands of an agent to be executed, but was returned without 
being complied with. Soon afterward the Governor handed the 
same writ to his agent, who this time succeeded in arresting Joe 
Smith. He was, however, discharged by Judge Douglas, upon the 
grounds that the writ upon which he had been arrested had been 
once returned before it was executed, and was functus officio. In 
184:2 Gov. Carlin again issued his writ, Joe Smith was arrested 
again, and again escaped. Thus it will be seen it was impossible 
to reach and punish the leader of this people, who had been driven 
from Missouri because of their stealing, murdering and unjust 
dealing, and came to Illinois but to continue their depredations. 
Emboldened by success, the Mormons became more arrogant and 
overbearing. Many people began to believe that they were about 
to set up a separate government for themselves in defiance of the 
laws of the State. Owners of property stolen in other counties 
made pursuit into Kauvoo, and were fined by the Mormon courts 
for daring to seek their property in the holy city. But that which 
made it more certain than anything else that the Mormons con- 
templated a separate government, was that about this time they 
petitioned Congress to establish a territorial government for them 
in Nauvoo. 


To crown the whole folly of the Mormons, in the Spring of 1844 
Joe Smith announced himself as a candidate for President of the 
United States, and many of his followers were confident he would 
be elected. He next caused himself to be anointed king and 
priest, and to give character to his pretensions, he declared his 
lineage in an unbroken line from Joseph, the son of Jacob, and 
that of his wife from some other important personage of the ancient 
Hebrews. To strengthen his political power he also instituted a 
body of police styled the " Danite band," who were sworn to pro- 
tect his person and obey his orders as the commands of God. A 
female order previously existing in the church, called " Spiritual 
wives," was modified so as to suit the licentiousness of the prophet, 
A doctrine was revealed that it was impossible for a woman to get 


to heaven except as the wife of a Mormon elder; that each elder 
might marry as many women as he could maintain, and that any 
female might be sealed to eternal life by becoming their concubine. 
This licentiousness, the origin of polygamy in that church, they 
endeavored to justify by an appeal to Abraham, Jacob and other 
favorites of God in former ages of the world. 


Smith soon began to play the tyrant over his people. Among 
the first acts of this sort was an attempt to take the wife of Wil- 
liam Law, one of his most talented disciples, and make her his 
spiritual wife. He established, without authority, a recorder's 
office, and an office to issue marriage licenses. He proclaimed that 
none could deal in real estate or sell liquor but himself. He 
ordered a printing office demolished, and in many ways controlled 
the freedom and business of the Mormons. Not only did he stir up 
some of the Mormons, but by his reckless disregard for the laws of 
the land raised up opposition on every hand. It was believed that 
he instructed the Danite band, which he had chosen as the ministers 
of his vengeance, that no blood, except that of the church, was to 
be regarded as sacred, if it contravened the accomplishment of his 
object. It was asserted that he inculcated the legality of perjury 
and other crimes, if committed to advance the cause of true believ- 
ers; that Grod had given the world and all it contained to his saints, 
and since they were kept out of their rightful inheritance by force, 
it was no moral offense to get possession of it by stealing. It was 
reported that an establishment existed in Nauvoo for the manufac- 
ture of counterfeit money, and that a set of outlaws was maintained 
for the purpose of putting it in circulation. Statements were cir- 
culated to the effect that a reward was offered for the destruction of 
the Warsaw Signal, an anti-Mormon paper, and that Mormons dis- 
persed over the country threatened all persons who offered to assist 
the constable in the execution of the law, with the destruction of 
their property and the murder of their families. There were rumors 
also afloat that an alliance had been formed with the Western 
Indians, and in case of war they would be used in murdering their 
enemies. In short, if only one-half of these reports were true the 
Mormons must have been the most infamous people that ever ex- 



William Law, one of the proprietors of the printing-press 
destroyed by Smith, went to Carthage, the county-seat, and 
obtained warrants for the arrest of Smith and the members of the 
City Council, and others connected with the destruction of the 
press. Some of the parties having been arrested, but discharged 
by the authorities in Nauvoo, a convention of citizens assembled at 
Carthage and appointed a committee to wait upon the Governor for 
the purpose of procuring military assistance to enforce the law. 
The Governor visited Carthage in person. Previous to his arrival 
the militia had been called out and armed forces commenced assem- 
bling in Carthage and Warsaw to enforce the service of civil process. 
All of them, however, signified a willingness to co-operate with the 
Governor in preserving order. A constable and ten men were then 
sent to make the arrest. In the meantime, Smith declared martial 
law; his followers residing in the country were summoned to his 
assistance; the Legion was assembled and under arms, and the 
entire city was one great military encampment. 


The prophet, his brother Hiram, the members of the City Coun- 
cil and others, surrendered themselves at Carthage June 24, 1845, 
on the charge of riot. All entered into recognizance before a Jus- 
tice of the Peace to appear at court, and were discharged. A new 
writ, however, was immediately issued and served on the two 
Smiths, and both were arrested and thrown into prison. The 
citizens had assembled from Hancock, Schujder and McDonough 
counties, armed and ready to avenge the outrages that had been 
committed by the Mormons. Great excitement prevailed at Car- 
thage. The force assembled at that place amounted to 1,200 men, 
and about 600 assembled at Warsaw. Nearly all were anxious to 
march into Nauvoo. This measure was supposed to be necessary 
to search for counterfeit money and the apparatus to make it, and 
also to strike a salutary terror into the Mormon people by an exhi- 
bition of the force of the State, and thereby prevent future out- 
rages, murders, robberies, burnings, and the like. The 27tli of 
June was appointed for the march ; but Gov. Ford, who at the 
time was in Carthage, apprehended trouble if the militia should 
attempt to invade Nauvoo, disbanded the troops, retaining only a 
guard to the jail. 



Gov. Ford went to Nauvoo on the 27th. The same morning 
about 200 men from Warsaw, many being disguised, hastened to 
Carthage. On learning that one of the companies left as a guard 
had disbanded, and the other stationed 150 yards from the jail while 
eight men were left to guard the prisoners, a communication was 
soon established between the Warsaw troops and the guard; and it 
was arranged that the guard should have their guns charged with 
blank cartridges and lire at the assailants when they attempted to 
enter the jail. The conspirators came up, jumped the fence around 
the jail, were fired upon by the guard, which, according to arrange- 
ment, was overpowered, and the assailants entered the prison, to 
the door of the room where the two prisoners were confined. An 
attempt ,was made to break open the door; but Joe Smith, being 
armed with a pistol, fired several times as the door was bursted 
open, and three of the assailants were wounded. At the same time 
several shots were fired into the room, by some of which John 
Taylor, a friend of the Smiths, received four wounds, and Hiram 
Smith was instantly killed. Joe Smith, severely wounded, attempt- 
ed to escape by jumping out of a second-story window, but was so 
stunned by the fall that he was unable to rise. In this position he 
was dispatched by' balls shot through his body. Thus fell Joe 
Smith, the most successful impostor of modern times. Totally ignor- 
ant of almost every fact in science, as well as in law, he made up in 
constructiveness and natural cunning whatever in him was want- 
ing of instruction. 


Great consternation prevailed among the anti-Mormons at 
Carthage, after the killing of the Smiths. They expected the Mor- 
mons would be so enraged on hearing of the death of their leaders 
that they would come down in a body, armed and equipped, to 
seek revenge upon the populace at Carthage. Messengers were 
dispatched to various places for help in case of an attack. The 
women and children were moved across the river for safety. A 
committee was sent to Quincy and early the following morning, 
at the ringing of the bells, a large concourse of people assembled 
to devise means of defense. At this meeting, it was reported that 
the Mormons attempted to rescue the Smiths; that a party of Mis- 
sourians and others had killed them to prevent their escape; that 


the Governor and his party were at Kauvoo at the time when intel- 
ligence of the fact was brought there; that they had been attacked 
by the Nauvoo Legion, and had retreated to a house where they 
were closely besieged; that the Governor had sent out word that 
he could maintain his position for two days, and would be certain 
to be massacred if assistance did not arrive by that time. It is 
unnecessary to say that this entire story was fabricated. It was 
put in circulation, as were many other stories, by the an ti- Mormons, 
to influence the public mind and create a hatred for the Mormons. 
The effect of it, however, was that by 10 o'clock on the 28th, 
between two and three hundred men from Quincy, under command 
of Maj. Flood, went on board a steamboat for Nauvoo, to assist in 
raising the siege, as they honestly believed. 


It was thought by many, and indeed the circumstances seem to war- 
rant the conclusion, that the assassins of Smith had arranged that the 
murder should occur while the Governor was in Nauvoo; that the 
Mormons would naturally suppose he planned it, and in the first out- 
pouring of their indignation put him to death, as a means of retalia- 
tion. They thought that if they could have the Governor of the State 
assassinated by Mormons, the public excitement would be greatly 
increased against that people, and would cause their extermination, 
or at least their expulsion from the State. That it was a brutal and 
premeditated murder cannot be and is not denied at this day; but 
the desired eifect of the murder was not attained, as the Mormons 
did not evacuate ISTauvoo for two years afterward. In the meantime, 
the excitement and prejudice against this people were not allowed 
to die out. Horse-stealing was quite common, and every case that 
occurred was charged to the Mormons. That they were guilty of 
such thefts cannot be denied, but a great deal of this work done at 
that time was by organized bands of thieves, who knew they could 
carry on their nefarious business with more safety, as long as sus- 
picion could be placed upon the Mormons. In the summer and 
fall of 1845 were several occurrences of a nature to increase the 
irritation existing between the Mormons and their neighbors. A 
suit was instituted in the United States Circuit Court against one 
of the apostles, to recover a note, and a marshal sent to summons 


the defendant, who refused to be served with the process. Indig- 
nation meetings were held bj the saints, and the marshal threat- 
ened for attempting to serve the writ. About this time, General 
Denning, sheriff, was assaulted bj an anti-Mormon, whom he killed. 
Denning was friendly to the Mormons, and a great outburst of 
passion was occasioned among the friends of the dead man. 


It was also discovered, in trying the rights of property at Lima, 
Adams county, that the Mormons had an institution connected 
with their church to secure their effects from execution. Incensed 
at this and other actions, the anti-Mormons of Lima and Green 
Plains, held a meeting to devise means for the expulsion of the 
Mormons from tliat part of the country. It was arranged that a 
number of their own party should fire on the building in which 
they were assembled, in such a manner as not to injure anyone, 
and then report that the Mormons had commenced the work of 
plunder and death. This plot was duly executed, and the startling 
intelligence soon called together a mob, which threatened the Mor- 
mons with fire and sword if they did not immediately leave. The 
Mormons refusing to depart, the mob at once executed their threats 
by burning 125 houses and forcing the inmates to flee for their 
lives. The sheriff of Hancock county, a prominent Mormon 
armed several hundred Mormons and scoured the country, in search 
of the incendiaries, but they had fled to neighboring counties, and 
he was unable either to bring them to battle or make any arrests. 
One man, however, was killed without provocation; another 
attempting to escape was shot and afterwards hacked and muti- 
lated ; and Franklin A. "Worrell, who had charge of the jail when 
the Smiths were killed, was shot by some unknown person con- 
cealed in a thicket. The anti-Mormons committed one murder. 
A party of them set fire to a pile of straw, near the barn of an old 
Mormon, nearly ninety years of age, and when he appeared to ex- 
tinguish the flames, he was shot and killed. 

The anti-Mormons left their property exposed in their hurried 
retreat, after having burned the houses of the Mormons. Those 
who had been burned out sallied forth from Nauvoo and plundered 
the whole country, taking whatever they could carry or drive 
away. By order of the Governor, Gen. Hardin raised a force of 
350 men, checked the Mormon ravages, and recalled the fugitive 
anti-Mormons home. 



At this time a convention, consisting of delegates from eight of 
the adjoining counties, assembled to concert measures for the expul- 
sion of the Mormons from the State. The Mormons seriously con- 
templated emmigration westward, believing the times forboded 
evil for them. Accordingly, during the winter of 1845-'46, the 
most stupendous preparations were made by the Mormons for 
removal. All the principal dwellings, and even the temple, were 
converted into work-shops, and before spring, 12,000 wagons were 
in readiness; and hy the middle of February the leaders, with 2,000 
of their followers, had crossed the Mississippi on the ice. 

Before the spring of 1846 the majority of the Mormons had left 
Nauvoo, but still a large number remained. 


In September a writ was issued against several prominent Mor- 
mons, and placed in the hands of John Carlin, of Carthage, for 
execution. Carlin called out a posse to help make the arrest, which 
brought together quite a large force in the neighborhood of Nauvoo. 
Carlin, not being a military man, placed in command of the posse, 
first, Gen. Singleton, and afterward Col. Brockman, who proceeded 
to invest the city, erecting breastworks, and taking other means for 
defensive as well as offensive operations. What was then termed a 
battle next took place, resulting in the death of one Mormon and 
the wounding of several others, and loss to the anti-Mormons of 
three killed and four wounded. At last, through the intervention 
of an anti-Mormon committee of one hundred, from Quincy, the 
Mormons and their allies were induced to submit to such terms as 
the posse chose to dictate, which were that the Mormons should 
immediately give up their arms to the Quincy committee, and re- 
move from the State. The trustees of the church and five of their 
clerks were permitted to remain for the sale of Mormon propert}'^, 
and the posse were to march in unmolested, and leave a sufiicient 
force to guarantee the performance of their stipulations. Accord- 
ingly, the constable's posse marched in with Brockman at their 
head. It consisted of about 800 armed men and 600 or TOO 
imarmed, who had assembled from all the country around, through 
motives of curiosity, to see the once proud city of Nauvoo hum- 
bled and delivered up to its enemies. They proceeded into the 


citj slowly and carefully, examinin,^ the way for fear of the explo- 
sion of a mine, many of which had been made by the Mormons, 
by burying kegs of powder in the ground, with a man stationed at 
a distance to pull a string communicating with the trigger of a 
percussion lock affixed to the keg. This kind of a contrivance was 
called by the Mormons " hell's half-acre." When the posse 
arrived in the city, the leaders of it erected themselves into a tri- 
bunal to decide who should be forced away and who remain. 
Parties were dispatched to hunt for fire-arms, and for Mormons, and 
to bring them to judgment. When brought, they received their 
doom from the mouth of Brockman, who sat a grim and unawed 
tyrant for the time. As a general rule, the Mormons were ordered 
to leave within an hour or two; and by rare grace some of them 
were allowed until next day, and in a few cases longer time was 


Nothing was said in the treaty in regard to the new citizens, who 
had with the Mormons defended the city; but the posse no sooner 
had obtained possession than they commenced expelling them. 
Some of them were ducked in the river, and were in one or two 
instances actually baptized in the name of some of the leaders 
of the mob; others were forcibly driven into the ferry-boats to be 
taken over the river before the bayonets of armed ruffians. Many 
of these new settlers were strangers in the country from various 
parts of the United States, who were attracted there by the low 
price of property; and they knew but little of previous difficulties 
or the merits of the quarrel. They saw with tlieir own eyes that 
the Mormons were industriously preparing to go away, and they 
knew "of their own knowledge " that any effiirt to expel them by 
force was gratuitous and unnecessary cruelty. They had been trained, 
by the States whence they came, to abhor mobs and to obey the law, 
and they volunteered their services under executive authority to 
defend their town and their property against mob violence, and, as 
they honestly believed, from destruction; but in tliis they were partly 
mistaken; for although the mob leaders in the exercise of unbridled 
power were guilty of many injuries to the persons of individuals, 
although much personal property was stolen, yet they abstained 
from materially injuring houses and buildings. 



The fugitives proceeded westward, taking the road through Mis- 
souri, but were forcibly ejected from that State and compelled to 
move indirectly through Iowa. After innumerable hardships the 
advance guard reached the Missouri river at Council Bluflfs, when 
a United States officer presented a requisition for 500 men to 
serve in the war with Mexico. Compliance with this order so di- 
minished their number of effective men, that the expedition was 
again delayed and the remainder, consisting mostly of old men, 
women and children, hastily prepared habitations for winter. 
Their rudely constructed tents were hardly completed before winter 
set in with great severity, the bleak prairies being incessantly swept 
by piercing winds. While here cholera, fever and other diseases, 
aggravated by the previous hardships, the want of comfortable 
quarters and medical treatment, hurried many of them to prema- 
ture graves, yet, under the influence of religious fervor and fanati- 
cism, they looked death in the face with resignation and cheerful- 
ness, and even exhibited a gayety which manifested itself in music 
and dancing during the saddest hours of this sad winter. 

At length welcome spring made its appearance, and by April 
they were again organized for the journey; a pioneer party, con- 
sisting of Brigham Young and 140 others, was sent in advance to 
locate a home for the colonists. On the 21 of July, 1847, a day 
memorable in Mormon annals, the vanguard reached the valley of 
the Great Salt Lake, having been directed thither, according to 
their accounts, by the hand of the Almighty. Here in a distant wil- 
derness, midway between the settlements of the East and the Pacific, 
and at that time a thousand miles from the utmost verge of civili- 
zation, they commenced preparations for founding a colony, which 
has since grown into a mighty empire. 


During the month of May, 1846, the President called for four 
regiments of volunteers from Illinois for the Mexican war. This 
was no sooner known in the State than nine regiments, numbering 
8,370 men, answered the call, though only four of them, amounting 
to 3,720 men, could be taken. These regiments, as well as their 
officers, were everywhere foremost in the American ranks, and dis- 


tinguished themselves by their matchless valor in the bloodiest 
battles of the war. Yeterans never fought more nobly and effect- 
ively than did the volunteers from Illinois. At the bloody battle of 
Buena Vista they crowned their lives — many their death — with the 
laurels of war. Kever did armies contend more bravely, determinedly 
and stubbornly than the American and Mexican forces at this famous 
battle; and as Illinois troops were ever in the van and on the blood- 
iest portions of the field, we believe a short sketch of the part they 
took in the fierce contest is due them, and will be read with no lit- 
tle interest. 


General Santa Anna, with his army of 20,000, poured into the 
valley of Aqua Nueva early on the morning of the 22d of February, 
hoping to surprise our army, consisting of about 5,000 men, under 
Gen. Taylor and which had retreated to the " Narrows." They 
were hotly pursued by the Mexicans who, before attacking, sent 
Gen. Taylor a flag of truce demanding a surrender, and assuring 
him that if he refused he would be cut to pieces; but the demand 
was promptly refused. At this the enemy opened fire, and the con- 
flict began. In honor of the day the watchword with our soldiers 
was, " The memory of Washington." An irregular fire was kept up 
all day, and at night both armies bivouacked on the field, resting on 
their arms. Santa Anna that night made a spirited address to his 
men, and the stirring strains of his own band till late in the night 
were distinctly heard by our troops; but at last silence fell over the 
hosts that were to contend unto death in that narrow pass on the 

Early on the following morning the battle was resumed, and con- 
tinued without intermission until nightfall. The solid columns of 
the enemy were hurled against our forces all day long, but were 
met and held in check b}' the unerring fire of our musketry and ar- 
tillery. A portion of Gen. Lane's division was driven back by the 
enemy under Gen. Lombardini, who, joined by Gen. Pacheco's divis- 
ion, poured upon the main plateau in so formidable numbers as 
to appear irresistible. 


At this time the 2d Illinois, under Col. Bissell, with a squadron 
of cavalry and a few pieces of artillery came handsomely into action 


and gallantly received the concentrated fire of the enemy, which 
they returned with deliberate aim and terrible effect; every dis- 
charge of the artillery seemed to tear a bloody path through the 
heavy columns of enemy. Says a writer: "The rapid mus- 
ketry of the gallant troops from Illinois poured a storm of lead 
into their serried ranks, which literally strewed the ground with 
the dead and dying." But, notwithstanding his losses, the enemy 
steadily advanced until our gallant regiment received fire from 
three sides. Still they maintained their position for a time with 
unflinching firmness against that immense host. At length, per- 
ceiving the danger of being entirely surrounded, it was determined 
to fall back to a ravine. Col. Bissel, with the coolness of ordinary 
drill, ordered the signal "cease firing" to be made; he then with 
the same deliberation gave the command, "Face to the rear, Bat- 
talion, about face; forward march," which was executed witli the 
regularity of veterans to a point beyond the peril of being out- 
fianked. Again, in obedience to command these brave men halted- 
faced about, and under a murderous tempest of bullets from the foe, 
resumed their well-directed fire. The conduct of no troops could 
have been more admirable; and, too, until that day they had never 
been under fire, when, within less than half an hour eighty of their 
comrades dropped by their sides. How different from the Arkansas 
regiment, which were ordered to the plateau, but after delivering 
their first volley gave way and dispersed. 


But now we have to relate the saddest, and, for Illinois, the most 
mournful, event of that battle-worn day. "We take the account 
from Colton's History of the battle of Buena Yista. "As the enemy 
on our left was moving in retreat along the head of the Plateau, 
our artillery was advanced until within range, and opened a heavy 
fire upon him, while Cols. Hardin, Bissell and McKee, with their 
Illinois and Kentucky troops, dashed gallantly forward in hot pur- 
suit. A powerful reserve of the Mexican army was then just 
emerging from the ravine, where it had been organized, and 
advanced on the plateau, opposite the head of the southernmost 
gorge. Those who were giving way rallied quickly upon it; when 
the whole force, thus increased to over 12,000 men, came forward 
in a perfect blaze of fire. It was a single column, composed of the 
best soldiers of the republic, having for its advanced battalions the 



veteran regiments. The Kentucky and Illinois troops were soon 
obliged to give ground before it and seek the shelter of the second 
gorge. The enemy pressed on, arriving opposite the head of the 
second gorge. One-half of the column suddenly enveloped it, while 
the other half pressed on across the plateau, having for the moment 
nothing to resist them but the three guns in their front. The por- 
tion that was immediately opposed to the Kentucky and Illinois 
troops, ran down along each side of the gorge, in which they had 
sought shelter, and also circled around its head, leaving no possible 
way of escape for them except by its mouth, which opened 
upon the road. Its sides, which were steep, — at least an angle of 
45 degrees, — were covered with loose pebbles and stones, and con- 
verged to a point at the bottom. Down there were our poor fel- 
lows, nearly three regiments of them (1st and 2d Illinois and 2d 
Kentucky), with but little opportunity to load or fire a gun, being 
hardly able to keep their feet. Above the whole edge of the 
gorge, all the way around, was darkened by the serried masses of 
the enemy, and was bristling with muskets directed on the crowd 
beneath. It was no time to pause. Those who were not immedi- 
ately shot down rushed on toward the road, their number growing 
less and less as they went, Kentuckians and Illinoisans, officers and 
men, all mixed up in confusion, and all pressing on over the loose 
pebbles and rolling stones of those shelving, precipitous banks, 
and having lines and lines of the enemy firing down from each 
side and rear as they went. Just then the enemy's cavaliy, which 
had gone to the left of the reserve, had come over the spur that 
divides the mouth of the second gorge from that of the third, and 
were now closing up the only door through which there was the 
least shadow of a chance for their lives. Many of those ahead 
endeavored to force their way out, but few succeeded. The lancers 
were fully six to one, and their long weapons were already reeking 
with blood. It was at this time that those who were still back in 
that dreadful gorge heard, above the din of the musketry and the 
shouts of the enemy around them, the roar of Washington's Bat- 
tery. No music could have been more grateful to their ears. A 
moment only, and the whole opening, where the lancers were busy, 
rang with the repeated explosions of splierical-case shot. They 
gave way. The gate, as it were, was clear, and out upon the road 
a stream of our poor fellows issued. They ran panting down 


toward the battery, and directly under the flght of iron then pas- 
sing over their heads, into the retreatingj cavah-y. Hardin, McKee, 
Clay, Willis, Zabriskie, Houghton — but why go on? It would be 
a sad task indeed to name over all who fell during this twenty 
minutes' slaughter. The whole gorge, from the plateau to its 
mouth, was strewed with our dead. All dead! No wounded there 
— not a man; for the infantry had rushed down the sides and com- 
pleted the work with the bayonet." 


The artillery on the plateau stubbornly maintained its position 
The remnants of the 1st and 2d Illinois regiments, after issuing 
from the fated gorge, were formed and again brought into action, 
the former, after the fall of the noble Hardin, under Lieut. Col. 
Weatherford, the latter under Bissell. The enemy brought forth 
reinforcements and a brisk artillery duel was kept up; but gradually, 
as the shades of night began to cover the earth, the rattle of mus- 
ketry slackened, and when the pall of night was thrown over that 
bloody field it ceased altogether. Each army, after the fierce and 
long struggle, occupied much the same position as it did in the 
morning. However, early on the following morning, the glad 
tidings were heralded amidst our army that the enemy had retreated, 
thus again crowning the American banners with victory. 


Other bright names from Illinois that shine as stars in this 
war are those of Shields, Baker, Harris and Coffee, which are 
indissolubly connected with the glorious capture of Yera Cruz 
and the not less famous storming of Cerro Gordo. In this latter 
action, when, after the valiant Gen. Shields had been placed hoi's 
de combat, the command of his force, consisting of three regiments, 
devoled upon Col. Baker. This officer, with his men, stormed with 
unheard-of prowess the last stronghold of the Mexicans, sweeping 
everything before them. Such indeed were the intrepid valor and 
daring courage exhibited by Illinois volunteers during the Mexican 
war that their deeds should live in the memory of their countrymen 
until those latest times when the very name of America shall have 
been forgotten. 



On the fourth day of March, 1861, after the most exciting and 
momentous political campaign known in the history of this country, 
Abraham Lincoln — America's martyred President — was inaugu- 
rated Chief Magistrate of the United States. This fierce contest 
was principally sectional, and as the announcement was flashed over 
the telegraph wires that the Republican Presidential candidate had 
been elected, it was hailed by the South as a justifiable pretext for 
dissolving the Union. Said Jefferson Davis in a speech at Jackson, 
Miss., prior to the election, "If an abolitionist be chosen Presi- 
dent of the United States you will have presented to you the 
question whether you will permit the government to pass into 
the hands of your avowed and implacable enemies. Without 
pausing for an answer, I will state my own position to be that 
such a result would be a species of revolution by which the 
purpose of the Government would be destroyed, and the obser- 
vances of its mere forms entitled to no respect. In that event, 
in such manner as should be most expedient, I should deem it 
your duty to provide for your safety outside of the Union." Said 
another Southern politician, when speaking on the same sub- 
ject, ".We shall fire the Southern heart, instruct the Southern 
mind, give courage to each, and at the proper moment, by one 
organized, concerted action, we can precipitate the Cotton States 
into a revolution." To disrupt the Union and form a government 
which recognized the absolute supremacy of the white population 
and the perpetual bondage of the black was what they deemed 
freedom from the galling yoke of a Republican administration. 


Hon. R. W. Miles, of Knox county, sat on the floor by the side 
of Abraham Lincoln in the Library-room of the Capitol, in Spring- 
field, at the secret caucus meeting, held in Janur.ry, 1859, when 
Mr. Lincoln's name was first spoken of in caucus as candidate for 
President. When a gentleman, in making a short speech, said, 
" We are going to bring Abraham Lincoln out as a candidate for 
President," Mr. Lincoln at once arose to his feet, and exclaimed, 
"For God's sake, let me alone! I have suffered enough!" This 
was soon after he had been defeated in tlie Legislature for United 
States Senate by Stephen A. Douglas, and only those who are 


intimate with that important and unparalleled contest can appre- 
ciate the full force and meaning of these expressive words of the 
martyred President. They were spontaneous, and prove beyond a 
shadow of doubt that Abraham Lincoln did not seek the high posi- 
tion of President. Nor did he use any trickery or chicanery to 
obtain it. But his expressed wish was not to be complied with; 
our beloved country needed a savior and a martyr, and Fate had 
decreed that he should be the victim. After Mr. Lincoln was 
elected President, Mr. Miles sent him an eagle's quill, with which 
the chief magistrate wrote his first inaugural address. The letter 
written by Mr. Miles to the President, and sent with the quill, 
which was two feet in length, is such a jewel of eloquence and 
prophecy that it should be given a place in history: 

Peiisiper, December 21, 1860. 
Hon. a. Lincoln : 

Dear Sir : — Please accept the eagle quill I promised you, by the hand of our 
Representative, A. A. Smith. The bird from whose wing the quill was taken, was 
shot by John F. Dillon, in Persifer township, Knox Co., Ills., in Feb., 1857 Hav- 
ing heard that James Buchanan was furnished with an eagle quill to write his 
Inaugural with, and believing that in 18G0, a Republican would be elected to take 
his place, I determined to save this quill and present it to the fortunate man, who- 
ever he might be. Reports tell us that the bird which furnished Buchanan's quill 
was a captured bird, — fit emblem of the man that used it ; but the bird from 
which this quill was taken, yielded the quill only with his life,— fit emblem of the 
man who is expected to use it, for true Republicans believe that you would not 
think lite worth the keeping after the surrender of principle. Great difficulties 
surround you ; traitors to their country have threatened your life ; and should 
you be called upon to surrender it at the post of duty, your memory will live for- 
ever in the heart of every freeman ; and that is a grander monument than can be 
built of brick or marble. 

"For if hearts may not our memories keep, 
Oblivion liastc each vestige sweep, 
And let our memories eud." 

Yours Truly, 

R. W. Miles. 


At the time of President Lincoln's accession to power, several 
members of the Union claimed they had withdrawn from it, and 
styling themselves the " Confederate States of America," organ- 
ized a separate government. The house was indeed divided 
against itself, but it should not fall, nor should it long continue 
divided, was the hearty, determined response of every loyal heart 
in the nation. The accursed institution of human slavery was 
the primary cause for this dissolution of the American Union. 
Doubtless other agencies served to intensify the hostile feel- 
ings which existed between the Northern and Southern portions 


of oar country, but tlieir remote origin could be traced to this great 
national evil. Had Lincoln's predecessor put forth a timely, ener- 
getic effort, he might have prevented tlie bloody war our nation 
was called to pass through. On the other hand every aid was given 
the rebels; every advantage and all the power of the Government 
was placed at their disposal, and when Illinois' honest son took the 
reins of the Republic he found Buchanan had been a traitor to his 
trust, and given over to the South all available means of war. 


On the 12th day of April, 1861, the rebels, who for weeks had 
been erecting their batteries upon the shore, after demanding of 
Major Anderson a surrender, opened fire upon Fort Sumter. For 
thirty-four hours an incessant cannonading was continued; the fort 
was being seriously injured; provisions were almost gone, and Major 
Anderson was compelled to haul down the stars and stripes. Tliat 
dear old flag which had seldom been lowered to a foreign foe by 
rebel hands was now trailed in the dust. The first blow of the 
terrible conflict which summoned vast armies into the field, and 
moistened the soil of a nation in fraternal blood and tears, had. 
been struck. The gauntlet thus thrown down by the attack on 
Sumter by the traitors of the South was accepted — not, however, 
in the spirit with which insolence meets insolence — but with a firm, 
determined spirit of patriotism and love of country. The duty of 
the President was plain under the constitution and the laws, and 
above and beyond all, the people from whom all political power is 
derived, demanded the suppression of the Rebellion, and stood ready 
to sustain the authority of their representative and executive 
officers. Promptly did the new President issue a proclamation 
calling for his countrymen to join with him to defend their homes 
and their country, and vindicate her honor. This call was made 
April 14, two days after Sumter was first fired upon, and was for 
75,000 men. On the 15th, the same day he was notified. Gov. 
Yates issued his proclamation convening the Legislature. lie also 
ordered the organization of six regiments. Troops were in abund- 
ance, and the call was no sooner made than filled. Patriotism 
thrilled and vibrated and pulsated through every heart. The farm, 
the workshop, the office, the pulpit, the bar, the bench, the college, 
the school-house, — every calling ofi'ered its best men, their lives and 
their fortunes, in defense of the Government's honor and unity. 


Bitter words spoken in moments of political heat were forgotten 
and forgiven, and joining hands in a common cause, they repeated 
the oath of America's soldier-statesman : " By the Great Eternal^ 
the Union must and shall he preserved.^^ The honor, the very 
life and glory of the nation was committed to the stern arbitrament 
of the sword, and soon the tramp of armed men, the clash of 
musketry and the heavy boom of artillery reverberated throughout 
the continent; rivers of blood saddened by tears of mothers, wives, 
sisters, daughters and sweethearts flowed from the lakes to the 
gulf, but a nation was saved. The sacrifice was great, but the 
Dnion was preserved. 


Simultaneously with the call for troops by the President, enlist- 
ments commenced in this State, and within ten days 10,000 
volunteers offered service, and the sum of $1,000,000 was tendered 
by patriotic citizens. Of the volunteers who offered their services, 
only six regiments could be accepted under the quota of the State. 
But the time soon came when there was a place and a musket for 
every man. The six regiments raised were designated by numbers 
commencing with seven, as a mark of respect for the six regiments 
which had served in the Mexican war. Another call was antici- 
pated, and the Legislature authorized ten additional regiments to 
be organized. Over two hundred companies were immediately 
raised from which were selected the required number. No sooner 
was this done than the President made another call for troops, six 
regiments were again our proportion, although by earnest solicita- 
tion the remaining four were accepted. There were a large number 
of men with a patriotic desire to enter the service who were denied 
this privilege. Many of them wept, while others joined regiments 
from other States. In May, June and July seventeen regiments 
of infantry and live of cavalry were raised, and in the latter month, 
when the President issued his first call for 500,000 volunteers, 
Illinois tendered thirteen regiments of infantry and three of cavalry, 
and so anxious were her sons to have the Hebellion crushed that 
the number could have been increased by thousands. At the 
close of 1S61 Illinois had sent to the field nearly 50,000 men, and 
had 17,000 in camp awaiting marching orders, thus exceeding her 
full quota by 15,000. 



In July and August of 1862 the President called for 600,000 
men — our quota of which was 52,296 — and gave until August 18 as 
the limits in which the number might be raised by volunteering, 
after which a draft would be ordered. The State had already fur- 
nished 17,000 in excess of her quota, and it was first thought this 
number would be deducted from the present requisition, but that 
could not be done. But thirteen davs were granted to enlist this 

ft/ CD 

vast army, which had to come from tlie farmers and mechanics. 
The former were in the midst of harvest, but, inspired by love of 
country, over 50,000 of them left their harvests ungathered, their 
tools and their benches, the plows in their furrows, turning their 
backs on their homes, and before eleven days had expired the 
demands of the Government were met and both quotas filled. 

The war went on, and call followed call, until it began to look as 
if there would not be men enough in all the Free States to crush 
out and subdue the monstrous war traitors had inaugurated. But 
to every call for either men or money there was a willing and ready 
response. And it is a boast of the people that, had the supply of 
men fallen short, there were women brave enough, daring enough, 
patriotic enough, to have offered themselves as sacrifices on their 
country's altar. On the 21st of December, 1861, the last call for 
troops was made. It was for 300,000. In consequence of an im- 
perfect enrollment of the men subject to military duty, it became 
evident, ere this call was made, that Illinois was furnishing thous- 
ands of men more than what her quota would have been, had it 
been correct. So glaring had this disproportion become, that 
under this call the quota of some districts exceeded the number of 
able-bodied men in them. 


Following this sketch we give a schedule of all the volunteer 
troops organized from this State, from the commencement to the 
close of the war. It is taken from the Adjutant General's report. 
The number of the regiment, name of original Colonel, call under 
which recruited, date of organization and muster into the United 
States' service, place of muster, and aggregate strength of each 
organization, from which we find that Illinois put into her one hun- 
dred and eighty regiments 256,000 men, and into the United States 


army, through other States, enough to swell the number to 290,000. 
This far exceeds all the soldiers of the Federal Government in all 
the war of the Revolution. Her total years of service were over 
600,000. She enrolled men from eighteen to forty-five years of age, 
when the law of Congress in ISG-i — the test time — only asked for 
those from twenty to forty-five. Her enrollments were otberwise 
excessive. Her people wanted to go, and did not take the pains to 
correct the enrollment; thus the basis of fixing the quota was too 
great, and the rjuota itself, at least in the trying time, was far above 
any other State. The demand on some counties, as Monroe, for 
example, took every able-bodied man in the county, and then did 
not have enough to fill the quota. Moreover, Illinois sent 20,844 
men for one hundred days, for whom no credit was asked. She 
gave to the country 73,000 years of service above all calls. "With 
one-thirteenth of the population of the loyal States, she sent regu- 
larly one-tenth of all the soldiers, and in the perils of the closing 
calls, when patriots were few and weary, she sent one-eighth of all 
that were called for by her loved and honored son in the White 
House. Of the brave boys Illinois sent to the front, there were 
killed in action, 5,888; died of wounds, 3,032; of disease, 19,496; 
in prison, 967; lost at sea, 205; aggregate, 29,588. As upon every 
field and upon every page of the history of this war, Illinois bore 
her part of the suffering in tlie prison-pens of the South. Mere 
than 800 names make up the awful column of Illinois' brave sons 
who died in the rebel prison of Andersonville, Ga. "Who can 
measure or imagine the atrocities which would be laid before the 
world were the panorama of sufterings and terrible trials of these 
gallant men but half unfolded to view? But this can never be 
done until new words of horror are invented, and new arts dis- 
covered by which demoniacal fiendishness can be portrayed, and 
the intensest anguish of the human soul in ten thousand forms be 
painted. ^ 

No troops ever fought more heroically, stubbornly, and with bet- 
ter effect, than did the boys from the "Prairie State." At Pea 
Eidge, Donelson, Pittsburg Landing, luka, Corinth, Stone River, 
Holly Springs, Jackson, Yicksburg, Chicamauga, Lookout Moun- 
tain, Murfreesboro, Atlanta, Franklin, JSTashville, Chattanooga, and 
on every other field where the clash of arms was heard, her sons 
were foremost. 



Illinois was almost destitute of firearms at the beffiniiino; of the 
conflict, and none could be procured in the East. The traitorous 
Flojd had turned over to the South 300,000 arms, leaving most 
arsenals in the North einptj. Gov. Yates, however, received an 
order on the St. Louis arsenal for 10,000 muskets, which he put in 
the hands of Captain Stokes, of Chicago. Several unsuccessful 
attemjjts were made by the Captain to pass through the large crowd 
of rebels which had gathered around the arsenal, suspecting an 
attempt to move the arms would be made. He at last succeeded 
in gaining admission to the arsenal, but was informed by the com- 
mander that the slightest attempt to move the arms would be dis- 
covered and bring an infuriated mob upon the garrison. This fear 
was well founded, for the following day Gov. Jackson ordered 2,000 
armed men from Jefferson City down to capture the arsenal. Capt. 
Stokes telegraphed to Alton for a steamer to descend the river, and 
about midnight land opposite the arsenal, and proceeding to the 
same place with 700 men of the 7th Illinois, commenced loading 
the vessel. To divert attention from his real purpose, he had 500 
guns placed upon a different boat. As designed, this movement 
was discovered by the rabble, and the shouts and excitement upon 
their seizure drew most of the crowd from the arsenal. Capt. 
Stokes not only took all the guns his requisition called for, but 
emptied the arsenal. When all was ready, and the signal given to 
Btart, it was found that the immense weight had bound the bow of 
the boat to a rock, but after a few moments' delay the boat fell awaj 
from the shore and floated into deep water. 

"Which way?" said Capt. Mitchell, of the steamer. "Straight 
in the regular channel to Alton," replied Capt, Stokes. "What if 
we are attacked?" said Capt. Mitchell. " Then we will fight," was 
the reply of Capt. Stokes. "What if we are overpowered?" said 
Mitchell. " Run the boat to the deepest part of the river and sink 
her," replied Stokes. "I'll do it," was the heroic answer of 
Mitchell, and away they went past the secession battery, past the 
St. Louis levee, and in the regular channel on to Alton. When 
they touched the landing, Capt. Stokes, fearing pursuit, ran to the 
market house and rang the fire bell. The citizens came flocking 
pell-mell to the river, and soon men, women and children were 
tugging away at that vessel load of arms, which they soon had 
deposited in freight cars and off to Springfield. 



The people were liberal as well as patriotic; and while the men 
were busy enlisting, organizing and equipping companies, the ladies 
were no less active, and the noble, generous work performed by 
their tender, loving hands deserves mention along with the bravery, 
devotion and patriotism of their brothers upon the Southern fields 
of carnage. 

The continued need of money to obtain the comforts and neces- 
saries for the sick and wounded of our army suggested to the loyal 
women of the North many and various devices for the raising of 
funds. Every city, town and village had its fair, festival, picnic, 
excursion, concert, which netted more or less to the cause of 
hospital relief, according to the population of the place and the 
amount of energy and patriotism displayed on such occasions. 
Especially was this characteristic of our own fair State, and scarcely 
a hamlet within its borders which did not send something from its 
stores to hospital or battlefield, and in the larger towns and cities 
were well-organized soldiers' aid societies, working systematically 
and continuously from the beginning of the war till its close. The 
great State Fair held in Chicago in May, 1865, netted $250,000. 
Homes for traveling soldiers were established all over the State, in 
which were furnished lodging for 600,000 men, and meals valued 
at $2,500,000. Food, clothing, medicine, hospital delicacies, 
readino- matter, and thousands of other articles, were sent to the 
boys at the front. 


Letters, messages of love and encouragement, were sent by 
noble women from many counties of the State to encourage the 
brave sons and brothers in the South. Below we give a copy of a 
printed letter sent from Knox county to the "boys in blue," as 
showing the feelings of the women of the North. It was headed, 
" From the Women of Knox County to Their Brothers in the 
Field." It was a noble, soul-inspiring message, and kindled anew 
the intensest love for home, country, and a determination to crown 
the stars and stripes with victory : 

"You have gone out from our homes, but not from our hearts. 
Never for one moment are you forgotten. Through weary march 
and deadly conflict our prayers have ever followed you; your 
sufferings are our sufferings, your victories our great joy. 


" If there be one of you who knows not the dear home ties, for 
whom no mother prays, no sister watches, to him especially we 
speak. Let him feel that though he may not have one mother he 
has many; he is the adopted child and brother of all our hearts. 
Kot one of you is beyond the reach of our sympathies; no picket- 
station so lonely that it is not enveloped in the halo of our 

" During all the long, dark months since our country called you 
from us, your courage, your patient endurance, your fidelity, have 
awakened our keenest interest, and we have longed to give you an 
expression of that interest. 

"By the alacrity with which you sprang to arms, by the valor 
with which those arms have been wielded, you have placed our 
State in the front ranks; you have made her worthy to be the home 
of our noble President. For thus sustaining the honor of our 
State, dear to us as life, we thank you. 

" Of your courage we need not speak. Fort Donelson, Pea 
Ridge, Shiloh, Stone River, Vicksburg, speak with blood- bathed 
lips of your heroism. The Army of the Southwest fights beneath 
no defeat-shadowed banner; to it, under God, the nation looks for 

"But we, as women, have other cause for thanks. "We will not 
speak of the debt we owe the defenders of our Government; that 
blood-sealed bond no words can cancel. But we are your debtors 
in a way not often recognized. You have aroused us from the 
aimlessness into which too many of our lives had drifted, and have 
infused into those lives a noble pathos. We could not dream our 
time away while our brothers were dying for us. Even your suffer- 
ings have worked together for our good, by inciting us to labor for 
their alleviation, thus giving us a work worthy of our womanhood. 
Everything that we have been permitted to do for your comfort 
has filled our lives so much the fuller of all that makes life valua- 
ble. You have thus been the means of developing in us a nobler 
tj'pe of womanhood than without the example of your heroism we 
could ever have attained. For this our whole lives, made purer 
and nobler by the discipline, will thank you. 

"This war will leave none of us as it found us. "We cannot 
buflfet the raging wave and escape all trace of the salt sea's foam. 
Toward better or toward worse we are hurried with fearful 


haste. If we at home feel this, what must it be to you! Our 
hearts throb with agony when we think of you wounded, suffering, 
d3nng; but the thought of no physical pain touches us half so 
deeply as the thought of the temptations which surround you. 
We could better give you up to die on the battle-field, true to your 
God and to your country, than to have you return to us with 
blasted, blackened souls. When temptations assail fiercely, you 
must let the tliought that your mothers are praying for strength 
enable you to overcome them. But figliting for a worthy cause 
worthily ennobles one; herein is our confidence that you will 
return better men than you went away. 

"By all that is noble in your manhood; by all that is true in 
our womanhood; by all that is grand in patriotism; by all that is 
sacred in religion, we adjure you to be faithful to yourselves, to us, 
to your country, and to your God. ISTever were men permitted to 
fight in a cause more worthy of their blood. Were you fighting 
for mere conquest, or glory, we could not give you up; but to sus- 
tain a principle, the greatest to which human lips have ever given 
utterance, even your dear lives are not too costly a sacrifice. Let 
that principle, the corner-stone of our independence, be crushed, 
and we are all slaves. Like the Suliote mothers, we might well 
clasp our children in our arms and leap down to death. 

"To the stern arbitrament of the sword is now committed the 
honor, the very life of this nation. You fight not for yourselves 
alone; the eyes of the whole world are on you; and if you fail our 
Nation's death-wail will echo through all coming ages, moaning a 
requiem over the lost hopes of oppressed humanity. But you will 
not fail, so sure as there is a God in Heaven. He never meant 
this richest argosy of the nations, freighted with the fears of all 
the world's tyrants, with the hopes of all its oppressed ones, to 
flounder in darkness and death. Disasters may come, as they have 
come, but they will only be, as they have been, ministers of good. 
Each one has led the nation upw^ard to a higher plane, from whence 
it has seen with a clearer eye. Success could not attend us at the 
West so long as we scorned the help of the black hand, which 
alone had power to open the gate of redemption; the God of 
battles would not vouchsafe a victory at the East till the very foot- 
prints of a McClellan were washed out in blood. 

"But now all things seem ready; we have accepted the aid of 


tliatliand; those footsteps are obliterated. In liis own good time 
we feel that God will give us the victory. Till that hour comes we 
bid you fight on. Though we have not attained that heroism, or 
decision, which enables us to give you up without a struggle, which 
can prevent our giving tears for 3'our hlood^ though many of us 
must own our hearts desolate till you return, still we bid you stay 
and fight for our country, till from this fierce baptism of blood she 
shall be raised complete,' the dust shaken from her garments puri- 
fied, a new Memnon singing in the great Godlight." 

Sherman's march to the sea. 

On the 15th of November, 1864, after the destruction of Atlanta, 
and the railroads behind him, Sherman, with his army, began his 
march to the sea-coast. The almost breathless anxiety with which 
his progress was watched by the loyal hearts of the nation, and the 
trembling apprehension with which it was regarded by all who 
hoped for rebel success, indicated this as one of the most remark- 
able events of the war; and so it proved. Of Sherman's army, 45 
regiments of infantry, three companies of artillery, and one of 
cavalry were from this State. Lincoln answered all rumors of 
Sherman's defeat with, " It is impossible; there is a mighty sight 
of fight in 100,000 "Western men." Illinois soldiers brought home 
300 battle fiags. The first United States flag that floated over 
Kichmond was an Illinois flag. She sent messengers and nurses to 
every field and hospital to care for her sick and wounded sons. 

Illinois gave the country the great general of the war, U. S. 

character of ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 

One other name from Illinois comes up in all minds, embalmed 
in all hearts, that must have the supreme place in this sketch of 
our glory and of our nation's [honor: that name is Abraham 
Lincoln. The analysis of Mr. Lincoln's character is difiicult on 
account of its symmetry. In this age we look with admiration at 
his uncompromising honesty; and well we may, for this saved us. 
Thousands throughout the length and breadth of our country, who 
knew him only as "Honest Old Abe," voted for him on that 
account; and wisely did they choose, for no other man could have 
carried us through the fearful night of war. When his plans were 
too vast for our comprehension, and his faith in the cause too sub- 


lime for our participation ; when it was all night about us, and all 
dread before us, and all sad and desolate behind us; when not one 
ray shone upon our cause; when traitors were haughty and exult- 
ant at the South, and fierce and blasphemous at the North; when 
the loyal men seemed almost in the minority; when the stoutest 
heart quailed, the bravest cheek paled ; when generals were defeat- 
ing each other for place, and contractois were leeching out the very 
heart's blood of the republic; when everything else had failed us, 
we looked at this calm, patient man standing like a rock in the 
storm, and said, " Mr. Lincoln is honest, and we can trust him still." 
Holding to this single point with the energy of faith and despair, 
we held together, and under God he brought us through to victory. 
His practical wisdom made him the wonder of all lands. With 
such certainty did Mr. Lincoln follow causes to their ultimate 
effects, that his foresight of contingencies seemed almost prophetic. 
He is radiant with all the great virtues, and his memory will shed 
a glory upon this age that will fill the eyes of men as they look 
into history. Other men have excelled him in some points; but, 
taken at all points, he stands head and shoulders above every other 
man of 6,000 years. An administrator, he saved the nation in the 
perils of unparalleled civil war; a statesman, he justified his 
measures by their success; a philanthropist, he gave liberty to one 
race and salvation to another; a moralist, he bowed from the sum- 
mit of human power to the foot of the cross; a mediator, he exer- 
cised mercy under the most absolute obedience to law; a leader, 
he was no partisan ; a commander, he was untainted with blood ; a 
ruler in desperate times, he was unsullied with crime; a man, he 
has left no word of passion, no thought of malice, no trick of craft, 
no act of jealousy, no purpose of selfish ambition. Thus perfected, 
without a model and without a peer, he was dropped into these 
troubled years to adorn and embellish all that is good and all that 
is great in our humanity, and to present to all coming time the 
representative of the divine idea of free government. It is not 
too much to say that away down in the future, when the republic 
has fallen from its niche in the wall of time; when the great war 
itself shall have faded out in the distance like a mist on the 
horizon; when the Anglo-Saxon shall be spoken only by the tongue 
of the stranger, then the generations looking this way shall see 
the great President as the supreme figure in this vortex of history. 


1 "7 


The rebellion was ended witli tlie surrender of Lee and his army, 
and Johnson and his command in April, 1805. Our armies at the 
time were up to their maximum strength, never so formidable, 
never so invincible; and, until recruiting ceased by order of Sec- 
retary Stanton, were daily strengthening. The necessity, however, 


for SO vast and formidable numbers ceased with the disbanding of 
the rebel forces, which had for more than four years disputed the 
supremacy of the Government over its domain. And now the 
joyful and welcome news was to be borne to the victorious legions 
that their work was ended in triumph, and they were to be per- 
mitted "to see homes and friends once more." 



Schedule — Showiug statement of volunteer troops organized within the State, and sent to the 
field, commeuciuf? April, 18iJl, aud eudiug Decembur 3t, 186j, \vith number of regiment, name 
of original commanding officer, date of organization and muster into United States' service, 
place of muster, and the aggregate strength^ of each organization. 


Commanding officer at organiza 

Col. John Cook 

" Richard J. Oglesby. 

" Eleazer A. Paine. . . 

" Jas. D. Morgan 

" W. H. L. Wallace... 

" John McArthur 

" John B. Wyman 

" John M. Palmer 

" Thos. J. Turner 

" Robert F. Smith.... 

" Leonard F. Ross 

" Michael K. Lawler... 

" John B. Turchin. . . . 

" Chas. C. Marsh 

" Ulysses S. Grant 

" Henry Dougherty — 

" Jas. A. Mulligan 

" Frederick Hecker. . . 

" Wm. N. Coler 

" JohnM.Loomis 

" Nap. B. Buford 

;. " A. K. Johnson 

" Jas. S. Rearden 

'• Philip B. Fouke 

" John A. Logan 

" John Logan 

" Chas. E.IIovev 

" Edward N. Kirk 

" Gus. A. Smith 

" Nich. Greiisel 

" Julius White 

" Wm. P. Carlin 

" Austin Light 

" Steph. G. Hicks 

" Isaac C. Pugh 

" Wm.A. Webb 

" Julius Raith. ..... 

" Chas. Noblesdorflf .. . 

" John E. Smith . 

" John A. Davis 

" John Bryuer 

" Isham N. Haynie — 

" Wm. R.Morrison... 

" Moses M. Bane 

'• G. W. Camming 

" Isaac G. Wilson 

" W. H. W. Cushman. 

" Thos. W.Harris 

" David Stuart 

" Robert Kirkham 

" Silas D. Baldwin.... 

" Wm. F. Lvnch 

" P. Sidney'Poat 

" Silas C. Toler. 

" Jacob Fry . 

" James M. True 

" Francis Mora 

Lt. Col. D. D. Williams . . 

Col. Daniel Cameron . . . . 

" Patrick E. Burke.... 

" Rosell M. Hough... . 

" Elias Stuart 

" Jos. H. Tucker 

" O.T.Reeves 

" Othniel Gilbert 

June 13, 1861. 
June 15, 1861. 
June as, 1861. 
June 18, 1861. 
July 8, 1861. 

Date of organization and Place where mustered 
muster iuio the Unitedl into the United States 
States service. service. 

July 2.5, 1861. 

May 21, 
May 25, 
May 24, 


May 28, 1861 

Oct. 31, 1861. 

\ug. 3, 1861 . . 
July 27, 1861. 
Sept. 30, 1861. 
Sept. 8,1861.. 
Dec. 31,1861. 
Aug. 15.1861. 
Sept. 7, 1861. 

Sept. 23, 1861 

Sept. 18,1361 

Aug. 1.5, 1881. .. 
December, 1861.. 

Aug. 10, 18G1 

Aug, 9, 1861 

Sept. 17, 1861 

Dec. 16,1861 

Sept. 13, 1861.... 
Dec. 26, 1S61. ... 

Dec. 28. 1861 

Oct. 1, 1861 

Nov. 18,1861 

Dec. 31, 1861 

Sept. 12, 1861 .... 
Dec. '61, Feb. '62. 

Nov. 19, 1861 

March. 1862 

Feb. 18. 1862 

Oct. 31, 1861 

Feb. 27,1862 

Doc. 26, 1861 

Dec. 24, 1861 , 

August, 1861 ■, 

Feb. 17, 18H2 

March 7, 1862.... 
April 10,1862 

Dec. 31, 1862 

May 15, 1862 

April, 1862 

Juno 13, 1862 

June 20, 1862 

June 14, 1862 

July 4, 1862 

July 26, 1862 

Cairo, Illinois. 







Joliet. . . . 
Chicago. . . 
Chicago. . . 

Camp Butler. 

Camp Butler. 
Camp Butler. 
Camp Butler. 
Camp Butler. 
Camp Butler. 
Camp Butler. 
Camp Butler. 



Camp Butler.. . 





Camp Butler.. . 



Camp Butler... 


Camp Butler.. . 
Camp Butler. . 


Camp "Douglas. 




Camp Douglas 
Shawneetowu .. 
Camp Douglas. 
Camp Douglas 
St. Louis, Mo.. 





Camp Butler... 
Camp Douglas. 
St. Lonio, Mo. . 
Camp Douglas. 
Camp Butler.. . 
Camp Douglas. 
Camp Butler.. . 
Camp Douglas. 

r- ~ -I 
^•O * 

£ " 1 

' £ T 







ScH-EDULE — Showing statement of volunteer troops organized within tho State, and sent to the 
field, commencing April, 1861, and ending December 31, 18(1."), with uumlier of regiment, name 
of original commanding officer, date of organization and muster into United States' service, 
place of muster, and the aggregate strength of each organization. 



Commanding officer at organiza- 


Col. Frederick A. Starring.. 

" Jas. F. Jaquess 

" Jason Marsh 

" George Ryan 

" Alonzo W. Mack 

>' David P. Grier 

" W. II. Beuuison 

'• Lvman Guiunip 

" Thos. G. \llen 

" Jas. J. Dollins 

" Frederick Hecker 

" Aimer C. Harding 

•' Louis H. Waters 

" Robert S. Moore 

" David D. Irons 

" John R. Whiting 

88 " F. T.Sherman 

89 •' John Christopher 

90 " Timothv O'ih'ra 

91 " Henry M. Day 

92 " Smith D. Atkins 

93 " Ilolden Putnam 

94 *• Wm. W. Orme 

95 '■ Lawr'n S. Church 

96 " Thos. E. Champion. ... 

97 " F.S.Rutherford 

98 " J. J. Funkhouscr 

99 '' G. W. K. Bailey 

100 '■ Fred. A. Bartleson 

101 " Chas. II. Fox 

102 " Wm. McMurtry 

10.3 " Amos C. Babcock 

104 " Absalom B. Moore 

105 " Daniel Dustin 

lOfi " Robert B. Latham 

IO7 " Thomas Snell 

10s " John Warner 

lOo " Alex. J. Nimmo 

lib '■ Thos. S. Casey 

111 " James S. Martin 

112 " T. J. Henderson 

113 '• Geo. B. Hoge 

114 ■' James W. Judy 

115 " Jesse H. Moore 

116 " Nathan H.Tupper 

117 " Risden M. Moore 

llH ■' John G. Fonda.. . 

II9 '• Thos. J. Keuney 

12(1 " George W. McKeaig — 

l2i .Vever organized 

122 Col. John I. Rinaker 

12:^ " James Moore 

124 " Thomas J. Sloan 

125 " Oscar F. Harmon 

126 " Jonathan Richmond 

127 " John VanArman 

12s " Robert M. Hudley 

12!) " George P. Smith 

130 " Nathaniel Nilcs 

131 " George W. Neeley 

132 " Thomas C. Pickett 

133 " Thad. Phillips 

134 " W. W McCheeney 

135 " Johns. Wolfe 

Date of organization and'Place where mustered 

muster into the United 
States service 

Aug. 21,1862., 

Sept. 4, 1862... 
Sept. 2. 1862.. 
.\ug, 22, 1862. 
*Sept. 3, 1862. 
Sept. 1, 1862... 
Aug. 28, 1862.. 
Aug. 2.5, 1862... 
Aug. 26, 1862.. 

Aug. 21, 1862.. 
Sept. 1. 1862.. 
Aug. 27, 1862. 

Sept. 22. 1862. . 
Aug. 27, 1862... 
*Aug 25, 186^.. 
Nov. 22, 1862.. 
Sept. 8, 1862... 
Sept. 4, 1862.... 
Oct. 13,1862.... 
Aug. 20, 1862... 
Sept. 4,1862... 
Sept. 6, 1S62... 
Sept. 8, 18(32.. 
Sept. 3. 1^6i .. 
Aug. 26, 1862. . 
Aug. 30, 1802. 
Sept. 2, 1862... 

Oct, 2, 1862. . . 
■Vug. 27. 1862. 
Sept. 2, 186^. 
Sept. 17, 1862. 
Sept. 4.1862.. 
.\ug. 28, 1862. 
Sept. 11, 18G1. 

Sept. 18, 1862. 
Sept. 12,1862.., 

Oct. 1.1862 

Sept. 18, 1S62. . . 
Sept. 13, 1862... 
Sept. 30 18(12... 
Sept. 19, 1862. . . 
Nov 29. 1S62. . 
Oct. 7, 1862... 
Oct. 29, 1862.... 


6 1862 . 
10 18G2. 
4, 1862.. 

*Sept. 5, 1862. 
Dec 18, 1862.. 
Sept. 8, 1862.. 
Oct. 25. ]8()5.. 
Nov. 13,1862.. 
June 1, 1864.. 
May 31,1864.. 

into tho 

United States 

June 6, 1864. 

Camp Douglas 

Camp Butler 




Peoria. ., 





Camp Butler . . . 






Camp Douglas 

Camp Douglas 

Camp Douglas 

Camp Butler 


Princeton and Chicago. . 




Camp Butler 


Florence, Pike Co., 








Camp Butler 




Salem. .. 


Camp Douglas 


Camp Butler 


Camp Butler 

Camp Butler 


Camp Butler 



Camp Butler... 



Camp Douglas. 
Camp Butler... 


Camp But'er. .. 
Camp ^lassac. . 

Camp Fry 

Camp Biiller. 

Cam]) Fry 



a — Ijq 

S " ™ 


• ovt 
(R a 




















































11 :» 














Schedule— Showing statement of volunteer troops organized within the State, and sent to the 
field, commencing April, 1861, and ending December 31, 1865, with number of regiment, name 
of original commanding; officer, date of organization and muster into United States' service, 
place of muster, and the aggregate strength of each organization. 

" ~ IN FANTR Y. 



Commanding officer at organiza- 

Col. Fred. A. Johns. 

John Wood. 

" J.W.Goodwin 

" Peter Davidson 

'• L.H.Whitney 

" Stephen Bronson 

" RoUin V. Ankney.. . 

" Dudley C. Smith 

'• Cyrus Hall 

" George W. Lackey. . 

" Henry II. Dean 

•' Hiram F. Sickles 

" Horace H. Wilsie 

" Wm. C. Kueffner 

" George W. Keener.. . . 

" French B. Woodall. . . 

" F. D. Stephenson 

" Stephen Bronson 

" McLean F.Wood.. .. 

" Gustavus A. Smith. . 

" Alfred F. Smith 

" J. W. Wilson 

" John A. Bross 

Capt. John Curtis 

'• Simon J. Stookey 

«' James Steele 

Date of organization and Place 
muster into the United '"' 
States service. 

:une 1, 1864... 
June 5. 1864... 
June 21, 18W.. 
June 1. 1864... 
June 18, 1864.. 
June 16, 1864.. 
June 18, 1864.. 
June 11,1864.. 
Oct. 21,1864... 
Junes, 1864... 
Sept. 20,1864.. 
Feb. 18, 1865... 

Feb. 11, 
Feb. 14, 
Feb. 25, 
Feb. 1«, 
Feb. 27, 
Feb. 22, 
Feb. 28, 
March 9. 

1865 . 
1865. . 
1865. . 
1865 . 

Dec. 1, 1861. 

where mustered 

into the United States 

June 21, 1864. 
June 15, 1864. 





Camp Butler.. 


Camp Butler. . 


A'ton, Ills 

Camp Butler.. 
Camp Butler.. 



Camp Butler. , 
Camp Butler.. 


Camp "Butler. , 


Camp Butler. 
Camp Butler. 




Camp Butler. 

J-.. O ■ 

o a> 

a CO 

■ S ^ 
































Col. Thomas A. Marshall 

" Silas Noble ... 

" Eugene A . Carr 

" T.Lyle Dickey 

" John J. Updegraff 

" Thomas H. Cavanaugh. 

" Wm. Pitt Kellogg 

" John F. Faruswortli. . . . 

" Al bert G. Brackett 

" James A. Barrett 

" Roberto. IngersoU 

" ArnoVoss 

" Joseph W.Bell 

" Horace Capron 

" Warren Stewart 

■' Christian Thielman 

" John L. Beveridge 

June, 1861 

Aug. 24, " 

Sept. 21, " 

Sept. 30, " 

December " 

Nov., '61, Jan. ,'62. 

August, "61 

Sept. 18, '61 

Oct. 26, '61 

Nov. 2.5, "61 

Dec. 20, '61 

Dec, '61, Feb.. '62.. 

Jan. 7, '63 

Organized Dec. 25, '63. 
Jan. and April, '63. .. . 
Jan. 28, '64 

Camp Butler... 
Camp Butler... 


Camp Butler... 
Camp Butler... 
Camp Butler... 
St. t harles.. .. 
Camp Douglas. 
Camp Butler... 


Camp Butler. . 
Camp Douglas. 
Peoria ... . . . 

Camp Butler.. . 
Camp Butler... 
St. Charles 





Field and Staff. 

Capt. C. M. Willard 

" Ezra Taylor 

" C. Haughtaling 

'• Edward Mc.Mlister. 

" A. C. Waterhouse.. 

" John T. Cheney ... 

" Artliur O'Leary 

" A.xel Silversparr 

" Edward Bouton 

'• A. Franklin 

" John Rourke 

" John B. Miller 


Oct. .31,1861. 
Jan. 14, '62... 
Dec. 19, 'HI... 
Feb. 25, "62.. 
Feb. 28, '62. 
Feb. 20, '62.. 
Feb. 15, '62... 
Jan. 9, '62.... 
Feb. 22, '62.. 
Aug. 12, '62 






Camp Butler.. 










ScETEDtrLE— Showing ptatement of volunteer troops organized within the State, and sent to the 
field commencing April, 1861, and ending December 31, 1865, with number of regiment, name 
of original commanding officer, date of organization and muster into United States service, 
place of muster, and the aggregate strength of each organization. 



Commanding officer at organiza- 

Date of organization and 
muster into the L'nited 
States service. 

Place where mustered 
into the United States 

Aggr. Btrength 
since organi- 


Capt. Peter Davidson Aug. i; 

Riley Madison June 20 

" Caleb Hopkins Aug. 5, '61 

" Jasper M. Dresser Dec. 17, '61 

" Adolph Schwartz Feb. 1. '62.. 

" John W. Powell Dec. 11, '61. 

" Charles J. Stolbrand Dec. 31, '61 

" Andrew Steinbeck 

" Charles W. Keith 

" Benjamin F.Rogers 

" William H. Bolton Feb. 28. 

" John C. Pliillips June 6, 

Field and Staff ' 

Recruits ' 

1861 Peoria 

'61 , Springfield . 





Cape Girardeau, Mo., 

Camp Butler 

Camp Butler 

Camp Butler. 

Camp Butler 





Board of Trade 
Springfield. . . . 



Henshaw's — 




Capt. James S. Stokes 

'* Thomas F. Vaughn 

"■ Charles G. Cooley 

" George W. Renwick... 

" William Coggswell... 

" Ed. C, Henshaw 

" Lyman Bridges 

" JohnH.Colvin 

July 31, 1862. 
Aug. 21, '62.. 
Aug. 29. '62 . . 
Nov. 15, '62.. 
Sept 2:}, '61.. 
Oct. 15. '62. . . 
Jan. 1, '62.... 
Oct. 10, '63. . . 


Camp Butler... 



Camp Douglas. 







Infantry 185.941 

Cavalrv 32.082 

ArtilleVv 7,277 


The code of chivalry so common among Southern gentlemen 
and so frequently brought into use in settling personal differences 
has also been called to settle the " affairs of honor " in our own 
State, however, but few times, and those in the earlier days. 
Several attempts at duels have occurred; before the disputants met 
in mortal combat the differences were amicably and satisfactorily 
settled; honor was maintained without the sacrifice of life. In 
1810 a law was adopted to suppress the practice of dueling. This 
law held the fatal result of dueling to be murder, and, as it was 
intended, had the effect of making it odious and dishonorable. 
Prior to the constitution of 18-18, parties would evade the law by 


going beyond the jurisdiction of the State to engage in their con- 
tests of honor. At that time they incorporated in the Constitution 
an oath of office, which was so broad as to cover the whole world. 
Any person who had ever fought a duel, ever sent or accepted a 
challenge or acted the part of second was disfranchised from holding 
office, even of minor importance. After this M^ent into effect, no 
other duel or attempt at a duel has been engaged in within the 
State of Illinois, save those fought by parties living outside of 
the State, who came here to settle their personal differences. 


The first duel fought within the boundaries of this great State 
was between two young military officers, one of the French and 
the other of the English army, in the year 1765. It was at the 
time the British troops came to take possession of Fort Chartres, 
and a woman was the cause of it. The affair occurred early 
Sunday morning, near the old fort. They fought with swords, and 
in the combat one sacrificed his life. 


In 1809 the next duel occurred and was bloodless of itself, but out 
of it grew a quarrel which resulted in the assassination of one of 
the contestants. The principals were Shadrach Bond, the first 
Governor, and Rice Jones, a bright young lawyer, who became quite 
a politician and the leader of his party. A personal difference arose 
between the two, which to settle, the parties met for mortal combat 
on an island in the Mississippi. The weapons selected were hair- 
trigger pistols. After taking their position Jones' weapon was 
prematurely discharged. Bond's second, Dunlap, now claimed that 
according to the code Bond had the right to the next fire. But 
Bond would not take so great advantage of his opponent, and said 
it was an accident and would not fire. Such noble conduct 
touched the generous nature of Jones, and the difficulty was at 
once amicably settled. Dunlap, however, bore a deadly hatred for 
Jones, and one day while he was standing in the street in Ivaskaskia, 
conversing with a lady, lie crept up behind him and shot him dead 
in his tracks. Dunlap successfully escaped to Texas. 


In 1812 the bloody code again brought two young men to the 
field of honor. They were Thomas Rector, a son of Capt. Stephen 


Rector who bore such a noble part in the war of 1812, ana Joshua 
Barton. Tlicy liad espoused the quarrel of older brothers. The 
affair occurred on Bloody Island, in the Mississippi, but in the 
limits of Illinois. This place was frequented so often by Missou- 
rians to settle personal difficulties, that it received the name of 
Bloody Island. Barton fell in this conflict. 


In 1819 occurred the first duel fought after the admission of the 
State into the Union. This took place in St. Clair county between 
Alphonso Stewart and William Bennett. It was intended to be a 
sham duel, to turn ridicule against Bennett, the challenging party- 
Stewart was in the secret but Bennett was left to believe it a 
reality. Their guns were loaded with blank cartridges. Bennett, 
suspecting a trick, put a ball into his gun without the knowledge 
of his seconds. The word "fire" was given, and Stewart fell 
mortally wounded. Bennett made his escape but was subsequently 
captured, convicted of murder and suffered the penalty of the law 
by hanging. 


In 1840 a personal difference arose between two State Senators, 
Judo-e Pearson and E. D. Baker. The latter, smarting under the 
epithet of "lalsehoud," threatened to chastise Pearson in the public 
streets, bv a " fist fight." Pearson declined making a "blackguard'' 
of himself but intimated a readiness to fight as gentlemen, accord- 
ing to the code of honor. The affair, however, was carried no 


The exciting debates in the Legislature in 1840-'41 were often 
bitter in personal "slings," and threats of combats were not 
infrequent. During these debates, in one of the speeclies by the 
Hon. J. J. Hardin, Hon. A. R. Dodge thought he discovered a 
personal insult, took exceptions, and an " affair" seemed imminent. 
The controversy was referred to friends, however, and amicably 


Hon. John A. McClernand, a member of the House, in a speech 
delivered during the same session made charges against the Whig 
Judges of the Supreme Court. This brought a note from Judge 


T. W. Smith, by the hands of liis " friend " Dr. Merriman, to 
McClernand. This was construed as a challenge, and promptly 
accepted, naming the place of meeting to be Missouri; time, early; 
the weapons, rifles; and distance, 40 paces. At this critical junc- 
ture, the Attorney General had a warrant issued against the Judge, 
whereupon he was arrested and placed under bonds to keep the 
peace. Thus ended this attempt to vindicate injured honor. 


During the hard times subsequent to the failure of the State and 
other banks, in 1842, specie became scarce while State money was 
plentiful, but worthless. The State officers thereupon demanded 
specie payment for taxes. This was bitterly opposed, and so fiercely 
contested that the collection of taxes was suspended. 

During the period of the greatest indignation toward the State 
ofiicials, under the nom de plume of " Rebecca," Abraham Lincoln 
had an article published in the Sangamo Journal^ entitled " Lost 
Township." In this article, written in the form of a dialogue, the 
officers of the State were roughly handled, and especially Auditor 
Shields. The name of the author was demaded from the editor by 
Mr. Shields, who was very indignant over the manner in which he 
was treated. The name of Abraham Lincoln was given as the 
author. It is claimed by some of his biographers, however, that 
the article was prepared by a lady, and that when the name of the 
author was demanded, in a spirit of gallantry, Mr. Lincoln gave 
his name. In company with Gen. Whiteside, Gen. Shields pur- 
sued Lincoln to Tremont, Tazewell county, where he was in attend- 
ance upon the court, and immediately sent him a note "requiring 
a full, positive and absolute retraction of all offensive allusions " 
made to him in relation to his "private character and standing as 
a man, or an apology for the insult conveyed." Lincoln had been 
forewarned, however, for William Butler and Dr. Merriman, of 
Springfield, had become acquainted with Shields' intentions and by 
riding all night arrived at Tremont ahead of Shields and informed 
Lincoln what he might expect. Lincoln answered Shields' note, 
refusing to offer any explanation, on the grounds that Shields' note 
assumed the fact of his (Lincoln's) authorship of the article, and 
not pointing out what the offensive part was, and accompanying the 
same with threats as to consequences, Mr. Shields answered this, 
disavowing all intention to menace ; inquired if he was the author, 


asked a retraction of that portion relating to his private character. 
Mr. Lincohi, still technical, returned this note with the verbal 
statement " that there could be no further negotiations until the 
first note was withdrawn." At this Shields named Gen. White- 
side as his " friend," when Lincoln reported Dr. Merriman as his 
"friend," These gentlemen secretly pledged themselves to agree 
upon some amicable terms, and compel their principals to accept 
them. The four went to Springfield, when Lincoln left for Jack- 
sonville, leaving the following instructions to guide his friend. Dr. 

" In case "Whiteside shall signify a wish to adjust this affair with- 
out further difficulty, let him know that if the present papers be 
withdrawn and a note from Mr. Shields, asking to know if I am the 
author of the articles of which he complains, and asking that I shall 
make him gentlemanly satisfaction, if I am the author, and this 
without menace or dictation as to what that satisfaction shall be, a 
pledge is made that the following answer shall be given: 

I did write the "Lost Township " letter which appeared in the Journal of the 
2d inst., but had no participation, in any form, in any other article alluding to 
you. I wrote that wholly for political effect. I had no intention of injuring 
your personal or private character or standing, as a man or gentleman ; and I did 
not then think, and do not now think, that that article could produce or has pro- 
duced that effect against you ; and, had I anticipated such an effect, would have 
foreborne to write it. And I will add that your conduct toward me, so far as I 
know, had always been gentlemanly, and that I had no personal pique against 
you, and no cause for any. 

" If this should be done, I leave it to you to manage what shall 
and what shall not be published. If nothing like this is done, the 
preliminaries of the fight are to be: 

" 1st. Weapons. — Cavalry broad swords of the largest size, pre- 
cisely equal in all respects, and such as are now used l)y the cavalry 
company at Jacksonville. 

" 2d. Position. — A plank ten feet long and from nine to twelve 
inches broad, to be firmly fixed on edge, on the ground, as a line 
between us which neither is to pass his foot over on forfeit of his 
life. Next a line drawn on the ground on either side of said plank, 
and parallel with it, each at the distance of the whole length of the 
sword, and three feet additional from the plank; and the passing of 
his own such line by either party during the fight, shall be deemed 
a surrender of the contest. 


"3d. Time. — On Thursday evening at 5 o'clock, if you can get 
it so; l»ut in no case to be at a greater distance of time than Friday 

evening at 5 o'clock. 

"4:th. Place. — Within three miles of Alton, on the opposite 
side of the river, the particular spot to be agreed on by you. 

" Any preliminary details coming within the aboverules, you are 
at liberty to make at your discretion, but you are in no case to 
swerve from these rules, or pass beyond their limits." 

The position of the contestants, as prescribed by Lincoln, seems 
to have been such as both would have been free from coming in 
contact with the sword of the other, and the first impression is that 
it is nothing more than one of Lincoln's jokes. He possessed very 
lono" arms, however, and could reach his adversary at the stipulated 

I^ot being amicably arranged, all parties repaired to the field of 
combat in Missouri. Gen. Hardin and .Dr. English, as mutual 
friends of both Lincoln and Shields, arrived in the meantime, and 
after much correspondence at their earnest solicitation the affair 
was satisfactorily arranged, Lincoln making a statement similar to 
the one above referred to. 


William Butler, one of Lincoln's seconds, was dissatisfied with 
the bloodless termination of the Lincoln-Shields affair, and wrote an 
account of it for the Sangamo Journal. This article reflected dis- 
creditably upon both the principals engaged in that controversy. 
Shields replied by the hands of his friend Gen. Whiteside, in a 
curt, menacing note, which was promptly accepted as a challenge 
by Butler, and the inevitable Dr. Merriman named as his friend, 
who submitted the following as preliminaries of the fight: 

Time. — Sunrise on the following morning. 

Place. — Col. Allen's farm (about one mile north of State House.) 
Weapons. — Rifles. 

Distance. — One hundred yards. 

The parties to stand with their right sides toward each other — 
the rifles to be held in both hands horizontally and cocked, arms 
extended downwards. Neither party to move his person or his 
rifle after being placed, before the word fire. The signal to be: 
"Are you ready? Fire! one — two — three!" about a second of 


time intervening between each word. JSTeitlier party to fire before 
the word '' fire," nor after the word " three." 

Gen. Wliiteside, in language cnrt and abrupt, addressed a note to 
Dr. Merriman declining to accept the terms. Gen. Shields, how- 
ever, addressed another note to Butler, explaining the feelings of 
his second, and offering to go out to a lonely place on the prairie to 
figlit, where there would be no danger of being interrupted; or, if 
that did not suit, he M'ould meet him on his own conditions, when 
and where he pleased. Butler claimed the affair was closed and 
declined the proposition. 


Now Gen. "Whiteside and Dr. Merriman, who several times had 
acted in the capacity of friends or seconds, were to handle the 
deadly weapons as principals. While second in the Shields-Butler 
^^5(7(9, Whiteside declined the terms proposed by Butler, in curt 
and abrupt language, stating that tlie place of combat could not be 
dictated to him, for it was as much his right as Merriman's, who, 
if he was a gentleman, would recognize and concede it. To this 
Merriman replied by the hands of Capt. Lincoln. It will be 
remembered that Merriman had acted in the same capacity for Lin- 
coln. Whiteside then wrote to Merriman, asking to meet him at 
St. Louis, when he would hear from him further. To this Merri- 
man replied, denying his right to name place, but offered to meet 
in Louisiana, Mo. This Whiteside would not agree to, but later 
signified his desire to meet him there, but the aff'air being closed, 
the doctor declined to re-open it, 


These two gentlemen were members of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1847, and both from Jo Davies county. A dispute arose 
which ended in a challenge to meet on the field of honor. They 
both repaired to St. Louis, but the authorities gaining knowledge 
of their bloody intentions, had both parties arrested, which ended 
this " aff'air." 


The dress, habits, etc., of a people throw so much light upon their 
conditions and limitations that in order better to show the circum- 
stances surrounding the people of the State, we will give a short 


exposition of the manner of life of our Illinois people at different 
epochs. The Indians themselves are credited by Charlevoix with 
being "very laborious," — raising poultry, spinning the wool of the 
buffalo and manufacturing garments therefrom. These must have 
been, however, more than usually favorable representatives of their 


" The working and voyaging dress of the French masses," says 
Keynolds, "was simple and primitive. The French were like the 
lilies of the valley (the Old Ranger was not always exact in his 
quotations), — they neither spun nor wove any of their clothing, but 
purchased it from the merchants. The white blanket coat, known 
as the capot, was the universal and eternal coat for the winter with 
the masses. A cape was made of it that could be raised over the 
head in cold weather. 

" In the house, and in good weather, it hung behind, a cape to 
the blanket coat. The reason that I know these coats so well is, 
that I have worn many in my youth, and a working man never wore 
a better garment. Dressed deer-skins and blue cloth were worn 
commonly in the winter for pantaloons. The blue handkerchief 
and the deer-skin moccasins covered the head and feet generally of 
the French Creoles. In 1800, scarcely a man thought himself clothed 
unless he had a belt tied around his blanket coat, and on one side 
was hung the dressed skin of a pole-cat, filled with tobacco, pipe, 
flint and steel. On the other side was fastened, under the belt, the 
the butcher-knife. A Creole in this dress felt like Tarn O'Shanter 
filled with usquebaugh; he could face the devil. Checked calico 
shirts were then common, but in winter flannel was frequently 
worn. In the summer the laboring men and the voyagers often 
took their shirts off in hard work and hot weather, and turned out 
the naked back to the air and sun." 

" Among the Americans," he adds, "home-made wool hats were 
the common wear. Fur hats were not common, and scarcely a boot 
was seen. The covering of the feet in winter was chiefly moccasins 
made of deer-skins, and shoe packs of tanned leather. Some wore 
shoes, but not common in very early times. In the summer the 
greater portion of the young people, male and female, and many of 
the old, went barefoot. The substantial and universal outside wear 
was the blue linsey hunting-shirt. This is an excellent garment, 
and I have never felt so happy and healthy since I laid it off. It is 














made of wide sleeves, open before, with ample size so as to envelop 
the body almost twice around. Sometimes it had a large cape, 
which answers well to save the shoulders from the rain. A belt is 
mostly used to keep the garment close around the person, and, 
nevertheless, there is nothing tight about it to hamper the body. 
It is often fringed, and at times the fringe is composed of red, and 
other gay colors. The belt, frequently, is sewed to the hunting-shirt. 
The vest was mostly made of striped linsey. The colors were made 
often with alum, copperas and madder, boiled with the bark of trees, 
in such a manner and proportions as the old ladies prescribed. The 
pantaloons of the masses were generally made of deer-skin and 
linsey. Course blue cloth was sometimes made into pantaloons. 

" Linsey, neat and fine, manufactured at home, composed generally 
the outside garments of the females as well as the males. The 
ladies had linsey colored and woven to suit their fancy. A bonnet, 
composed of calico, or some gay goods, was worn on the head when 
they were in the open air. Jewelry on the pioneer ladies was 
uncommon; a gold ring was an ornament not often seen." 

In 1820 a change of dress began to take place, and before 1830, 
according to Ford, most of the pioneer costume had disappeared. 
"The blue linsey hunting-shirt, with red or white fringe, had given 
place to the cloth coat. [Jeans would be more like the fact.] The 
raccoon cap, with the tail of the animal dangling down behind, had 
been thrown aside for hats of wool or fur. Boots and shoes had 
supplied the deer-skin moccasins; and the leather breeches, strapj^ed 
tight around the ankle, had disappeared before unmentionables of a 
more modern material. The female sex had made still greater pro. 
gress in dress. The old sort of cotton or woolen frocks, spun, woven 
and made with their own fair hands, and striped and cross- barred 
with blue dye and turkey red, had given place to gowns of silk and 
calico. The feet, before in a state of nudity, now charmed in shoes 
of calf-skin or slippers of kid; and the head, formerly unbonneted, 
but covered with a cotton handkerchief, now displayed the charms 
of the female face under many forms of bonnets of straw, silk and 
leghorn. The young ladies, instead of walking a mile or two to 
church on Sunday, carrying their shoes and stockings in their hands 
until within a hundred yards of the place of worship, as formerly, 
now came forth arrayed complete in all the pride of dress, mounted 
on fine horses and attended by their male admirers." 


The last half century has doubtless witnessed changes quite as 
great as those set forth by our Illinois historian. The chronicler 
of to-day, looking back to the golden days of 1830 to 1840, and 
comparing them with the present, must be struck with the tendency 
of an almost monotonous uniformity in dress and manners that 
comes from the easy inter-communication afforded by steamer, rail- 
way, telegraph and newspaper. Home manufacturers have been 
driven from the household by the lower-priced fabrics of distant 
mills. The Kentucky jeans, and the copperas-colored clothing of 
home manufacture, so familiar a few years ago, have given place to 
the cassiraeres and cloths of noted factories. The ready-made- 
clothing stores, like a touch of nature, made the whole world kin- 
and may drape the charcoal man in a dress-coat and a stove-pipe 
hat. The prints and silks of England and France give a variety of 
choice, and an assortment of colors and shades such as the pioneer 
women could hardly have dreamed of. Godey, and Demorest, and 
Harper's Bazar are found in our modern farm-houses, and the latest 
fashions of Paris are not uncommon. 


In area the State has 55,410 square miles of territory. It is 
about 150 miles wide and 400 miles long, stretching in latitude 
from Maine to North Carolina. The climate varies from Portland 
to Richmond. It favors every product of the continent, including 
the tropics, with less than half a dozen exceptions. It produces 
every great food of the world except bananas and rice. It is hardly 
too much to say that it is the most productive spot known to civil- 
ization. With the soil full of bread and the earth full of minerals; 
with an upper surface of food and an under layer of fuel; with per- 
fect natural drainage, and abundant springs, and streams, and navi- 
gable rivers; half way between the forests of the North and the 
fruits of the South; within a day's ride of the great deposits of 
iron, coal, copper, lead and zinc; and containing and controlling 
the great grain, cattle, pork and lumber markets of the world, it is 
not strange that Illinois has the advantage of position. 

There are no mountains in Illinois; in the southern as well as in 
the northern part of the State there are a few hills; near the banks 
pf the Illinois, Mississippi, and several other rivers, the ground is 


elevated, forming the so-called bluffs, on which at the present day 
may be found, uuetfaced by the hand of Time, the marks and traces 
left by the water which was formerly much higher; whence it may 
be safe to conclude that, where now the fertile prairies of Illinois 
extend, and the rich soil of the country yields its golden harvests, 
must have been a vast sheet of water, the mud deposited by which 
formed the soil, thus accounting for the present great fertility of the 

Illinois is a garden 400 miles long and 150 miles wide. Its soil 
is chiefly a black, sandy loam, from 6 inches to 60 feet thick. About 
the old French towns it has yielded corn for a century and a half 
without rest or help. She leads all other States in the number 
of acres actually under plow. Her mineral wealth is scarcely 
second to her agricultural power. She has coal, iron, lead, zinc, 
copper, many varieties of building stone, marble, fire clay, cuma 
clay, common brick clay, sand of all kinds, gravel, mineral paint, — 
in fact, everything needed for a high civilization. 


If any State of the Union is adapted for agriculture, and the other 
branches of rural economy relating thereto, such as the raising of 
cattle and the culture of fruit trees, it is pre-eminently Illinois. 
Her extremely fertile prairies recompense the farmer at less 
trouble and expense than he would be obliged to incur elsewhere, in 
order to obtain the same results. Her rich soil, adapted by nature 
for immediate culture, only awaits the plow and tiie seed in order 
to mature, within a few mouths, a most bountiful harvest. A 
review of statistics will be quite interesting to the reader, as well as 
valuable, as showing the enormous quantities of the various cereals 
produced in our prairie State: 

In 1S76 there was raised in the State 130,000,000 of bushels of 
corn, — twice as much as any other State, and one-sixth of all the corn 
raised in the United States. It would take 375,000 cars to transport 
this vast amount of corn 1o market, which would make 15,000 trains 
of 25 cars each. She harvested 2,747.000 tons of hay, nearly one- 
tenth of all the hay in the Republic. It is not generally appreciated, 
but it is true, that the hay crop of the country is worth more than 
the cotton crop. The hay of Illinois equals the cotton of Louisiana* 



Go to Charleston, S. C, and see them peddling handfuls of hay or 
grass, almost as a curiosity, as we regard Chinese gods or the cryo- 
lite of Greenland; drink your coffee and condensed milk; and walk 
back from the coast for many a league through the sand and burs 
till you get up into the better atmosphere of the mountains, with- 
out seeing a waving meadow or a grazing herd; then you will begin 
to appreciate the meadows of the Prairie State. 

The value of her farm implements was, in 1876, $211,000,000, 
and the value of live stock was only second to New York. The 
same year she had 25,000,000 hogs, and packed 2,113,845, about 
one-half of all that were packed in the United States. She marketed 
$57,000,000 worth of slaughtered animals, — more than any other 
State, and a seventh of all tlie States. 

Illinois excels all other States in miles of railroads and in miles 
of postal service, and in money orders sold per annum, and in the 
amount of lumber sold. 

Illinois was only second in many important matters, taking the 
reports of 1876. This sample list comprises a few of the more 
important: Permanent school fund; total income for educational 
purposes; number of publishers of books, maps, papers, etc.; value 
of farm products and implements, and of live stock; in tons of coal 

The shipping of Illinois was only second to New York. Out of 
one port during the business hours of the season of navigation she 
sent forth a vessel every nine minutes. This did not include canal- 
boats, which went one every five minutes. 

No wonder she was only second in number of bankers or in phy- 
sicians and surgeons. 

She was third in colleges, teachers and schools; also in cattle, 
lead, hay, flax, sorghum and beeswax. 

She was fourth in population, in children enrolled in public 
schools, in law schools, in butter, potatoes and carriages. 

She was fifth in value of real and personal property, in theologi- 
cal seminaries, and colleges exclusively for women, in milk sold, 
and in boots and shoes manufactured, and in book-binding. 

She was only seventh in the production of wood, while she was 
the twelfth in area. Surely that was well done for the Prairie State. 
She then had, in 1876, much more wood and growing timber than 
she had thirty years before. 


A few leading industries will justify emphasis. She manufactured 
$205,000,000 worth of goods, which phiced her well up toward 
New York and Pennsylvania. The number of her manufacturing 
establishments increased from 1860 to 1870, 300 per cent. ; capital 
employed increased 350 per cent.; and the amount of product in- 
creased 400 per cent. She issued 5,500,000 copies of commercial 
and financial newspapers, being only second to New York. She had 
6,759 miles of railroad, then leading all otlier States, worth $636,- 
458,000, using 3,245 engines, and 67,712 cars, making a train long 
enough to cover one-tenth of the entire roads of the State. Her 
stations were only five miles apart. She carried, in 1876, 15,795,- 
000 passengers an average of 36|- miles, or equal to taking her 
entire ])opulation twice across the State. More than two-thirds of 
her land was within five miles of a railroad, and less than two per 
cent, was more than fifteen miles away 

The State has a large financial interest in the Illinois Central 
railroad. The road was incorporated m 1850, and the State gave 
each alternate section for six miles on each side, and doubled the 
price of the remaining land, so keeping herself good. The road 
received 2,595,000 acres of land, and paid to the State one-seventh 
of the gross receipts. The State received in 1877, $350,000, and 
had received up to that year in all about $7,000,000. It was prac- 
tically the people's road, and it had a most able and gentlemanly 
management. Add to the above amount the annual receipts from 
the canal, $111,000, and a large per cent, of the State tax was pro- 
vided for- 


Shadrach Bond — Was the first Governor of Illinois. He was a 
native of Maryland and born in 1773; was raised on a farm; re- 
ceived a common English education, and came to Illinois in 1794. 
He served as a delegate in Congress from 1811 to 1815, where he 
procured the right of pre-emption of public land. He was elected 
Governor in 1818; was beaten for Congress in 1824 by Daniel P. 
Cook He died at Kaskaskia, April 11, 1830. 

Edward Coles — Was born Dec. 15, 1786, in Yirgiuia. His father 
was a slave-holder; gave his son a collegiate education, and left to 
him a large number of slaves. These he liberated, giving each 
head of a family 160 acres of land and a considerable sum of money. 



He was President Madison's private secretary. He came to Illinois 
in 1819, was elected Governor in 1822, on the anti-slavery ticket; 
moved to Philadelphia in 1833, and died in 1868. 

Niiiian Edwards. — In 1809, on the formation of the Territory of 
Illinois, Mr. Edwards was appointed Governor, which position he 
retained until the organization of the State, when he was sent to 
the United States Senate. He was elected Governor in 1826. He 
was a native of Maryland and born in 1775; received a collegiate 
education; was Chief Justice of Kentucky, and a Eepublican in 

Joh7i Reynolds — Was born in Pennsylvania in 1788, and came 
with his parents to Illinois in 1800, and in 1830 was elected Gov- 
ernor on the Democratic ticket, and afterwards served three terms 
in Congress. He received a classical education, yet was not polished. 
He was an ultra Democrat; attended the Charleston Convention in 
1860, and urged the seizure of United States arsenals by the 
South. He died in 1865 at Belleville, childless. 

Joseph Duncan. — In 1834 Joseph Duncan was elected Governor 
by the Whigs, although formerly a Democrat. He had previously 
served four terms in Congress. He was born in Kentucky in 1794; 
had but a limited education; served with distinction in the war of 
1812; conducted the campaign of 1832 against Black Hawk. He 
came to Illinois when quite young. 

Thomas Carlin — Was elected as a Democrat in 1838. He had 
but a meager education ; held many minor offices, and was active 
both in the war of 1812 and the Black Hawk war. He was born in 
Kentucky in 1789; came to Illinois in 1812, and died at Carrollton, 
Feb. 14, 1852. 

Thomas Ford — Was born in Pennsylvania in the year 1800 ; was 
brought by his widowed mother to Missouri in 1804, and shortly 
afterwards to Illinois. He received a good education, studied law; 
was elected four times Judge, twice as Circuit Judge, Judge of 
Chicago and Judge of Supreme Court. He was elected Governor 
by the Democratic party in 1842; wrote his history of Illinois in 
1847 and died in 1850, 

Augustus C. French — Was born in New Hampshire in 1808; 
was admitted to the bar in 1831, and shortly afterwards moved to 
Illinois when in 1846 he was elected Governor. On the adoption 
of the Constitution of 1848 he was again chosen, serving until 1853. 
He was a Democrat m iDolitics. 



Joel A. Matteson — Was born in Jefferson county, N". Y., in 1808. 
His father was a farmer, and gave his son only a common school 
education. He first entered upon active life as a small tradesman, 
but subsequently became a large contractor and manufacturer. He 
was a lieavy contractor in building the Canal. He was elected Gov- 
ernor in 1852 upon the Democratic ticket. 

William H. Blssell — Was elected by the liepublican party in 
1856. He had previously served two terms in Congress; was 
colonel in the Mexican war and has held minor official positions. He 
was born in JS'ew York State in 1811; received a common educa- 
tion; came to Illinois early in life and engaged in the medical pro- 
fession. This he changed for the law and became a noted orator, 
and the standard bearer of the Republican party in Illinois. He 
died in 1860 while Governor. 

Bichard Yates — "The war Governor of Illinois," was born in 
Warsaw, Ky., in 1818; came to Illinois in 1831: served two terms 
in Congress; in 1860 was elected Governor, and in 1865 United 
States Senator. He was a college graduate, and read law under J. J. 
Hardin. He rapidly rose m his chosen profession and charmed the 
people with oratory. He filled the gubernatorial chair during the 
trying days of the Rebellion, and by his energy and devotion won 
the title of " War Governor." He became addicted to strona: drink, 
and died a drunkard. 

Richard J. Ogleshy — Was born in 1824, in Kentucky; an orphan 
at the age of eight, came to Illinois when only 12 years old. He 
was apprenticed to learn the carpenter's trade; worked some at 
farming and read law occasionally. He enlisted in the Mexican 
War and was chosen First Lieutenant. After his return he ao-ain 
took up the law, but during the gold fever of 1849 went to Califor- 
nia; soon returned, and, in 1852, entered upon his illustrious 
political career. He raised the second regiment in the State, to 
suppress the Rebellion, and for gallantry was promoted to Major 
General. In 1864 he was elected Governor, and re-elected in 1872, 
and resigned for a seat in the United States Senate. He is a staunch 
Republican and resides at Decatur. 

Shelby M. Cullom — Was born in Kentucky in 1828; studied 
law, was admitted to the bar, and commenced the practice of his 
profession in 1848; was elected to the State Legislature in 1856, 
and again in 1860. Served on the war commission at Cairo, 1862, 


and was a member of the 39th, 40th and 41st Congress, in all of which 
he served with credit to his State. He was ao-ain elected to the 
State Legislature in 1872, aad re-elected in 1874, and was elected 
Governor of Illinois in 1876, which office he still holds, and has 
administered with marked ability. 


Pierre Menard — Was the first Lieut. Gov. of Illinois. He was 
born in Quebec, Canada, in 1767. He came to Illinois in 1790 
where he engaged in the Indian trade and became wealthy. He 
died in 1844. Menard county was named in his honor. 

Adolphus F. Hubbard — Was elected Lieut. Gov. in 1822. Four 

years later he ran for Governor against Edwards, but was beaten. 

William Kinney — Was elected in 1826. He was a Baptist 

clergyman; was born in Kentucky in 1781 and came to Illinois in 


Zadock Casey — Although on the opposition ticket to Governor 
Reynolds, the successful Gubernatorial candidate, yet Casey was 
elected Lieut. Gov. in 1830. He subsequently served several terms 
in Congress. 

Alexander M. Jenkins — Was elected on ticket with Gov. Duncan 
in 1834 by a handsome majority. 

8. H. Anderson — Lieut. Gov. under Gov. Cariin, was chosen in 
1838. He was a native of Tennessee. 

John Moore — Was born in England in 1793; came to Illinois in 
1830; was elected Lieut. Gov. in 1842. He won the name of 
" Honest John Moore." 

Joseph B. Wells — Was chosen with Gov. French at his first 
election m 18i6. 

William McMurtry. — In 1848 when Gov. French was again 
chosen Governor, William McMurtry of Knox county, was elected 
Lieut. Governor. 

Gustavus P. Koerner — Was elected in 1852. He was born in 
Germany in 1809. At the age of 22 came to Illinois. In 1872 he 
was a candidate for Governor on Liberal ticket, but was defeated, 

John Wood — Was elected in 1856, and on the death of Gov. 
Bissell became Governor. 

Francis A. Hoffman — Was chosen with Gov. Yates in 1860. 
He was born in Prussia in 1822, and came to Illinois in 1840. 







William Bross — Was born in New Jersey, came to Illinois in 
1848, was elected to office in 1864. 

John Dougherty — "Was elected in 1868. 

John L. Beveredge — Was chosen Lieut. Gov. in 1872. In 1873 
Oglesby was elected to the U. S. Senate when Beveridge became 

Andrew Shuman — Was elected Kov. 7, 1876, and is the present 


Ninian W. Edwards 1854-56 

W. H. Powell 1857-58 

Newton Baleman 1859-75 

Samuel M. Etter 1876 


Daniel P. Cook 1819 

William Mears 1820 

Samuel D. Lockwood 1821-22 

James Turney 1823-28 

George Forquer 1829-32 

James Semple 1833-34 

Nmian E. Edwards 1834-35 

Jesse B. Thomas, Jr 1835 

Walter B. Scates 1836 

Asher F. Linder 1837 

Geo. W. Olney 1838 

Wickliffe Kitchell 1839 

Josiah Lamborn 1841-42 

James A. McDougall 1843-46 

David B. Campbell 1846 

[Office abolished and re-created in 1867] 

Robert G. Ingersoll 1867-68 

Washington Bushnell 1869-72 

James K. Edsall 1873-79 


John Thomas 1818-19 

E. K. McLaughlin 1819-22 

Ebner Field 1823-26 

James Hall 1827-30 

John Dement 1831-30 

Charles Gregory 1836 

John D. Whiteside 1837-40 

M. Carpenter 1841-48 

John Moore 1848-56 

James Miller 1857-60 

William Butler 1861-62 

Alexander Starne 1863-64 

James H. Beveridge 1865-66 

George W. Smith 1867-68 

Erastus N. Bates 1869-72 

Edward Rutz 1873-75 

Thomas S. Ridgeway 1876-77 

Edward Rutz 1878-.79 


Elias K. Kane 1818-22 Thompson Campbell 1843-46 

Samuel D. Lockwood 1822-23 

David Blackwell 1823-24 

Morris Birkbeck 1824 

George Forquer 1825-28 

Alexander P. Field 1829-40 

Stephen A. Douglas 1840 

Lyman Trumbull 1841-42 

Horace S. Cooley 1846-49 

David L. Gregg 1850-52 

Alexander Starne 1853-56 

Ozias M. Hatch 1857-60 

Sharon Tyndale 1865-68 

Edward Rummel 1869-72 

George H. Harlow 1873-79 



Elijah C. Berry 1818-31 Thompson Campbell 1846 

I. T. B. Stapp 1831-35 Jesse K. Dubois 1857-64 

Levi Davis 1835-40 Orlin H. Miner 1865-68 

James Shields 1841-42 Charles E. Lippencott 1809-76 

W. L. D. Ewing 1843-45 Thompson B. Needles 1877-79 


Ninian Edwards. — On the organization of the State in 1818, 
Edwards, the popular Territorial Governor, was chosen Senator for 
the short term, and in 1819 re-elected for full term. 

Jesse B. Thomas — One of the federal judges during the entire 
Territorial existence was chosen Senator on organization of the 
State, and re-elected in 1S23, and served till 1829. 

John McLean — In 1824 Edwards resigned, and McLean was 
elected to fill his unexpired term. He was born in North Carolina 
in 1791, and came to Illinois in 1815; served one term in Congress, 
and in 1829 was elected to the U. S. Senate, but the following year 
died. He is said to have been the most gifted man of his period in 

Elias Kent Kane—W^iS elected Nov. 30, 1824, for the term be- 
o-innino- March 4, 1825. In 1830 he W'as re-elected, but died before 


the expiration of his term. He was a native of New York, and in 
1814 came to Illinois. He was first Secretary of State, and after- 
wards State Senator. 

David Jewett Baker— W&s appointed to fill the unexpired term 
of John McLean, in 1830, Nov. 12, but the Legislature refused to 
endorse the choice. Baker was a native of Connecticut, born in 
1T92, and died in Alton in 1869. 

JohnM. RoUnso7i. — Instead of Baker, the Governor's appointee, 
the Legislature chose Robinson, and in 1834 he was re-elected. In 
1843 was elected Supreme Judge of the State, but within two 
months died. He was a native of Kentucky, and came to Illinois 
while quite young. 

William L. D. Ewing— Was elected in 1835, to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the death of Kane. He was a Kentuckian. 

Richard M. Young— Was. elected in 1836, and held his seat 
from March 4, 1837, to March 4, 1843, a full term. He was a 


native of Kentucky; was Circuit Judge before his election to the 
Senate, and Supreme Judge in 1842. He died in an insane asylum 
at Washington. 

Samuel McRoberts — The first native Illinoisian ever elevated to 
the high office of U. S. Senator from this State, was born in 1T99, 
and died in 18-i3 on his return home from Washington. lie was 
elected Circuit Judge in 1824, and" March 4, 1841, took his seat in 
the U. S. Senate. 

Sidneij Breese—^'A% elected to the U. S. Senate, Dec. 17, 1842, 
and served a full term. He was born in Oneida county, N. Y. 
He was Major in the Black Hawk war; Circuit Judge, and in 1841 
was elected Supreme Judge. He served a full term in the U. S. 
Senate, beginning March 4, 1843, after which he was elected to the 
Legislature, again Circuit Judge, and, in 1857, to the Supreme 
Court, which position he held until his death in 1878. 

James Semple — Was the successor of Samuel McRoberts, and 
was appointed by Gov. Ford in 1843. He was afterwards elected 
Judge of the Supreme Court. 

Stephen A. Douglas — Was elected Dec. 14, 1846. He had pre- 
viously served three terms as Congressman. He became his own 
successor in 1853 and again in 1859. From his first entrance in the 
Senate he was acknowledged the peer of Clay, Webster and Cal- 
houn, with whom he served his first term. His famous contest 
with Abraham Lincoln for the Senate in 1858 is the most memor- 
able in the annals of our country. It was called the battle of the 
giants, and resulted in Douglas' election to the Senate, and Lincoln 
to the Presidency. He was born in Brandon, Vermont, April 23, 
1813, and came to Illinois in 1833, and died in 1861. He was 
appointed Secretary of State by Gov. Carlin in 1840, and shortly 
afterward to the Supreme Bench. 

James Shields — Was elected and assumed his seat in the U. S. 
Senate in 1849, March 4. He was born in Ireland in 1810, came 
to the United States in 1827. He served in the Mexican army, was 
elected Senator from Wisconsin, and in 1879 from Missouri for a 
short term. 

Lyman Trumlull — Took his seat in the [J. S. Senate March 4, 
1855, and became his own successor in 1861. He had previously 
served one term in the Lower House of Congress, and served on 
the Supreme Bench. He was born in Connecticut; studied law 


and came to Illinois early in life, where for years he was actively 
engaged in politics. He resides in Chicago. 

Orvill H. Browning — Was appointed U. S. Senator in 1861, to 
fill the seat made vacant by the death of Stephen A. Douglas, until 
a Senator could be regularly elected. Mr. Browning was born in 
Harrison county, Kentucky; was admitted to the bar in 1831, and 
settled in Quincy, Illinois, where he engaged in the practice of law, 
and was instrumental, with his friend, Abraham Lincoln, in form- 
ing the Republican party of Illinois at the Bloomington Conven- 
tion. He entered Johnson's cabinet as Secretary of the Interior, 
and in March, 1868, was designated by the President to perform the 
duties of Attorney General, in addition to his own, as Secretary of 
the Interior Department. 

William A. Richardson — Was elected to the U. S. Senate in 
1863, to fill the unexpired term of his friend, Stephen A Douglas. 
He was born in Fayette county, Ky., about 1810, studied law, 
and settled in Illinois; served as captain in the Mexican War, and, 
on the battle-field of Buena Vista, was promoted for bravery, by a 
unanimous vote of his regiment. He served in the Lower House 
of Congress from 1847 to 1856, continually. 

Richard Yates — Was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1865, serv- 
ing a full term of six years. He died in St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 2Y, 

John A. Logan — Was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1871. He 
was born in Jackson county. 111., Feb. 9, 1826, received a common 
school education, and enlisted as a private in the Mexican War, 
where he rose to the rank of Regimental Quartermaster, On 
returning home he studied law, and came to the bar in 1852; was 
elected in 1858 a Representative to the 36th Congress and re-elected 
to the 37th Congress, resigning in 1861 to take part in the sup- 
pression of the Rebellion; served as Colonel and subsequently as a 
Major General, and commanded, with distinction, the armies of 
the Tennessee. He was again elected to the U. S. Senate in 1879 
for six years. 

David Davis — Was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1877 for a term 
of six years. He was born in Cecil county, Md., March 9, 1815, 
graduated at Kenyon College, Ohio, studied law, and removed to 
Illinois in 1835; was admitted to the bar and settled in Blooming- 
ton, where he has since resided and amassed a large fortune. He 


was for many years the intimate friend and associate of Abraham 
Lincoln, rode the circuit with him each year, and after Lincohi's 
election to the Presidency, was appointed by him to fill the position 
of Judge of the Supreme Court of the United States. 



Jolin McLean 1818 Daniel P. Cook 1825-26 


Daniel P. Cook 1819-20 Joseph Duncan 1827-28 


Daniel P. Cook 1821-22 Joseph Duncan 1829-30 


Daniel P. Cook 1823-24 Joseph Duncan 1831-32 


Joseph Duncan 1833-34 Zadock Casey 1833-34 


Zadock Casey 1835-36 William L. May 1835-36 

John Reynolds 1835-36 


Zadock Casey 1837-38 William L. May 1837-38 

John Reynolds 1837-38 


Zadock Casey.... 1839-iO John T. Stuart 1839-40 

John Reynolds 1839-40 


Zadock Casey 1841^2 John T. Stuart 1841-42 

John Reynolds 1841^2 


Robert Smith 1843-44 Joseph P. Hoge 1843-44 

Orlando B. Finklin 1843^4 John J. Hardin 1843-44 

Stephen A. Douglas 1843-44 John Wentworth 1843-44 

John A. McClernand 1843^4 


Robert Smith 1845-46 Joseph P. Hoge 1845-46 

Stephen A. Douglas 1845^6 John A. McClernand 1845-46 

Orlando B. Finklin 1845-46 John Wentworth 1845-46 

John J. Hardin 1845 


John Wentworth 1847-48 Orlando B. Finklin 1847-48 

Thomas J. Turner 1847 Robert Smith 1847-48 

Abraham Lincoln 1847-48 William A. Richardson 1847-48 

John A. McClernand 1847^8 



John A. McClernand 1849-50 Edward D. Baker. 1849-50 

John Wentworth 1849-50 William H. Bissell 1849-50 

Timothy R. Young 1849-50 Thomas L. Harris 1849 

William A. Richardson. 1849-50 


William A. Richardson. 1851-52 Richard Yates 1851-53 

Thompson Campbell . .1851-53 Richard S. Maloney 1851-52 

Orlando B. Finkliu 1851-53 AVillis 1851-52 

John Wentworth 1851-52 William H. Bissell 1851-52 


William H. Bissell 1853-54 Thompson Campbell 1853-54 

John C. Allen 1853-54 James Knox 1853-54 

Willis 1853-54 Jesse O. Norton 1853-54 

Elihu B. Washburne 1853-54 William A. Richardson 1863-54 

Richard Yates 1853-54 


Elihu B. Washburne 1855-56 Samuel S. Marshall 1855-56 

Lyman Trumbull 1855-56 J. L. D. Morrison 1855-56 

James H. Woodworth 1855-56 John C. Allen 1855-56 

James Knox.. 1855-56 Jesse O. Norton 1855-56 

Thompson Campbell 1855-56 William A. Richardson 1855-56 


Elihu B. Washburne .1857-58 Samuel 8. Marshall 1857-58 

Charles D. Hodges 1857-58 Isaac N. Morris 1857-58 

William Kellogg 1857-58 Aaron Shaw 1857-58 

Thompson Campbell 1857-58 Robert Smith 1857-58 

John F. Farnsworth 1857-58 Thomas L. Harris 1857-58 

Owen Lovejoy 1857-58 


Elihu B. Washburne 1859-60 John F. Farnsworth 1859-60 

John A. Logan 1859-60 Philip B. Fouke 1859-60 

Owen Lovejoy 1859-60 Thomas L. Harris 1859-60 

John A. McClernand 1859-60 William Kellogg 1859-60 

Isaac N Morris 1859-60 James C. Robinson 1859-60 


Elihu B. Washburne 1861-68 Isaac N. Arnold 1861-62 

James C. Robinson 1861-62 Philip B. Fouke 1861-62 

John A. Logan 1861-63 William Kellogg 1861-62 

Owen Lovejoy 1861-63 Anthony L. Knapp 1861-62 

John A. McClernand 1861-62 William A. Richardson 1861-62 


Elihu B. Washburne 1863-64 William J. Allen 1863-64 

Jesse O. Norton 1863-64 Isaac N. Arnold 1863-64 

James C. Robinson 1863-64 John R. Eden 1863-64 



Lewis W. Ross 1863-64 

John T. Stuart 1863-64 

Owen Lovcjoy 1803-64 

William R. Morrison 1863-64 

John C. Allen 1863-64 

John F. Farnsworth 1863-64 

Charles W. Morris 1863-64 

Eben C. Ingersoll 1863-64 

Anthony L. Knapp 1863-64 


Elihu B. Washburne 1865-66 

Anthony B. Thornton 1865-60 

John Wentworth 1865-60 

Abner C. Hardin .1865-66 

Eben C. Ingersoll 1865-66 

Barton C. Cook 1865-00 

Shelby M. Cullom 1865-66 


John F. Farnsworth 1865-66 

Jehu Baker 1805-00 

Heury P. H. Bromwcll 1805-00 

Andrew Z. Kuykandall 1865-66 

Samuel S. Marshall 1865-66 

Samuel W. Moulton 1865-60 

Lewis W. Ross 1865-00 

Elihu B. Washburne 1867-68 

Abner C. Hardin 1867-68 

Eben C. Ingersoll 1807-68 

Norman B. Judd 1807-68 

Albert G. Burr 1867-68 

Burton C. Cook 1867-68 

Shelby M. Cullom 1867-68 

John F. Farnsworth 1867-68 

Jehu Baker 1867-68 

Henry P. H. Bromwell 1867-68 

John A. Logan 1867-08 

Samuel S. Marshall 1867-68 

Green B. Raum 1867-68 

Lewis W. Ross 1867-68 


Norman B. Judd 1809-70 

John F. Farnsworth 1869-70 

H. C. Burchard 1869-70 

John B. Hawley 1869-70 

Eben C Ingersoll 1869-70 

Burton C. Cook 1869-70 

Jesse H. Moore 1869-70 

Shelby M. Cullom 1869-70 

Thomas W. MeNeely 1869-70 

Albert G. Burr 1869-70 

Samuel S. Marshall 1869-70 

John B. Hay 1869-70 

John M. Crebs 1869-70 

John A. Logan 1869-70 


Charles B. Farwell 1871-72 

John F. Farnsworth 1871-72 

Horatio C. Burchard 1871-72 

John B. Hawley 1871-72 

Bradford N. Stevens 1871-72 

Henry Snapp 1871-72 

Jesse H. Moore 1871-72 

James C. Robinson 1871-72 

Thomas W. McNeely 1871-72 

Edward Y. Rice 1871-72 

Samuel S. :Marshall 1871-72 

John B. Hay .1871-72 

John M. Crebs 1871-72 

John S. Beveredgc 1871-72 


John B. Rice 1873-74 Robert M. Knapp 1873-74 

Jasper D. Ward 1873-74 

Charles B. Farwell 1873-74 

Stephen A. Hurlbut 1873-74 

Horatio C. Burchard 1873-74 

John B. Hawley 1873-74 

Franklin Corwin 1873-74 

James C. Robinson 1873-74 

John B. McNulta 1873-74 

Joseph G. Cannon 1873-74 

John R. Eden 1873-74 

James S. Martin 1873-74 

William R. Morrison 1873-74 



Greenbury L. Fort 1873-74 

Granville Banere 1878-74 

William H. Ray 1873-74 


Isaac Clements 1873- 

Samuel S. Marshall 1873- 

Bernard G. Caulfleld 1875-76 

Carter H. Ilariison 1875-76 

Charles B. Farwell 1875-76 

Stephen A. Hurlbut 1875-76 

Horatio C. Burchard 1875-76 

Thomas J. Henderson 1875-76 

Alexander Campbell 1875-76 

Greenbury L. Fort 1875-76 

Richard H. Whiting 1875-76 

John C. Bagby 1875-76 


William Aldrich 1877-78 

Carter H. Harrison 1877-78 

Lorenzo Brentano 1877-78 

William Lathrop 1877-78 

Horatio C. Burchard 1877-78 

Thomas J. Henderson 1877-78 

Philip C. Hayes 1877-78 

Greenbury L. Fort 1877-78 

Thomas A. Boyd 1877-78 

Benjamin F. Marsh 1877-78 


Scott Wike 1875- 

W^illiam M. Springer 1875- 

Adlai E. Stevenson 1875- 

Joseph G. Cannon 1875- 

John R. Eden 1875- 

W. A. J. Sparks 1875- 

William R. Morrison 1875- 

William Hartzell 1875- 

William B. Anderson 1875- 



Robert M. Rn^pp 1877 

William M. Springer 1877 

Thomas F. Tipton 1877 

Joseph G. Cannon 1877 

JohnR. Eden 1877 

W. A. J. Sparks 1877- 

William R. Morrison 1877 

William Hartzell 1877 

Richard W. Townshend 1877 

William Aldrich 1879-80 

George R.Davis 1879-80 

Hiram Barber 1879-80 

John C Sherwin 1879-80 

R. M. A. Hawk 1879-80 

Thomas J. Henderson 1879-80 

Philip C. Hayes 1879-80 

Greenbury L. Fort 1879-80 

Thomas A. Boyd 1879-80 

Benjamin F. Marsh 1879-80 

James W. Singleton 1879 

William M. Springer 1879 

A. E. Stevenson 1879 

Joseph G. Cannon 1879 

Albert P. Forsythe 1879 

W. A. J. Sparks 1879 

William R. Morrison 1879^ 

John R. Thomas 1879 

R. W. Townshend 1879- 




"While we cannot, in the brief space we have, give more than a 
meager sketch of such a city as Chicago, yet we feel the history of 
the State would be incomplete without speaking of its metropolis, 
the most wonderful city on the globe. 

In comparing Chicago as it was a few years since with Chicago 
of to-day, we behold a change whose veritable existence we should 


be inclined to doubt were it not a stern, indisputable fact. Eapid 
as is the customary development of places and things in the United 
States-, the growth of Chicago and her trade stands without a parallel. 
The city is situated on the west shore of Lake Michigan at the 
mouth of the Chicago river. It lies 11 feet above the lake, having 
been raised to that grade entirely by the energy of its citizens, its 
site having originally been on a dead level with the water of the 

The city extends north and south along the lake about ten miles, 
and westward on the prairie from the lake five or six miles, embrac- 
ino- an area of over 10 square miles. It is divided by the river 
into three distinct parts, known as the Korth, West and South 
Divisions, or "Sides," by which they are popularly and commonly 
known. These are connected by 33 bridges and two tunnels. 

The first settlement of Chicago was made in 1801, during which 
year Fort Dearborn was built. At the close of 1830 Chicago con- 
tained 12 houses, with a population of about 100. The town was 
organized in 1833, and incorporated as a city in 1837. The first 
frame building was erected in 1832, and the first brick house in 
1833. The first vessel entered the harbor June 11, 1831; and at 
the first oflicial census, taken July 1, 1837, the entire population 
was found to be 4,170. In 1850 the population had increased to 
29,963; in 1860, to 112,172; in 1870, 298,977; and, according to 
the customary mode of reckoning from the number of names in 
the City Directory, the population of 1879 is over 500,000. 

Nicholas Perrot, a Frenchman, was the first white man to visit 
the site of Chicago. This he did in 1671, at the instigation of M. 
Toulon, Governor of Canada. He was sent to invite the Western 
Indians to a convention at Green Bay. It has been often remarked 
that the first white man who became a resident of Chicago was a 
negro. His name was Jean Baptiste Pointe au Sable, a mulatto from 
the West Indies. He settled there in 1796 and built a rude cabin on 
the north bank of the main river, and laid claim to a tract of land 
surrounding it. He disappeared from the scene, and his claim was 
"jumped" by a Frenchman named Le Mai, who commenced trad- 
ing with the Indians. A few years later he sold out to John Kin- 
zie, who was then an Indian trader in the country about St. 
Joseph, Mich., and agent for the American Fur Company, which 
had traded at Chicago with the Indians for some time; and this 


fact liad, probably more tlian any other, to do with the determina- 
tion of the Government to establish a fort there. The Indians 
were growing numerous in that region, being attracted by the 
facilities for selling their wares, as well as being pressed nortliward 
by the tide of emigration setting in from the south. It was judged 
necessary to have some force near that point to keep them in 
check, as well as to protect the trading interests. Mr. Kinzie 
moved his family there the same year Fort Dearborn was built^ 
and converted the Jean Baptiste cabin into a tasteful dwelling. 

For about eight years things moved along smoothly. The garri- 
son was quiet, and the traders prosperous. Then the United States 
became involved in trouble with Great Britain. The Indians took 
the war-path long before the declaration of hostilities between the 
civilized nations, committing great depredations, the most atro- 
cious of which was the massacre of Fort Dearborn, an account of 
which may be found in this volume under the heading of " The 
War of 1812." 


From the year 1840 the onward march of the city of Chicago 
to the date of the great fire is well known. To recount its marvel- 
ous growth in population, wealth, internal resources and improve- 
ments and everything else that goes to make up a mighty city, 
would consume more space than we could devote, however interest- 
ing it might be. Its progress astonished the world', and its citizens 
stood almost appalled at the work of their own hands. She was 
happy, prosperous and great when time brought that terrible Octo- 
ber night (Oct. 9, 1871) and with it the great fire, memorable as 
the greatest fire ever occurring on earth. The sensation conveyed 
to the spectator of this unparalleled event, either through the eye, 
the ear, or other senses or sympathies, cannot be adequately 
described, and any attempt to do it but shows the poverty of lan- 
guage. As a spectacle it was beyond doubt the grandest as well as 
the most appalling ever oflfered to mortal eyes. From any 
elevated standpoint the appearance was that of a vast ocean of 
flame, sweeping in mile-long billows and breakers over the doomed 


Added to the spectacular elements of the conflagration — the 
intense and lurid light, the sea of red and black, and the spires and 
pyramids of flame shooting into the heavens — was its constant and 




terrible roar, drowning even the voices of tlie shrieking multitude; 
and ever and anon — for a while as often as every half-minute — 
resounded far aiid wide the rapid detonations of explosions, or fall- 
ino- walls. In short, all sights and sounds which terrify the weak 
and unnerve the strong abounded. But they were only the accom- 
paniment which the orchestra of nature were furnishing to the 
terrible tragedy there being enacted. 

The total area burned over, including streets, was three and a 
third square miles. The number of buildings destroyed was 
17,450 ; persons rendered homeless, 98,500 ; persons killed, about 
200. Not including depreciation of real estate, or loss of business, 
it is estimated that the total loss occasioned by the fire was 
$190,000,000, of which but $44,000,000 was recovered on insur- 
ance. The business of the city was interrupted but a short time; 
and in a year after the fire a large part of the burned district was 
rebuilt, and at present there is scarcely a trace of the terrible dis- 
aster, save in the improved character of the new buildings over 
those destroyed, and the general better appearance of the city — 
now the finest, in an architectural sense, in the world. 

One of the features of this great city worthy of mention is the 
Exposition, held annually. The smouldering ruin's were yet smok- 
ing when the Exposition Building was erected, only ninety days 
being consumed in its construction. The accompanying engrav- 
ing of the building, the main part of which is 1,000 feet long, 
will give an idea of its magnitude. 


The trade of Chicago is co-extensive with the world. Every- 
where, in every country and in every port, the trade- marks of her 
merchants are seen. Everywhere, Chicago stands prominently 
identified with the commerce of the continent. A few years ago, 
grain was carted to the place in wagons; now more than 10,000 
miles of railroad, with thousands of trains heavily ladened with the 
products of the land center there. The cash value of the produce 
handled during the year 1S7S was $220,000,000, and its aggregate 
weight was 7,000,000 tons, or would make 700,000 car loads. 
Divided into trains, it would make 28,000 long, heavily ladened 
freight trains, wending their way from all parts of the United States 
toward our great metropolis. These trains, arranged in one con- 


tinuons line, would stretch from London across tlie broad Atlantic 
to New York and on across our continent to San Francisco. 

In regard to the grain, lumber and stock trade, Chicago has sur- 
passed all rivals, and, indeed, not only is without a peer but excels 
any three or four cities in the world in these branches. Of grain, 
the vast quantity of 134,851,193 bushels was received during the 
year 1878. This was about two-fifths more than ever received 
before in one year. It took 13,000 long freight trains to carry it 
from the fields of the Northwest to Chicago. This would make a 
continuous train that would reach across the continent from New 
York to San Francisco. Speaking more in detail, we have of the 
various cereals received during the year, 62,783,577 bushels of corn, 
29,901,220 bushels of wheat, 18,251,529 bushels of oats, 133,981,104 
pounds of seed. The last item alone would fill about 7,000 freight 

The lumber received during the year 1878 was, 1,171,364,000 feet, 
exceeded only in 1872, the year after the great fire. This vast 
amount of lumber would require 195,000 freight cars to transport 
it. It would build a fence, four boards high, four and one-lialf 
times around the globe. 

In the stock trade for the year 1878, the figures assume propor- 
tions almost incredible. They are, however, from reliable and 
trustworthy sources, and must be accepted as authentic. There 
were received during the year, 6,339,656 hogs, being 2,000,000 more 
than ever received before in one year. It required 129,916 stock 
cars to transport this vast number of hogs from the farms of the 
West and Northwest to the stock yards of Chicago, These hogs 
arranged in single file, would form a connecting link between 
Chicago and Pekin, China. 

Of the large number of hogs received, five millions of them were 
slaughtered in Chicago. The aggregate amount of product manu- 
factured from these hogs was 918,000,000 pounds. The capacity of 
the houses engaged in slaughtering operations in Chicago is 60,000 
hogs daily. The number of liands employed in these houses is 
from 6,000 to 8,000. Tlie number of packages required in which 
to market the year's product is enormously large, aggregating 500,- 
000 barrels, 800,000 tierces and 650,000 boxes. 

There lias been within the stock yards of the city, during the 
year 1878, 1,036,066 cattle. These were gathered from the plains 


of Oregon, Wyoming and Utah, and the grazing regions of Texas, 
as well as from all the Southern, Western and Northwestern States 
and Territories and from the East as far as Ohio. If these cattle 
were driven from Chicago southward, in single file, through the 
United States, Mexico, and the Central American States into South 
America, the foremost could graze on the plains of Brazil, ere the 
last one had passed the limits of the great city. 

Not only does Chicago attract to its great market the products of 
a continent, but from it is distributed throughout the world manu- 
factured goods. Every vessel and every train headed toward that 
city are heavily ladened with the crude products of the farm, of the 
forests, or of the bowels of the earth, and every ship that leaves her 
docks and every train that flies from her limits are filled with 
manufactured articles. These goods not only find their way all 
over our own country but into Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, 
South America, Mexico, and the Islands of the sea; indeed, every 
nook and corner of the globe, where there is a demand for her 
goods, her merchants are ready to supply. 

The wholesale trade for the year 1ST8 reached enormous fiirures, 
aggregating $280,000,000. Divided among the leading lines, we 
find there were sold of dry goods, $95,000,000 worth. The trade in 
groceries amounted to $66,000,000; hardware, $20,000,000; boots 
and shoes, $24,000,000; clothing, $1T,000,000; carpets, $8,000,000; 
millinery, $7,000,000; hats and caps, $6,000,000; leather, $8,000,- 
000; drugs, $6,000,000; jewelry, $4,500,000; musical instruments, 
$2,300,000. Chicago sold over $5,000,000 worth of fruit during 
the year, and for the same time her fish trade amounted to $1,400,- 
000, and her oyster trade $4,500,000. The candy and other con- 
fectionery trade amounted to $1,534,900. This would fill all the 
Christmas stockings in the United States. 

In 1852, the commerce of the city reached the hopeful sum of 
$20,000,000; since then, the annual sales of one firm amount to 
that much. In 1870, it reached $400,000,000, and in 1878 it had 
grown so i-apidh' that the trade of the city amounted during that 
year to $650,000,000. Her manufacturing interests hav^e likewise 
grown. In 1878, her manufactories employed in the neighborhood 
of 75,000 operators. The products mannfactured during the 3^ear 
were valued at $230,000,000. In reviewing the shi])ping interests of 
Chicago, we find it ecpially enormous. So considerable, indeed, is the 


commercial navy of Chicago, that in the seasons of navigation, one 
vessel sails every nine minutes during the business hours; add to 
this the canal-boats that leave, one every five minutes during the 
same time, and you will see something of the magnitude of her 
shipping. More vessels arrive and depart from this port during the 
season than enter or leave any other port in the world. 

In 1831, the mail system was condensed into a half-breed, who 
went on foot to Niles, Mich., once in two weeks, and brought back 
what papers and news he could find. As late as 1846, there was 
often but one mail a week. A post-ofiice was established in 
Chicago in 1833, and the postmaster nailed up old boot legs upon 
one side of his shop to serve as boxes. It has since grown to be 
the largest receiving office in the United States. 

In lSl::t, the (puigmires in the streets were first pontooned by 
plank roads. The wooden-block pavement appeared in 1857. In 
1840, water was delivered by peddlers, in carts or by hand. Then 
a twenty -five horse power engine pushed it through hollow or bored 
logs along the streets till 1854, when it was introduced into the 
houses by new works. The first fire-engine was used in 1835, and 
the first steam fire-engine in 1859. Gas was utilized for lighting 
the city in 1850. The Young Men's Christian Association was 
oro-anized in 1858. Street cars commenced running in 1854. The 
Museum was opened in 1863. The alarm telegraph adopted in 
1864. The opera-house built in 1865. The telephone introduced 

in 1878. 

One of the most thoroughly interesting engineering exploits of 
the city is the tunnels and water-works system, the grandest and 
most unique of any in the world; and the closest analysis fails to 
detect any impurities in the water furnished. The first tunnel is 
five feet two inches in diameter and two miles long, and can deliver 
50,000,000 gallons per day. The second tunnel is seven feet in 
diameter and six miles long, running four miles under the city, and 
can deliver 100,000,000 gallons per day. This water is distributed 
through 410 miles of water mains. 

Chicao-o river is tunneled for the passage of pedestrians and vehi- 
cles from the South to the West and North divisions. 

There is no grand scenery about Chicago except the two seas, one 
of water, the other of prairie. Kevertheless, there is a spirit about 
it, a push, a breadth, a power, that soon makes it a place never to 




f: //y^W^' 


be forsaken. Chicago is in the field ahnost alone, to handle the 
wealth of one-fourth of the territory of this great republic. The 
Atlantic sea-coast divides its margins between Portland, Boston, 
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Savannah, but Chicago has 
a dozen empires casting their treasures into her lap. On a bed of 
coal that can run all the macliinery of the world for 500 centuries; 
in a garden that can feed the race by the thousand years; at the 
head of the lakes tliat give lier a temperature as a summer resort 
equaled by no great city in the land; with a climate that insures 
the health of her citizens; surrounded by all the great deposits of 
natural wealth in mines and forests and herds, Chicago is the 
wonder of to-day, and will be the city of the future. 



Alabama. — This State was first explored by LaSalle in 1684, and 
settled by the French at Mobile in 1711, and admitted as a State in 
1817. Its name is Indian, and means " Here we rest." Has no 
motto. Population in 1860,964,201; in 1870,906,992. Furnished 
2,576 soldiers for the Union army. Area 50,722 square miles. 
Montgomery is the capital. Has 8 Representatives and 10 Presi- 
dential electors. Rufus W. Cobb is Governor; salary, $3,000; 
politics, Democratic. Length of term, 2 years. 

Arkansas — Became a State in 1836. Population in 1860, 435,- 
450; in 1870,484,471. Area 52,198 square miles. Little Rock, 
capital. Its motto is Regnant Populi — " The people rule." It has 
the Indian name of its principal river. Is called the "Bear State." 
Furnished 8,289 soldiers. She is entitled to 4 members in Congress, 
and 6 electoral votes. Governor, W. R. Miller, Democrat; salary, 
$3,500 ; term, 2 years. 

California — Has a Greek motto, E^ireJca, which means " I have 
found it." It derived its name from the bay forming the peninsula 
of Lower California, and was first applied by Cortez. It was first 
visited by the Spaniards in 1542, and by the celebrated Enghsh 


navigator, Sir Francis Drake, in 1578. In 1846 Fremont took 
possession of it, defeating the Mexicans, in the name of the United 
States, and it was admitted as a State in 1850. Its gold mines 
from 1868 to 1878 produced over $800,000,000. Area 188,982 square 
miles. Population in 1860, 379,994. In 1870, 560,247. She gave 
to defend the Union 15,225 soldiers. Sacramento is the capital. 
Has 4 Representatives in Congress. Is entitled to 6 Presidential 
electors. Present Governor is William Irwin, a Democrat; term, 
4 years ; salary, $6,000, 

Colorado — Contains 106,475 square miles, and had a population 
in 1860 of 34,277, and in 1870, 39,864. She furnished 4,903 
soldiers. "Was admitted as a State in 1876. It has a Latin motto, 
Nil sine JSfumine, which means, " Nothing can be done without 
divine aid." It was named from its river. Denver is the capital. 
lias 1 member in Congress, and 3 electors, T. W. Pitkin is Gov- 
ernor; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years; politics, Pepublican. 

Connecticut — Qui transtulit sustinet, " He who brought us over 
sustains us," is her motto. It was named from the Indian Quon- 
ch-ta-Cut, signifying "Long River." It is called the "Nutmeg 
State." Area 4,674 square miles. Population 1860, 460,147; in 
1870, 537,454. Gave to the Union army 55,755 soldiers, Hart- 
ford is the capital. Has 4 Representatives in Congress, and is 
entitled to 6 Presidential electors. Salary of Governor $2,000; 
term, 2 years. 

Delaware. — " Liberty and Independence," is the motto of this 
State. It was named after Lord De La Ware, an English states- 
man, and is called, " The Blue Hen," and the " Diamond State." It 
was first settled by the Swedes in 1638. It was one of the original 
thirteen States. Has an area of 2,120 square miles. Population in 
1860, 112,216; in 1870, 125,015. She sent to the front to defend 
the Union, 12,265 soldiers. Dover is the caj^ital. B[as but 1 mem- 
ber in Congress; entitled to 3 Presidential electors. John W. 
Hall, Democrat, is Governor; salary, $2,000; term, 2 years. 

Florida — Was discovered by Ponce de Leon in 1512, on Easter 
Sunday, called by the Spaniards, Pascua Florida, which, with the 
variety and beauty of the flowers at this early season caused him to 
name it Florida — which means in Spanish, flowery. Its motto is, 
" In God we trust." It was admitted into the Union in 1845. It has 
an area of 59,268 square miles. Population in 1860, 140,424; in 


1870, 187,756. Its capital is Tallahassee. Has 2 members in Con- 
gress. Has 4 Presidential electors. George F. Drew, Democrat, 
Governor; term, 4 years; salary, $3,500. 

Georgia — Owes its name to George II., of England, who first 
established a colony there in 1732. Its motto is, " Wisdom, justice 
and moderation." It was one of the original States. Population 
in 1860, 1,057,286; 1870, 1,184,109. Capital, Atlanta. Area 58,- 
000 square miles. Has 9 Eepresentatives in Congress, and 11 
Presidential electors. Her Governor is A. H. Colquitt, Democrat; 
term, 4 years; salary, $4,000. 

Illinois — Motto, " State Sovereignty, National Union." Name 
derived from the Indian word, Illini, meaning, superior men. It 
is called the ''Prairie State," and its inhabitants, "Suckers." 
Was first explored by the French in 1673, and admitted into the 
Union in 1818. Area 55,410 square miles. Population, in 1860^ 
1,711,951; in 1870, 2,539,871. She sent to the front to defend the 
Union, 258,162 soldiers. Capital, Springfield Has 19 members in 
Congress, and 21 Presidential electors. Shelby M. Cullom, Kepnb. 
lican, is Governor; elected for 4 years; salary, $6,000. 

Indiana — Is called " Hoosier State." Was explored in 1682, 
and admitted as a State in 1816. Its name was suggested by its 
numerous Indian population. Area 33,809 square miles. Popu- 
lation in 1860, 1,350,428; in 1870, 1,680,637. She put into the 
Federal army, 194,363 men. Capital, Indianapolis. Has 13 mem- 
bers in Congress, and 15 Presidential electors. J.D.Williams, 
Governor, Democrat; salary, $3,000; term, 4 year. 

Iowa — Is an Indian name and means "This is the land." Its 
motto is, "Our liberties we prize, our rights we will maintain." 
It is called the " Hawk Eye State." It was first visited by 
Marquette and Joliet in 1673; settled by New Englanders in 
1833, and admitted into the Union in 1846. Des Moines is the 
capital. It has an area of 55,045, and a population in 1860 of 674.913, 
and in 1870 of 1,191,802. She sent to defend the Government, 
75,793 soldiers. Has 9 members in Congress; 11 Presidential 
electors. John H. Gear, Kepublican, is Governor; salary, $2,500; 
term, 2years. 

Kansas — Was admitted into the Union in 1861, making the 
thirty-fourth State. Its motto is Ad astra per aspera^ " To the 
stars through difiiculties." Its name means, " Smoky water," and 


is derived from one of her rivers. Area 78,841 square miles. 
Population in 1860, 107,209; in 1870 was 362,812. She furnished 
20,095 soldiers. Capital is Topeka. Has 3 Representatives in Con- 
gress, and 5 Presidential electors. John P. St. John, Governor; 
politics, Republican; salary, $3,000; terra, 2 years. 

Kentucky — Is the Indian name for "At the head of the rivers." 
Its motto is, " United we stand, divided we fall," The sobriquet 
of "dark and bloody ground " is applied to this State. It was first 
settled in 1769, and admitted in 1792 as the fifteenth State. Area 
37,680. Population in 1860, 1,155,684; in 1870, 1,321,000. She 
put into the Federal army 75,285 soldiers. Capital, Frankfort. 
Has 10 members in Congress; 12 Electors. J. B. McCreary, 
Democrat, is Governor; salary, $5,000 ; term, 4 years. 

Louisiana — Was called after Louis XIY., who at one time 
owned that section of the country. Its motto is " Union and Con- 
fidence." It is called "The Creole State." It was visited by La 
Salle in 1684, and admitted into the Union in 1812, making the 
eighteenth State. Population in 1860,708,002; in 1870, 732,731. 
Area 46,431 square miles. She put into the Federal army 5,224 
soldiers. Capital, Kew Orleans. Has 6 Representatives and 8 
Electors. F. T. Nichols, Governor, Democrat; salary, $8,000; 
term, 4 years. 

Maine. — This State was called after the province of Maine in 
France, in compliment of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned 
that province. Its motto is Dirigo^ meaning " I direct." It is 
called "The Pine Tree State." It was settled by the English in 
1625. It was admitted as a State in 1820. Area 31,766 square 
miles. Population in 1860, 628,279; in 1870, 626,463; 69,738 sol- 
diers v/ent from this State. Has 5 members in Congress, and 7 
Electors. Selden Conner, Republican, Governor; term, 1 year; 
salary, $2,500. 

Maryland — Was named after Henrietta Maria, Queen of 
Charles I. of England. It has a Latin motto, Crecite et Tnultiplica- 
mini, meaning " Increase and Multiply." It was settled in 1634, 
and was one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 11,- 
124 square miles. Population in 1860 was 687,049; in 1870, 780,- 
806. This State furnished 46,053 soldiers. Capital, Annapolis. 
Has 6 Representatives, and 8 Presidential electors. J. H. Carroll, 
Democrat, Governor; salary, $4, 500 ; term, 4 years. 


Massachusetts — Is the Indian for " The country around the great 
hills." It is called the "Bay State," from its numerous bays. Its 
motto is E use petit placidam sub lihertatc quietem, " By the sword 
she seeks placid rest in liberty." It was settled in 1620 at Plymouth 
by English Puritans. It was one of the original thirteen States, 
and was the first to take up arms against the English during the 
Revolution. Area 7,800 square miles. Population in 1860, 1,231,- 
066; in 18T0, 1,457,351. She gave to the Union army 146,467 sol- 
diers. Boston is the capital. Has 11 Representatives in Con- 
gress, and 13 Presidential electors. Thomas Talbot, Republican, is 
Governor; salary, $5,000; terra, 1 year. 

Michigan — Latin motto, Luehor, and Si qucEvis yeninsulariL 
amainam circumspice, '-'■ 1 will defend" — " If you seek a pleasant 
peninsula, look around you." The name is a contraction of two 
Indian words meaning " Great Lake." It was early explored by 
Jesuit missionaries, and in 1837 was admitted into the Union. It 
is known as the " Wolverine State." It contains 56,243 square 
miles. In 18G0 it had a population of 749,173; in 1870, 1,184,059. 
She furnished 88,111 soldiers. Capital, Lansing. Has 9 Repre- 
sentatives and 11 Presidential electors. C. M. Croswell is Gov- 
ernor; politics, Republican; salary, $1,000; term, 2 years. 

Minnesota — Is an Indian name, meaning " Cloudy Water." It 
has a French motto, VE toils du Word — " The Star of the North." 
It was visited in 1680 by La Salle, settled in 1846, and admitted 
into the Union in 1858. It contains 83,531 square miles. In 1860 
had a population of 172,023; in 1870, 439,511. She gave to the 
Union army 24-,002 soldiers. St. Paul is the capital. Has 3 mem- 
bers in Congress, 5 Presidential electors. Governor, J. S. Pills- 
bury, Republican; salary, $3,000; term, 2 years. 

Mississipjyi — Is an Indian name, meaning "Long River," and the 
State is named from the " Father of Waters." The State was first 
explored by De Sota in 1541; settled by the French at Natchez in 
1716, and was admitted into the Union in 1817. It has an area of 
47,156 square miles. Population in 1860, 791,305; in 1870,827,- 
922. She gave to suppress the Rebellion 545 soldiers. Jackson is 
the capital. lias 6 representatives in Congress, and 8 Presidential 
electors. J. M. Stone is Governor, Democrat; salary, $4,000; 
terra, 4 years. 

Missouri — Is derived from the Indian word " muddy," which 


more properly applies to the river that flows through it. Its motto 
is Salus popull suprema lex esto, " Let the welfare of the people 
be the supreme law." The State was first settled by the French 
near JelFerson City in 1719, and in 1S21 was admitted into the 
Union. It has an area of 67,380 square miles, equal to 43,123,200 
acres. It had a population in 1860 of 1,182,012; in 1870, 1,721,- 
000. She gave to defend the Union 108,162 soldiers. Capital, 
Jefierson City. Its inhabitants are known by the offensive cogno- 
man of ^' Pukes." Has 13 representatives in Congress, and 15 
Presidential electors. J. S. Phelps is Governor; politics. Demo- 
cratic; salary, $5,000; term, 4 years. 

Nebraska— Rsi.^ f jr its motto, " Equality before the law." Its 
name is derived from one of its rivers, meaning " broad and shal- 
low, or low." It was admitted into the Union in 1367. Its capital 
is Lincoln. It had a population in 1860 of 28,841, and in 1870, 
123,993, and in 1875,246,280. It has an area of 75,995 square 
miles. She furnished to defend the Union 3,157 soldiers. Has but 
1 Kepresentative and 3 Presidential electors. A. Nance, Kepub- 
lican, is Governor; salary, $2,500; term, 2 years. 

Nevada — " The Snowy Land " derived its name from the Span- 
ish. Its motto is Latin, Volens et potens, and means " willing 
and able." It was settled in 1850, and admitted into the Union in 
1864. Capital, Carson City. Its population in 1860 was 6,857; 
in 1870 it was 42,491. It has an area of 112,000 square miles. 
She furnished 1,080 soldiers to suppress the Eebellion. Has 1 Rep- 
resentative and 3 Electors. Governor, J. H. Kinkhead, Eepublican; 
salary, $6,000 ; term, 4 years. 

Neio Hamjyshire — Was first settled at Dover by the English in 
1623. Was one of the original States. Has no motto. It is 
named from Hampshire county in England. It also bears the 
name of " The Old Granite State." It has an area of 9,280 miles, 
which equals 9,239,200 acres. It had a population in 1860 of 326,- 
073, and in 1870 of 318,300. She increased the Union army with 
33,913 soldiers. Concord is the capital. Has 3 Eepresentatives 
and 5 Presidential electors. N. Head, Eepublican, Governor; 
salary, $1,000; term, 1 year. 

New Jersey — Was named in honor of the Island of Jersey in the 
British channel. Its motto is " Liberty and Independence." It was 
first settled at Bergen by the Swedes in 1624. It is one of the orig- 


inal thirteen States. It has an area of 8,320 square miles, or 5,324,- 
800 acres. Population in 1860 was 672,035 ; in 1870 it was 906,096. 
She put into the Federal army 75,315 soldiers. Capital, Trenton. 
Has 7 Representatives and 9 Presidential electors. Governor, 
George B. McClelland, Democrat; salary, $5,000; term, 3 years. 

New York. — The " Empire State " was named by the Duke of 
York, afterward King James II. of England. It has a Latin motto, 
Excelsior, which means " Still Higher." It was first settled by the 
Dutch in 161-i at Manhattan. It has an area of 47,000 square 
miles, or 30,080,000 acres. The population in 1860 was 3,880,735; 
in 1870 it was 4,332,759. It is one of the original thirteen States. 
Capital is Albany. It gave to defend our Government 445,959 
men. Has 33 members in Congress, and 35 Presidential electors. 
Governor, L. Robinson, Democrat; salary, $10,000; term, 3 years. 

North Carolina — Was named after Charles IX., King of France. 
It is called '' The Old North," or " The Turpentine State." It was 
first visited in 1524 by a Florentine navigator, sent out by Francis 
I., King of France. It was settled at Albemarle in 1663. It was 
one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 50,704 squai'e 
miles, equal to 32,450,560 acres. It had in 1860 a population of 
992,622, and In 1870, 1,071,361. Raleigh is the capital. She 
furnished 3,156 soldiers to put down the Rebellion. Has 8 mem- 
bers in Congress, and is entitled to 10 Presidential electors. Z. B. 
Yance, Democrat, is Governor; salary, $5,000; term, 4 years. 

Ohio — Took its name from the river on its Southern boundary, 
and means " Beautiful." Its motto is 1 inperium in Iinperio — 
''An Empire in an Empire." It was first permanently settled in 
1788 at Marietta by New Englanders. It was admitted as a State 
in 1803. Its capital is Columbus. It contains 39,964 square 
miles, or 25,576,960 acres. Population in 1860, 2,339,511; in 1870 
it had 2,665,260. She sent to the front during the Rebellion 310,- 
654 soldiers. Has 20 Representatives, and 22 Presidential electors. 
Governor, R. M. Bishop, Democrat; salary, $4,000; term, 2 years. 

Oregon — Owes its Indian name to its principal river. Its motto 
is Alis volat j)ropriis — " She flics with her own wings." It was 
first visited by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century. It was set- 
tled by the English in 1813, and admitted into the Union in 1859. 
Its capital is Salem. It has an area of 95,274 square miles, equal 
to 60,975,360 acres. It had in 1860 a population of 52,465; in 


1870, 90,922. She furnished 1,810 soldiers. She is entitled to 1 
member in Congress, and 3 Presidential electors. W. W. Thayer, 
Republican, is Governor; salary, $1,500 ; term, 4 years. 

Pennsylvania. — This is the "Keystone State," and means "Penn's 
Woods," and was so called after "William Penn, its original owner. 
Its motto is, " Yirtue, liberty and independence." A colony was 
established by Penn in 1682. The State was one of the original 
thirteen. It has an area of 46,000 square miles, equaling 29,440,- 
000 acres. It had in 1860 a population of 2,906,215; and in 1870, 
3,515,993. She gave to suppress the Rebellion, 338,155. Harris- 
burg is the capital. Has 27 Representatives and 29 electors. H. 
M.Hoyt, is Governor; salary, $10,000; politics, Republican; term 
of office, 3 years. 

Rhode Island. — This, the smallest of the States, owes its name to 
the Island of Rhodes in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said 
to greatly resemble. Its motto is " Hope," and it is familiarly 
called, "Little Rhody." It was settled by Roger Williams in 1636. 
It was one of the original thirteen States. It has an area of 1,306 
square miles, or 835,840 acres. Its population in 1860 numbered 
174,620; in 1870, 217,356. She gave to defend the Union, 23,248. 
Its capitals are Providence and Newport. Has 2 Representatives, 
and 4 Presidential electors. C. Vanzandt is Governor; politics, 
Republican; salary, $1,000; term, 1 year. 

South Carolina. — The Palmetto State wears the Latin name of 
Charles IX., of France (Carolus). Its motto is Latin, Animis 
o^ih usque par ati, " Ready in will and deed." The first permanent 
settlement was made at Port Royal in 1670, where the French 
Huguenots had failed three-quarters of a century before to found a 
settlement. It is one of the original thirteen States. Its capital is 
Columbia. It has an area of 29,385 square miles, or 18,806,400 
acres, with a population in 1860 of 703,708; in 1870, 728,000. 
Has 5 Representatives in Congress, and is entitled to 7 Presidential 
electors. Salary of Governor, $3,500; term, 2 years. 

Tennessee— l^ the Indian name for the " River of the Bend," i. e, 
the Mississippi, which forms its western boundary. She is called 
"The Big Bend State." Her motto is, " Agriculture, Commerce." 
It was settled in 1757, and admitted into the Union in 1796, mak- 
ing the sixteenth State, or the third admitted after the Revolution- 
ary War— Vermont being the first, and Kentucky the second. It 


has an area of 45,600 sqiuue miles, or 29,184,000 acres. In 1860 
its population numbered 1,109,801, and in 1870, 1,257,983 She 
furnished 31,092 soldiers to suppress the Rebellion. Nashville is 
the capital. Has 10 Representatives, and 12 Presidential electors. 
Governor, A. S. Marks, Democrat; salary, $4,000; term, 2 years. 

Texas — Is the American word for the Mexican name by which 
all that section of the country was known before it was ceded to the 
United States. It is known as " The Lone Star State." The first set- 
tlement was made by LaSalle in 1685. After the independence of 
Mexico in 1822, it remained a Mexican Province until 1836, when 
it gained its independence, and in 1845 was admitted into the 
Union. It has an area of 237,504 square miles, equal to 152,002,- 
560 acres. Its population in 1860 was 604,215; in 1870, 818,579. 
She gave to put down the Rebelion 1,965 soldiers. Capital, Austin. 
Has 6 Representatives, and 8 Presidential electors. Governor, O. 
M. Roberts, Democrat; salary, $5,000; term, 2 years. 

Yermont — Bears the French name of her mountains Verde Mont 
"Green Mountains." Its motto is "Freedom and Unity." It 
was settled in 1731, and admitted into the Union in 1791. Area 
10,212 square miles. Population in 1860, 315,098 ; in 1870, 330,551- 
She gave to defend the Government, 33,272 soldiers. Capital, Mont- 
pelier. Has 3 Representatives, and 5 electors. Governor, H. Fair- 
banks, Republican; term, 2 years; salary, $1,000. 

Virginia. — The Old Dominion, as this State is called, is the 
oldest of the States. It was named in honor of Queen Elizabeth, 
the " Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter Raleigh made his 
first attempt to colonize that region. Its motto is Sic semper 
tyrannis, " So always with tyrants." It was first settled at James- 
town, in 1607, by the English, being the first settlement in the 
United States. It is one of original thirteen States, and had before 
its division in 1862, 61,352 square miles, but at present contains 
but 38,352 square miles, equal to 24,545,280 acres. The population 
in 1860 amounted to 1,596,318, and in 1870 it was 1,224,830. Rich- 
mond is the capital. Has 9 Representatives, and 11 electors. Gov- 
ernor, F. W. M. Halliday, Democrat; salary, $5,500; term, 4 years. 
West Virginia. — Motto, 31 ojitani semper liberi, " Mountaineers 
are always free." This is the only State ever formed, under the 
Constitution, by the division of an organized State. This was done 
in 1862, and in 1863 was admitted into the Union. It has an area of 



23,000 square miles, or 14,720,000 acres. The population in 1860 
was 376,000; in 1870 it numbered 445,616. She furnished 32,003. 
Capital, Wheeling. Has 3 Representatives in Congress, and is 
entitled to 5 Presidential electors. The Governor is H. M. Mathews, 
Democrat; term, 4 years; salary, $2,700. 

\Visco7isi7i — Is an Indian name, and means "Wild-rushing 
channel." Its motto, Clvitatas successit barbarum^ " The civilized 
man succeeds the barbarous." It is called " The Badger State." 
The State was visited by the French explorers in 1665, and a settle- 
ment was made in 1669 at Green Bay, It was admitted into the 
Union in 1848. It has an area of 52,924 square miles, equal to 
34,511,360 acres. In 1860 its population numbered 775,881; in 
1870, 1,055,167. Madison is the capital. She furnished for the 
Union army 91,021 soldiers. Has 8 members in Congress, and is 
entitled to 10 Presidential electors. The Governor is W. E. Smith; 
politics, Republican; salary, $5,000; term, 2 years. 

-J* -t,-A' 

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i X 





TO TAZEWELL county belongs the honor of having within 
her boundary the soil first turned by white men in the great 
State of Illinois. To it we must also look to find the scene of the 
first attempt made by Europeans to settle our grand and noble State. 
On the third day of next January (1880), it will have been just two 
hundred vears since LaSalle with his little band of Frenchmen 
stepped from their canoes, which rested upon the placid waters of 
the Illinois, upon the shore now embraced within the limits of this 
county. This little fleet of canoes contained in all thirty-three 
daring, resolute explorers, and were led by the indomitable will, 
genius and enthusiasm of the most noted of French explorers, Rob- 
ert Cavalier de LaSalle. This famous explorer had conceived the 
plan of opening water communication between the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence and the Gulf of Mexico. It was this truly grand and com- 
prehensive purpose that seems to have animated him in all his 
wonderful achievements and the matchless difficulties and hardships 
he encountered. 

It was in the consummation of this idea of LaSalle's that brought 
the little band down the beautiful stream named in honor of the 
Illinois Indians who dwelt upon its banks, and landed them on its 
eastern shore. Seven years previous Jolict and Marquette, the first 
Europeans to discover the Illinois, had wended their way up to its 
course on their return from their famous voyage down the Missis- 


sippi. Being truly a leader, foremost in every enterprise, every 
thought, every move, we do not doubt that the dauntless La- 
Salle himself was the first to alight upon the shore, — was the first 
white man to set foot upon the soil of Tazewell county. Thus it 
will be seen that here is a spot truly historic, — a place noted for 
being the first in one of the greatest States of the Union where 
civilized man made his first attempt to establish himself. 


Through the difficulties encountered with the Indians, and the 
machinations of his own men, LaSalle was greatly retarded on his 
journey southward. Winter had overtaken him, and to protect him- 
self and followers, and to provide for them comfortable quarters in 
which to pass that dreary season, he resolved to erect a fort. His 
good judgment led him to a spot upon the eastern bank of the Illi- 
nois, the site of the present Wesley City, and upon the southeast 
quarter of section one, Pekin township. Here upon the extremity 
of a ridge, protected on either side by deep ravines, and extending 
to within two huudred yards of the water's edge, he built a fort 
which he christened Fort Crevecoeur. The moaning of the French 
name is heart-breaker. Why LaSalle should have chosen so sad a 
name we know not, unless, perchance, by a prophetic vision he 
glanced into the future and foresaw the sad ending of his enterprise. 
Or, it may have been thus named as indicative of the misfortunes 
they suffered here, or from its having been the site of a bloody bat- 
tle between the brutal Iroquois and Illinois Indians. 

To fortify the bluff thus selected, the point of which at the time 
was about one hundred yards further from the river than it now is, 
his first move was to dig a ditch behind and connect the two ravines. 
He thus severed the point upon which the fort was to be constructed, 
which contains about eighty acres, from all connection with any land 
of the same altitude. This bluif rises to the height of from 160 to 
180 feet, and to increase the altitude of its different sides, which 
nature has made steep and rugged, an embankment encircling its 
outer line was thrown up. To make the fortress still more impregna- 
ble a palisade of heavy oak timber, twenty-five feet in height, ex- 
tending around the entire fortification, was constructed. This being 
completed, buildings for the accommodation of the men were erected 
within the enclosure, and the little band went into snug winter 


The fort was admirably located, and commanded fnll view of the 
river for miles above and below ; and its high, perpendicular sides, 
heavily palisaded, could not be easily ascended by the foe. Thus 
advanta^eouslv situated a small garrison could have defended it from 
the combined attack of all the neighboring Indians, at least until 
the supply of provisions failed. 


Fortunately, however, the fort was never used to protect the men 
from Indian hostility, as they remained peaceable and friendly with 
the garrison. Indeed, it was used more as a sanctuary than a fort- 
ress of military power. Fathers Hennepin and Membre and old 
Father Ribourde labored daily with the neighboring Indians. But 
even the zeal and earnestness displayed by those early Jesuit mis- 
sionaries in spiritual matters failed to make any perceptible impres- 
sion upon the filthy savages. Hennepin preached twice every Sun- 
day, chanted vespers, and regretted that the want of wine prevented 
the celebration of mass. 


The fort having been fully completed, LaSalle set about to build a 
sailing vessel with Avhich to descend the Mississippi to the Gulf of 
Mexico. Thus we see that the first timber felled by the axe of civ- 
ilization, the first mechanical labor performed, and not only the 
first fort built but the first vessel put upon the stocks in Illinois, 
were all done in Tazewell county. 


In the mean time LaSalle sent Hennepin, with Accau and Du 
Gay, on his famous voyage of the discovery of the upper Mississippi. 
They left the fort on the last day of February. After a year's sojourn 
among the Indians of that region Hennepin returned to Europe, 
where the account of his exploits and the description of this beauti- 
ful country was published in several languages. He subsequently, 
however, attempted to rob LaSalle of his well-earned and deserved 
honor by giving a false account of his discoveries, in consequence of 
which much of his writings are discredited. 


LaSalle could not obtain any satisfactory information from the 
Indians in regard to the Mississippi. All his inquiries had elicited 


only the information that the Father of Waters was inhabited by huge 
goblins, and an attempt to sail upon its boisterous waves w^as 
destruction. These stories \vere of course discredited by LaSalle, 
but many of his men were superstitious, and really feared to visit 
that river, and deserted lest LaSalle should start an expedition in 
search of it. Soon, however, an incident occurred Avhich enabled 
him to disabuse their minds of such fabulous stories. AVhile hunt- 
ing in the vicinity of the fort, he chanced to meet a young Indian 
who had just returned from a distant war excursion. Finding him 
almost famished with hunger LaSalle invited him to the fort, where 
he refreshed him with a generous meal, and questioned him with 
apparent indiflPerence respecting the Mississippi. Owing to his long 
absence he knew nothing of Avhat had transpired between his breth- 
ren and the French, and, with great subtlety, imparted all the in- 
formation required. LaSalle now gave him presents not to mention 
the interview. With a number of his men he then proceeded to the 
camp of the Indians to expose their misrepresentations. Having 
found the chiefs at a feast of bear meat he boldly accused them of 
falsehood, and at once proceeded to substantiate his charges. The 
Master of Light, he declared, was the friend of truth, and had re- 
vealed to him the true character of the Mississippi. He then gave 
such an accurate description of it that the astonished but credulous 
savages believed he had derived his knowledge through supernatural 
agency. They at once confessed their guilt, and gave, as the reason 
for resorting to such artifice, the fact that they w^anted him to re- 
main with them. This confession removed the principal cause of the 
desertion of his men. 

lasalle's departure. 

On the 2d day of April, 1680, LaSalle bid adieu to his diminished 
band, and left it in the wilderness inhabited only by the wild beasts 
of the forests and the uncivilized, brutal natives, and hundreds of 
miles in advance of any frontier post. He placed the garrison in 
charge of his lieutenant, Henri Tonti, an Italian. For a fuller 
account of the trials and difficulties encountered bv Tonti than we 
can give here, we refer the reader to the History of Illinois con- 
tained in this volume. 



LaSalle had no sooner left than the dish:>yal men among tlie gar- 
rison displayed a spirit of mutiny, which culminated in the almost 
total destruction of the fort by them, and all save six, besides the 
faithful Tonti, deserted. After the famous battle between the Iro- 
quois and Illinois Tonti was driven away. 

Soon LaSalle returned to find the fort destroyed, tools thrown into 
the river, and the village of the Illinois, which numbered 8,000 in- 
habitants, a desolate waste. The vessel, however, was still upon its 
stocks uninjured. Thus disastrously terminated the first attempt to 
settle the State of Illinois and the county of Tazewell. 


The next attempt to settle this section of Illinois was made at 
the upper end of Peoria lake in 1778. The country in the vicinity 
of this lake was called by the Indians Pim-i-te-wi, that is, a place 
where there are many fat beasts. Here the town of Laville de 
Meillet, named after its founder, was started. Within the next 
twenty years, however, the town was moved down to the lower 
end of the lake to the present site of Peoria. In 1812 the town 
was destroyed and the inhabitants carried away by Captain Craig. 
In 1813 Fort Clark was erected there by Illinois troops engaged in 
the war of 1812. Five years later it was destroyed by fire. 


During the period from the time Laville de Meillet was founded 
in 1778, or at least after it was moved to the lower extremity 
of the lake, French traders had a regular established trading post 
on the Illinois near the site of old Fort Crevecoeur. They carried 
on an extensive commerce with the neighboring Indians, buying 
their furs with notions. At this business they became quite wealthy. 

The " old French trading post," by which name it was known, re- 
mained at Wesley City for almost a quarter of a century after the 
first settlers came to the county. A large log building, about 30 by 
60 feet in size and 10 feet high, was their principal store-house. Mr. 
B. F. Montgomery tells us that he visited the place in 1836, and 
in this building found a very large stock of skins and furs, which 
they told him were worth in their present state $2,000. The col- 
lection contained the covering of almost every animal of any value 
from the weasel to the buffalo. 


The principal traders at this point during the early settlement of 
the county were Tromly and Besau, both of whom were well known 
by some of the pioneers. These French traders had lived, traded 
and intermarried with the Indians until there were many half-breeds 
throughout the neighborhood. They were quiet, peaceable people, 
and treated the settlers with the neatest kindness. Besau died at the 
old post many years ago. Tromly went to Kansas in 1844. The 
former had married an Indian squaw and reared a large family. One 
of his daughters, Mary Besau, who is said to have been quite beau- 
tiful and her personal appearance and bearing graceful, was married 
to a man by the name of Anderson. About the year 1845 he moved 
to Kansas, where, near Leavenworth, he resided when last heard 
from by any Tazewell county people. 

These French traders cannot be classed as settlers, at least in the 
light we wish to view the meaning of that term. They made no 
improvements ; they cultivated no land ; they established none of 
those bulwarks of civilization brought hither a half century ago by 
the sturdy pioneer. On the other hand, however, they associated 
with the natives ; they adopted their ways, habits and customs ; they 
intermarried and in every way, almost, became as one of them. 


Year after year rolled by until quite a centur>' and a half had 
passed since LaSalle stepped ashore from his skiff, before the aborigi- 
nes who occupied the territory embraced within the present boundary 
of Tazewell county were molested by the encroachment of the white 
man, save the French traders above referred to. Generation after 
generation of natives appeared upon the wild scenes of savage life, 
lived, roamed the forest and prairie, and glided over the beautiful, 
placid Illinois in their log and bark canoes, and passed away. Still 
the advance of civilization, the steady westward tread of the Anglo- 
Saxon disturbed them not. The buffalo, deer, bear, and wolf roamed 
the prairie and woodland, the Indian their only enemy. But nature 
had destined better things for this fertile region. She had been too 
lavish in the distribution of natural advantages to leave it longer in 
the peaceable possession of those who had for centuries refused to de- 
velop, even in the slightest degree, any of her great resources. She 
accordingly directed hitherward the footsteps of the industrious, 
enterprising pioneer. Before, however, proceeding to recount his 


advent, we wish to speak of the diiferent tribes and families of the 
Indians who dwelt in this portion of the State. 


At the time the earliest European explorers visited the State the 
various tribes of the Illinois confederacy dwelt upon the banks of 
the Illinois river. They were the Peorias, Michigans, Tamaroas, 
Kaskaskias, and Cahokas. This once powerful confederacy was 
almost exterminated by the wars with the Iroquois, the Foxes and 
Sacs, and the Pottawatomies. During the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century hard and desperate battles were fought upon the land 
of this county between the different tribes. Hundreds of brave 
warriors had fallen beneath the tomahawks of other tribes, until 
acres of the land now possessed by the nobler race were strewn with 
the dead and dying. After a famous contest in the year 1680, 
between the different tribes of the Illinois confederacy and a chosen 
band of brutal Iroquois, the latter, who were victorious, carved upon 
the trunks of the largest trees upon the shore of the Illinois river 
hieroglyphics, representing the chiefs, the braves, and different bat- 
tle scenes. 

From about the year 1780 to 1832, the time of the Black-Hawk 
war, the Kickapoos dwelt in the western and southwestern part of 
the county. Their principal village was in Logan county. The 
Pottawatomies, however, were the chief occupants and immediate 
predecessors of the whites. 

For some years after the first settlers came wigwams were scat- 
tered here and there over the county. The kind and generous 
Shaubena, with his band of Pottawatomies, had his principal camp 
and wigwams on the bank of the Illinois river near where the gas- 
works of Pekin are now located. Another extensive camping 
ground was on the Mackinaw river, near the present town of Mack- 
inaw. Old Machina was the chief of this band. The Kickapoos 
had made a treaty shortly previous to the coming of the first settler, 
by which the whites acquired all their land. When the whites came, 
however, to settle and occupy the land the Kickapoos were angry, 
and some of them felt disposed to insult and annoy the settlers. 
When John Hendrix came to Blooming Grove the Indians ordered 
him to leave. Not long afterwards they frightened away a family 
which settled on the Mackinaw. Old ]\Iachina ordered one family 


away by throwing leaves in the air. This was to let the bootanas 
(white men) know that they must not be found in the country when 
the leaves of autumn should fall. In 1823, when the Orendorifs 
came, Old Machina had learned to speak a little English. He came 
to Thomas OrendorfP and with a majestic wave of his hand said : 
"Too much come back, white man: t'other side Sangamon." The 
Rhodes family were also ordered away. These families settled in the 
eastern part of this and western part of McLean counties, but at 
the time and for years afterwards was all Tazewell county. These 
things appeared a little threatening, but the settlers refused to leave 
and were not molested. 

When the Black Hawk war broke out in 1832, the Indians liv- 
ing here were very much like the whites in some particulars. The 
pale-faces looked upon the neighboring red men with suspicion, and 
feared they would be massacred by them, while at the same time the 
Indians experienced a like timidity. They watched the whites 
closely lest they should arise up some night and butcher their squaws 
and papooses. Controlled by this feeling they began to emigrate. 
Shaubena went north and located at Shaubena's Grove, DeKalb 
county. In the early part of the decade between 1840 and 1850 he 
returned and spent two winters at Pleasant Grove, in Elm Grove 

After the grand exit of 1832 the Indians, who had roamed at will 
over the prairies and through the forests for centuries, returned only 
as visitors. Devoted to the sweet memories of departed kindred, 
one would occasionally return alone and with a melancholy spirit. 
He would hunt the burial mound and silently and sadly commune 
with the loved dead. You see the native red man no more. He is 
only of the past so far as Tazewell county is concerned. Should 
one pass through the principal thoroughfares of your cities robed 
in his native costume he would excite the wonder and curiosity of 
all, the old as well as the young. 

THE WAR OF 1812. 

During the war of 1812 Tazewell county was the scene of one of 
the most effective engagements against the Indians waged in Illinois 
during that war. Gov. Edwards had collected an army of about 
400 men in the southern part of the State, and set out in the latter 
part of October, 1812, for the seat of war. This was in the neigh- 


borhood of Peoria lake. At the same time Gen. Hopkins started 
with 2,000 mounted Kentucky riflemen. His destination was the 
same point, and Edwards expected to work in concert with the noted 
General. However, when his men had marched about 90 miles 
across Illinois prairie into the enemy's country they became wearied, 
and regardless of the General's protestations, turned about without 
even seeing the foot-prints of an Indian, and started on a hasty 
homeward march. 


Edwards with his brave and courageous Illinois rangers continued 
on. It may be remarked that in this little band were three men, 
all of whom subsequently became noted governors of Illinois. 
Leaving Fort Russell they marched up through Sangamon and 
Logan counties, striking Tazewell at the point in Hittle townshij) 
where Sugar creek makes its exit. On this creek the troops found 
an old deserted Kickapoo village. These tenantless bark wigwams 
were painted up here and there with rude savage devices, mostly rep- 
resenting the red-skins scalping whites. This provoked the warlike 
indignation of the little army, and the village was assaulted, set on 
fire and destroyed. After this, fearing that their nightly camp fires 
would reveal their approach tat the Indians, whom they hoped to 
surprise, the marches were continued till midnight. The course of 
the army was now northward through Hittle, Little MackinaAV, 
Mackinaw, bearing westward through Deer Creek, striking Morton, 
and enterino; ^Yashin2;ton near the center of its southern line. From 
this point they took a direct course for the Black Partridge village 
of Pottawatomies, located at the upper end of the lake, on the bluffs 
in Fond du Lac township. Before coming up to the town Lieut. 
Peyton, with a small party, was sent to Peoria. He made no dis- 
coveries. The army moved rapidly but cautiously forward, and late 
in the night preceding the attack camped in the western part of 
Washington township. 


It was now desirable to reconnoitre the position of the Indian 
town, that the army might know how, when and where to strike. 
To perform this perilous duty four of the bravest of men stepped 
forward and volunteered their services. All of them subsequently 
won enviable reputations in public life. They were Thomas Carlin, 


and Robert, Stephen, and Davis Whiteside. They proceeded to the 
viHage and explored all the approaches to it thoroughly without dis- 
turbing the wily savage. The town was found to be about five 
miles from where the army was encamped, and situated on a bluif 
separated in part from the high lands by a swamp through which ran 
a small stream (Ten Mile creek). The low banks of this stream 
were covered by a rank growth of tall grass and bunches of brush, 
so tall and dense as readily to conceal an Indian on horseback until 
within a few feet of him. Recent heavy rains had rendered the 
ground additionally yielding, making it almost impassable to mount- 
ed men. 


That night within the fireless and cheerless camp of the rangers 
all was as silent as the grave. A deep and solemn gloom settled 
over the men. The long marches lost the charm they at first 
possessed, and instead of being jovial and frolicsome as they were 
then wont to be, they were fatigued and sulky. They were in the 
enemy's country and feared an attack at any moment. They reposed 
upon their arms, with their horses tethered near at hand, ready sad- 
dled to be mounted in an instant. 

During the night, when scarcely a whisper disturbed the air, a 
gun was carelessly discharged by o^e of the men. This of course 
caused the greatest consternation in the camp. The treacherous and 
subtle foe was momentarily expected, and the men regarded that as 
the signal for attack. All the horrors of the night attack at Tippe- 
canoe, then fresh in the minds of every one, presented themselves to 
the active imaginations of the rangers. Every white-coated soldier 
at that battle, it was said, was singled out in the dusky morn- 
ing and killed by the savages. Every soldier who happened to have 
on a light-colored coat distinctly remembered this, and in an instant 
not a white coat could be seen. Soon, however, the voice of the 
Governor assured the men that the firing was merely accidental, and 
all became quiet again. 


A heavy fog prevailed on the following morning; however, 
the army took up its line of march for the Indian town. Capt. Judy 
with his spies were in advance. They came up to an Indian and his 
squaw, both mounted. The tall grass concealed them until within 
a few paces. The Indian wanted to surrender, but Capt. Judy said 


he " did not leave home to take prisoners," and instantly shot him. 
AVith the blood streaming from his montli and nose, and in his agony 
" singing the death song," the dying Indian raised his gun, shot and 
mortally wounded one of the soldiers, and expired. The rest of the 
spies, who had incautiously approached the wounded Indian, when 
they saw him seize his gun, quickly dismounted on the far side of 
their horses. Many guns were immediately discharged at the other 
Indian, not then known to be a squaw, all of which missed her. 
Badly scared, and her husband killed by her side, the agonizing 
wails of the squaw were heart-rending. She was taken prisoner and 
subsequently restored to her nation. 


Owing to the dense fog which prevailed the army was misled and 
found itself in the spongy bottom just below the town, with the 
miry creek to cross. This, of course, deranged the plan of attack, 
and thus the village escaped a surprise. While a halt was made, 
preparatory to crossing, the Indians were observed running from the 
town. An attack from the Indians while crossing the treacherous 
stream was momentarily expected. However, no attack was made 
or attempted, but the Indians were fleeing from their village and 
impending death. Pell-mell they went, men, women and children, 
some on horseback, some on foot, into the swamp among the tall 
grass, and toward a point of timber in which the Governor judged 
they intended to make a stand for battle. " I immediately changed 
my course," he writes, " ordered and led on a general charge upon 
them ;" but owing to the unsoundness of the ground, the pursuers, 
horses, riders, arms and baggage all shared in the common catastro- 
phe alike, and were unhorsed and overwhelmed in the morass. 

A pursuit on foot was ordered. Tliis was both difficult and dan- 
gerous on account of the tall gra,ss in which the Indians were lurk- 
ing. Several squads thus pursued the retreating foe for two or three 
miles across the saturated bottom to the river, killing some of the 
enemy while attempting to cross to the western shore. To such a 
pitch of excitement Avere the men wrought that three of them, find- 
ing some Indian canoes, in the fury of the chase crossed the river in 
full view of the Indians, but without molestation. 


The Indian village, called by Gov. Edwards Chequeneboc, after 


a chief, was burned. The Indians who had not retreated over the 
river, fled to the interior wilderness. Here some of them were pur- 
sued, but the Indians, making a stand in considerable numbers, 
forced the rangers to retreat. Being reinforced, they returned and 
routed the savages. Some of the troops were wounded in this action, 
but none killed. 

During these engagements the place was pillaged and burned by 
the main body of the troops. The Indians in their flight had left 
behind all their winter's store of provision, which was destroyed or 
taken away. Hiding about the burning embers of the ruins were 
found some Indian children, forgotten by the frightened fugitives. 
There were also found some disabled adults, one of whom was in a 
starving condition, and with a voracious appetite partook of the 
bread given him. He is said to have been killed by a cowardly 
soldier straggling behind, after the main army had resumed its ret- 
rograde march, who wanted to be able to boast that he had killed 
an Indian. 

To show the reckless daring of the Indian character, it is men- 
tioned that a warrior walked calmly down the bluff some 200 yards 
distant from the town, deliberately raised his gun and fired upon the 
troops in the village, then turned and strode slowly away amid a 
shower of bullets. 


Gov. Edwards failed to hear from the larger force under Gen. 
Hopkins, and fearing the Indians would concentrate and make an 
attack upon him, concluded to make a hasty retreat. This he began 
the same day of the attack, and though a heavy and continuous rain 
prevailed tlxe men were in such dread of a pursuit that they kept up 
their march until overtaken by darkness, when, greatly exhausted 
and wet, without fire to dry their clothing or food to nourish their 
bodies, they sank into sleep upon the wet ground. Soon the little 
army had passed the limits of this county on their homeward march, 
where we will leave it. 


Leaving the history of the French and Indians, having given all 
of interest we have been able to gather, we come now to the time 
the first pioneer erected his cabin liere and established for himself 
and family a home in the wilderness. So fertile was the soil and 


beautiful the flowers, so sparkling were the streams and shady the 
groves that, in advance of all the surrounding country, the pioneers 
sought and settled the timber land and prairie of Tazewell county. 

The thrilling scenes through which the pioneer settlers passed in 
the settlement of this portion of Illinois must ever awaken emotions 
of warmest regard for them. To pave the way for those who fol- 
lowed after them, to make their settlement in the West a pleasure, 
they bore the flood tide wave of civilization ; they endured all, 
suffered all. But few of these spirits now survive ; they have passed 
away full of years and honors, leaving their children, and children's 
children and strangers to succeed them, and enjoy the fruits of the 
toil, privations and savings of their long and eventful lives. 

Life with them is o'er, their labors all are done, 
And others now reap the harvest that they won. 

Too great honor cannot be accorded them, and we regret that we 
have not the data to speak more fully and definitely of them, their 
personal experiences, their lives and characters. 


AVhen, in 1826-7, the Legislature formed Tazewell county it 
extended over a vast region of country. Its boundaries then em- 
braced many of the neighboring counties, and its jurisdiction extend- 
ed as far north as Chicago. In giving the history of the settlement 
of the county, however, we will speak only of the territory within 
its present limits. 

The first to cast his fortune here, — to "locate" in Tazewell coun- 
ty, — was Nathan Dillon. He came in the year 182.3, and lived, 
labored and died in the county of his adoption an honorable, hon- 
ored citizen. Fortunately we have been able to obtain a very fiill 
narrative of his coming from his own pen. We give it in his own 
language just as he has left it to posterity. 

. NATHAN Dillon's reminiscence. 

It was in the year 1821 that we set our faces westward, with heavy 
hearts at the thought of leaving near friends and relatives behind, 
with a view of taking up our abode on the broad prairies of the 
West, and among strangers and savages. At that early day, our 
way was in a manner through a wilderness to our journey's end, 
the destination of which was eight miles south of Springfield, on 
Sugar creek. 


Although we were well outfitted with good horses and wagons, 
many hardships awaited us of which we had not dreamed. We had 
a terrible trip through Indiana through mud, over logs and brush, 
often swamped down to the hubs of the wagon. We could procure 
but little feed for our horses but new corn, and part of the time 
could not obtain that ; and when at last we struck the Grand Prairie, 
west of Clinton, on the AVabash, we found ourselves with broken- 
down horses and only three days' provisions, our company consisting 
of my brother Absalom's family and my own, with six horses and 
seventy head of cattle and twenty sheep. The country before us 
was wild, new, almost untrodden by man ; but our hearts were brave. 
The second day out some were attacked with the chills and fever, 
and as we advanced others were taken with the same disease. Then 
did we wish ourselves back again to the home we had left in Ohio. 
Not half way across the prairie and out of provisions, and not able 
to drive our team, let alone our stock, what to do we did not 
know ; but at this juncture we were overtaken by three young men, 
who had set out on our trail with the hope of safely walking 
through : but when thev overtook us were already out of provisions. 

To remedy our scarcity we slaughtered one of our cows, thereby 
obtainina: what would subsist us till we could reach the forks of the 
Sangamon, where resided Jacob Scraggs, and where we rested. The 
next day we reached our destination. We were among strangers, 
but they were kind, generous and hospitable. AVinter was draAving 
near, and we had no shelter of any kind in which to stay, no feed 
for our stock, and my wife the only person among us who had not 
been sick on the road, and yet we succeeded in passing our first 
winter in Illinois, as best we could, and without losing much stock. 
In passing, I will note that at the time of our arrival there was in 
Springfield a very low, one-story court-house, twenty feet square ; 
a jail, not so large, built of round logs ; a tavern, kept by a Mr. 
Price, and a store, kept by John Taylor, who was also sheriff of 
the county. 

The summer following much sickness prevailed, and in the fall 
we lost two children, which discouraged us veiy much, — made us 
home-sick, and almost induced us to return to Ohio. Hearing, how- 
ever, a good account of the Mackinaw country to the north of us, 
we determined to visit it ; and accordingly, accompanied by my 
brothers Jesse and AValter, and AVilliam Hays, we set out on a jour- 
ney to explore it. We struck the stream at Mackinaw Town, and 


after visiting Deer Creek, Walnut Grove, White Oak and Stout's 
Groves, our provisions failed us, and we went over to Fort Clarke (as 
Peoria was then called), but on arrival found neither provisions nor 
people, except Abner Eads and Jesse Ogee. But we managed to 
catch some iish, and on them, with some prairie chickens Ave killed, 
we subsisted until we returned to Elkhart Grove. 

On our return we passed through Pleasant Grove and Delavan 
Prairie. We made selections for future homes near Dillon Creek, 
and the next fall, having put up cabins, we prepared to remove to 
our new home, got ready, and set out. On our journey, when a 
short distance from where the village of Delavan noAv stands, we 
were overtaken bv a heavv thunder storm. We hurried alono- as 
fast as possible until sundown, when the wind changed to the north- 
west, and in fifteen minutes' time our clothes were frozen hard, our 
horses mired down, and my wife and children had to get out of the 
wagon into the bleak wind. Then we unloaded the wagon and moved 
it out of the slough by hand, the water half-leg deep, and reloading, 
hitched up the horse and moved on about a quarter of a mile fur- 
ther, when the same accident occurred again. It was now quite 
dark, the wind blowing, the weather freezino; cold, -wolves howlino- 
in every direction. We concluded to start for the timber, which 
was about three miles off; so, packing wife and children on horse- 
back, w^e started against the wind : it Avas to do that or freeze on the 
prairie. We were in a truly desperate condition, — no fire, and all of 
us wet, cold and hungry. AYe had to have fire or perish ; so on our 
arrival at the timber it devolved on me to strike a fire, for my broth- 
er was so near chilled through he could do nothing, as he had been 
riding and driving a four-horse team. In those days we had no 
matches, and were compelled to strike a fire by a flint-lock rifle, 
which was a bad job, as the whole ground was flooded and nothing 
could be found dry. I at length succeeded in getting a fire, and we 
piled high the wood and stood around and thawed out and dried our 
clothes ; and when my wife went to look for the provisions to get 
some supper, the dogs had found where it lay, and eaten it all up ; 
and we went supperless to our wet beds. 

The next morning we started by sunrise for the wagon. It was 
frozen fast, and we had to cut it out and take it back the way it 
came in. We had left our cattle on the previous night, and they 
had started ofl". I took their trail and followed them several miles 
when the ground became so frozen that their hoofs made no impres- 


sion ; so I gave them up as lost and returned to camp. By this time 
I was very hungry ; and wife, with provisions brought from the 
wagon, had prepared a good meal, and we all did it ample justice, as 
we had not eaten anything for nearly two days.. At the beginning 
of the second day we mustered all force, determined to reach our 
destination that day. When we arrived at the MackinaAV the ice 
was running in large quantities, and the stream hardly fordable ; but 
with much labor and difficulty we got across, and that evening ar- 
rived at our cabin. There was no door or chimney to it; not a 
crack stopped, and situated so the north wind came through at a 
sweeping rate ; but having plenty of bed-clothes, we kept ourselves 
comfortable, and opened a place in the roof to let the smoke escape, 
prepared a good suppar, slept in the cabin, and felt ourselves at 
home. We went to work on the cabin, and in a few days had it 
warm and comfortable. 

Brother Walter returned to Sangamon county for a load of corn 
and meal. While he was gone it rained a great deal, and he was 
twelve days in coming from Springfield. Wm. Davis came with 
him with a drove of hogs. When they arrived at Mackinaw the 
water overflowed the banks, so they left the team on the other side, 
and with the men with them, made a raft and crossed over, and ar- 
rived at home late the same night. The next morning we started 
for the teams, prepared to make a raft large enough to bring across 
wagon, provisions and horses. The weather was extremely cold, 
and the work occupied two days. We got our wagons and pro- 
visions across, but were compelled to swim the horses. Brother 
John was mounted on one of them, and in plunging round in the 
mud and Avater he got dismounted and thrown in the water, and 
when he got out had to ride near three miles with frozen clothes on, 
and almost perished ; but a good fire and hearty supper made us all 
feel comfortable. But the horses had a hard time of it, as they had 
to stand out in a cold wind tied with a halter all through the cold 
freezing night. 

So passed the winter at our cabin with wife and children. Occa- 
sionally my brother was with us, but my wife never saw a white 
woman from the month of December to the following March ; but 
there were plenty of Indians, and they were quite troublesome, and 
could not be trusted. In the month of May following (1824) I 
was compelled to go to the settlements after provisions, and John 
Dillon accompanied me. The night we arrived it commenced rain- 


ing, and continued, so that on our return the streams had raised to 
a fearful height. When we came to Salt Creek it was a sea of water 
from hill to hill, and we were compelled to cross as best we could, 
by ferrying our load in a small boat, and swimming our horses. 
Kickapoo was in the same condition, and we crossed in a small ca- 
noe, taking our wagons apart in order to get them over. The next 
was Suffar Creek, where Robert Musick then lived. Here we were 
one whole day in crossing. The night after we lay out on the big 
prairie, without fire and but little to eat. If such toils and priva- 
tions would not try men's souls, what Avould? We had no more 
ferrying until we reached Mackinaw, but our team broke away, and 
we had to follow them some eight miles before we overtook them. 
On our return we foiuid Benj. Briggs, who was on his way to Peoria : 
had been as far as Mackinaw and could not cross, and was returning. 
We returned to that stream and spent a lonesome night on its banks, 
and in the morning found an Indian canoe, and with its aid swam 
our horses over and reached home. Brothers Walter, Absalom, and 
others started for the stream and brought our wagons over. 

In concluding this narrative I will speak of the other first settlers 
that came to this section of country (Dillon Grove, Tazewell Co.). 
In the month of March, 1824, brother Absalom moved here; soon 
after John Summers, William Woodrow, and Peter Scott came and 
made improvements. My brothers Jesse and Thomas came out the 
fall following, and the year after my father and brother William 
came, and from that time the country settled very fast with an 
industrious population. 


In 1824 Nathan Dillon was followed by his brothers with their 
families, who settled on the creek around him. Then came George 
and Isham Wright to Hittle's Grove, Esau and William OrendorflF 
to Sugar Creek, Isaac Perkins, Hugh Woodrow, William Woodrow, 
Samuel Woodrow, John Summers, Jacob and Jonathan Tharp, Peter 
Scott and others, came into Sand Prairie in 1824. In the northern 
part of the county came William Blanchard, L. Andress, Elias 
Avery, John Parker, Thomas Camlin, and William Holland. Mr. 
Holland came from Peoria in the spring of 1825 and located on the 
site of the present city of Washington, of which he was the founder. 
He was formerly from North Carolina, and was employed by the 


United States Government as a blacksmith for the Indians who in- 
habited this portion of our State at that time. For several years 
after settlino; here Mr. Holland continued to work for the natives. 
He was also a gunsmith, and as such his services were in great de- 
mand by both the Avhite and red men. His was the only house, and 
his the only family living in the vicinity of Washington until 1826. 
At the time he came to Washington his nearest neighbor was Thos. 
Camlin, who lived on Farm Creek, some three miles east of Peoria, 
in Fond du Lac township. Camlin was a genial, clever pioneer, and 
always ready to entertain his guests with spicy stories and thrilling 
incidents of his personal adventures with the Indians, whom, he 
would claim, he used to shoot at a distance of one-half to three- 
quarters of a mile, — a second Daniel Boone. 

Holland often visited at Camlin's, and passed many pleasant eve- 
nings in his society. Had we a pioneer of this type in our midst 
to-day, living as he then lived, with his experiences of frontier life, 
what a curiosity he would be ! What a thrilling, blood-curdling 
story would the simple narrative of his life make. 


One of the earliest settlers of the county was William Davis. 
He came in the year 1823 with the Dillons. He brought his family 
the following year, and located on section 27, Elm Grove toAvnship. 
The widow of Mr. Davis lives at the old homestead, the laud never 
having been transferred since first entered by her husband. Previ- 
ous to his coming to this county Mr. Davis had been in the employ 
of Major Langley, who had the contract from the United States 
Government to survey the southern part of the State. Mr. Davis 
was a noted hunter, and with his faithful and unerring rifle supplied 
the surveying party with abundance of the choicest game the coun- 
try afforded. 

In this connection we will relate an incident in Mr, Davis' life 
worthy of commemoration. To him belongs the honor of buying 
the first article of merchandise ever sold in Springfield, the State 
capital. It was under the following circumstances that the purchase 
was made : When the surveying party reached the site of the city 
of Springfield his shoes had completely given out, leaving him bare- 
foot. Some parties by. the name of Isles were putting up a place 
in which to open a stock of goods at that point. The building was 
made of bark and was simply intended as temporary quarters. At 


Mr. Davis' solicitation they opened a box of shoes and sold him a 
pair, being the first sale they had made. 

Thomas Davis, a son of William Davis, and who now resides in 
Tremont township, has in his possession the rifle his father carried 
while connected with the surveying ex})edition. This gun was also 
the property of William Davis' father, and is over one hundred 
years old. 


The same year that Mr. Holland came to Holland's Grove, Amasa 
Stout and Matthew Stout came to Stout's Grove, and Daniel Seward, 
Benjamin Briggs, Alexander McKnight, and James Scott, to Plum 
Grove. Jesse, Absalom and Jacob Funk, Jacob Wilson, Jacob 
Hepperly, Morgan Buckingham, Horace Crocker, Abraham Brown 
and Jeiferson Huscham came and settled on the river bottom above 
and opposite Fort Clarke. 


Tazewell county was organized by an act of the Legislature Jan- 
uarv 31st, 1827, with the following boundaries : Beginning at the 
northeast corner of township twenty, north of the base line, axid 
range three east of the third printnpal meridian, thence north on 
said line to the north line of township twenty-eight north, thence 
west to the middle of the Illinois river, thence down said river to 
the north line of township twenty north, thence east to the place of 

In the act organizing the county January 31, 1827, an error oc- 
curred in describing the boundaries. This error was corrected by an 
act re-establishing the boundaries, passed January 22, 1829.. 

The territory comprising the county of Tazewell formed part of 
the counties at the dates named in the several subdivisions of the 
State prior to the organization of the county, as follows : 

1809 — At this date Illinois Territory was organized, and was 
subdivided into the counties of Randolph and St. Clair. Tazewell 
was included in the county of St. Clair. 

1812 — Tazewell formed part of the county of Madison. 

1814 — Tazewell was included in the counties of Madison and 
Edwards : west of the third principal meridian in Madison, east of 
the meridian in Edwards. 

1816 — Tazewell was included within the boundaries of Madison 


and Crawford counties : east of the meridian in Cra^vford, west in 

1817 — Tazewell formed part of the eounties of Bond and Craw- 
ford : west of the meridian in Bond, east in Crawford. 

1819 — Tazewell was included in Clark and Bond counties: west 
of the meridian in Bond, east in Clark. 

1821 — Tazewell formed part of Fayette and Sangamon counties: 
west of the meridian in Sangamon, east in Fayette. 

1827 — Tazewell organized January 31st: boundary defective. 

1829 — Tazewell boundaries defined, and error in law of 1827 
corrected as above given. County originally created from territory 
then comprising part of the counties of Sangamon and Fayette : 
west of the third principal meridian taken from Sangamon, east of 
the meridian, comprising 24 townships, taken from Fayette. 

1830 — McLean county was formed by taking off the three ranges 
east of the meridian and range one west of the meridian. 

1839 — Logan county was created, taking off three townships on 
the south. 

1841 — The counties of Mason and Woodford were organized, and 
Tazewell reduced to its present boundaries. 

The commissioners to locate the couutv seat were Thos. M. Neale, 
Wm. L. D. Ewing and Job Fletcher. They were by the act of or- 
ganization required to meet on the third Monday of March, 1827, 
or within five days thereafter, at the house of Wm. Orendorif, for 
the purpose of locating the county seat, which, when located, was 
to be called " Mackinaw." Until county buildings were erected the 
courts were required to be held at the house of Wm. Orendorff. 
Election for county officers at the house of said Wm. Orendorif on 
the second Monday of April, 1827. 

All that part of Fayette lying east and north of Tazewell was 
attached to Tazewell for county purposes. 

In the year 1825 the Legislature created Peoria county, and at- 
tached to it for all county purposes all of the territory north of 
town 20 and west of the third principal meridian, thus including all 
the present county of Tazewell. Nathan Dillon, William Holland 
and Joseph Smith were chosen County Commissioners for the new 
county. The former two resided in this county. They held their 
first meeting at Peoria March 8, 1825. 

When the population of Tazewell was thought to be sufficiently 
large to regularly organize, an election was held in April, 1827, and 


Benjamin Briggs, George Hittle, and James Lotta were chosen 
Countv Commissioners. The Commissioners at once proceeded to 
hold a meeting and consummate the organization. This they did 
at the house of William Orendorff, April 10, 1827. For an account 
of the labors of the Commissioners we refer the reader to the follow- 
ing chapter. 

The county at this time was very large ; even in 1829, when a 
new boundary was formed, it contained 79 townships. It has been 
divided for the formation tif other counties so often that it has finally 
been reduced to 19 townships. 

The county was named in honor of Hon. John Tazewell, United 
States Senator from the State of Virginia. There is a county in 
that State which also bears the same name, these being the only two 
in the United States. 


One of the greatest difficulties encountered by the early settlers 
was in having their milling done. By a liberal application of enter- 
prise and muscle they experienced but little trouble in producing an 
abundance of the cereals, but having it converted into brcadstull 
was a source of much hard labor. As to the establishment of the 
first mill in the county we quote from the pen of Nathan Dillon : 

" Now let me tell you how we got along about mills. There were 
three or four horse-mills in Sangamon, at 40 or 45 miles distance. 
Sometimes we went to them ; sometimes to Southwick's, situated at 
a distance of 60 miles. We did not mind the journey much, unless 
the streams were swollen with rains, in which case the task of going 
to mill was severe, as there were no bridges and ferries in those 
days. By and by, to remedy our wants, Samuel Tutter erected a 
small horse-mill in the neighborhood of Peoria ; and a few years 
after William Eads put one up at Elm Grove, a public improvement 
which made us feel quite rich. In those early times we took only 
corn to mill, paying one-sixth or one bit per bushel for grinding. 
The meal obtained was of an inferior quality when compared with 
what we now have. Our millers were good, honest fellows, and the 
somewhat heavy tariffs they laid on their customers not at all wrong, 
for their income was small. Times are changed. The reader who 
now looks at the fertile prairies of Illinois, what does he behold? 
Large cities and flourishing towns. Behold the prairies, then wild 
and untrodden, now covered with fine farms and dwellings ; behold 


the travel of our railroads and rivers, visit our county fairs and be- 
come acquainted with our intelligent farmers, and the vast and val- 
uable amount of products derived from the soil they till ; behold on 
every hand our numerous churches and school-houses, our court- 
houses and seats of justice, spread all over the wide territory which 
French, Philips and myself early governed as humble justices, and 
tell me, has not the changed improvement been both great and 


As related above, the first cabin built in the county was by Nathan 
Dillon, on Dillon creek, Dillon township, in 1823. He moved into 
this rude structure before a door or window was put in. He built 
a fire in one corner and tore up the clapboard roof to make an 
opening for the smoke to escape. Here Aug. 2, 1824, was born 
Hannah Dillon, daughter of Nathan Dillon, the first white child born 
in the county. Stephen Woodrow was the first white male child 
born in the county. The first improvement introduced in the county 
aside from the cabins of the pioneers, was a grist-mill erected by 
William Eads and William Davis. This mill was built in 1825, in 
Elm Grove township. It wa^ generally run by four horses, and 
would not crack over three bushels of corn in an hour. It was 
what was called in those days a " band mill." Being geared to run 
by horse or cattle power, the customers, on all occasions, had to fur- 
nish their own power. About the asme time Elisha Perkins erected 
another band mill in the neighborhood of Circleville. Previous to 
the erection of these important improvements the nearest mill was 
at Elkhardt, ten miles northeast of Springfield. Perkins' mill was 
afterwards stockaded and used as a fort during the Black Hawk war. 

The first water grist-mill built in the county was erected on Farm 
creek, in 1827, by a man named Leak. It had one run of stones. 
The bolting was done by hand. 

The first water mill in the southern part of the county was built 
in 1831 by Summers, on Lick creek west of the town of Groveland. 
It was a common hand mill run by water. It was so constructed 
that it would drop but one grain at a time in the mill, thus consum- 
ing much time to grind a grist. The mill was built of logs roofed 
with linden bark, and was about ten feet square. 

The first cotton gin in the county was built by William Eads in 
connection with his grist-mill. 


Theodorus Fisher built the first wooleu factory ever operated in 
Tazewell county. It was built in 1832, on section 34, Elm Grove 
township. It was run by ox power. An inclined wheel was used 
upon which they trod to make the motion. This was an extensive 
concern for the time, and settlers came from Knox, Peoria, and 
Sangamon counties to get their wool carded. 

The first school-house in the county was erected on section 
27, Elm Grove township, in 1827. Samuel Bentley was the first 

The first camp-meeting held in Tazewell county was by Petei 
Cartwright, in a grove on Dillon creek, Elm Grove township, in 

The first postoffice of the county was kept by Thomas Dillon, 
Dillon townshi]), in 1825. 

Absalom Dillon kept the first store in the county, first at Dillon 
in 1826, and then at Pekin in 1830. 

The first marriage celebrated in the county was that of Daniel 
Dillon to Martha Alexander. The ceremony took place in Elm 
Grove township, the license having been procured at Peoria. 

The first marriage that occurred after the county was organized, 
and the first marriage license issued, were under the following ro- 
mantic circumstances: Mordecai Mobley, the first County Clerk, 
happened at old Father Stout's to stay all night. Mr. Stout lived 
about five miles from Mackinaw. Mr. Mobley says he noticed a 
boy and girl around but thought they were brother and sister. Soon 
the " old gentleman " called him aside and told him that " that ar 
boy had been comin' to see his darter for a long time, and they want 
to o-et married. Now," continued Mr. Stout, " we are liviii in a new 
country and we don't know what's to be done, and we thinks as 
how you can tell us. They have to get some kind of a permit, don't 
they ? " Mr. Mobley told him they did, and that he could not only 
tell them how to get married, but that he was the man to issue the 
permit. This i)leased Mr. Stout, and no doubt the young cou})le 
were delighted to think that the great obstacles that prevented them 
from being one — for they were both willing and so were the old 
folk — were about to be removed. INIr. Stout wanted the license 
immediately. Accordingly, Mr. Mobley told them if they would 
get him pen and ink and some paper he would write the license. 
Not a sheet of blank paper could be found in the cabin. At last, 
Mr. Mobley asked them if they had a book. Mr. Stout thought 


they had, "as they used to have one." Finally an old book was 
found which happened to have one whole unmarked fly-leaf. Being 
thus provided with paper they found they had no pen. A pen was 
soon made, however. Mr. Mobley told them to go and catch the 
biggest chicken they had. This was done and a large feather pulled 
out of its Aving and a pen made of it. Again they found themselves 
in a dilemma, but out of which the ingenuity of Mr. Mobley soon 
brought them. After being provided with paper and pen they were 
minus ink. He, however, took some water and gunpowder and 
made some writing-fluid that answered the purpose. With this ink 
and pen, and upon the fly-leaf of the old book, the first marriage 
license issued in Tazewell county was written. 

The couple for whom such seemingly insurmountable obstacles 
were overcome were John Stout and Fanny Stout. They were mar- 
ried on the 25th of June, 1827, by Rev. William Brown. 

The marriage of the celebrated Peter Cartwright was among the 
very first to take place in Tazewell county. He was married to 
Temperance Kindle, Oct. 14, 1827, by George Hittle, County Com- 
missioner. His was the sixth marriage license issued after the 
county's organization. 

The first death of a white man occurring in the county was that 
of a Mr. Killum in the month of December, 1823. He left Sugar 
creek, in Logan county, to go to Peoria. Being compelled to wade 
the Mackinaw river at high water, and the weather turning suddenly 
cold, he perished on the prairie not far from where he crossed. 

In February, 1825, Ezekiel Turner was killed by lightning, being 
the second death. Not a foot of sawed lumber being within reach, 
the rites of sepulture were performed in true pioneer style. Wm. 
Woodrow felled a straight walnut tree, cut a log the proper length, 
split it, and hollowed one half and shaped it like a coflin. From 
the other half of the log a slab was hewn for a lid, and in this rude 
burial case the body was placed and consigned to mother earth ; 
and no doubt that what was mortal of Ezekiel Turner mouldered 
into its original element as peacefully as though it had been encased 
in satin-lined rosewood or polished iron. 


to ascend the Illinois river landed at Pekin, which at that time 
was known, from its fine location, as " Town Site," late in the fall 
of 1828. A steamboat was a novelty, or rather a mystery, to many 


of the early settlers. Coming up the river the boat passed Kings- 
ton in the night. Hugh Barr, who lived near that point, heard it 
coming, and being on rather unfriendly terms with the Indians, then 
quite numerous in the vicinity, concluded that it was some infernal 
contrivance of theirs to frighten or harm him. Seizing his gun and 
setting his equally bewildered dog at it, he pursued the offending 
mystery. The pilot, not being familiar with the channel, ran into 
Clifton's lake, and finding no outlet, he had to back the boat out. 
Barr, witnessing this, drew off his dog, and though still hugely 
puzzled to know what manner of craft it was, gave up pursuit. 
William Haines then lived about where Behrens' brick block, cor- 
ner of Front and Court streets, now stands. Hearing the puff of 
the escaping steam he hastily left his bed, and half dressed, crossed 
the street to Thomas Snell's, now the Bemis House, called neighbor 
Snell out of bed, and inquired as to what manner of creature was 
coming up the river. Snell replied : " I don't know. Bill ; but if I 
was on the Ohio river I would think it was a steamboat." Old 
Father Tharp, hearing the noise of the paddles and the steam whistle, 
thought it was Gabriel blowing his horn ; that sure enough the end 
of the world had come in the night ; and calling up his family, en- 
gaged in prayer as a fitting preparation fi)r the advent of a higher 
and better life. 


As amusingly illustrating the peculiar characteristics of the pio- 
neer hotel keepers, we incorporate the following account of two hotels 
in Pekin. It is taken from the " Pekin City Directory," published 
in 1870 by Sellers & Bates: 

"first-class" HOTELS. 

The year 1848 witnessed the establishment of two "first-class" 
hotels. The Eagle, which stood on the site now occupied by the 
Bemis House, was kept by Seth Kinnian, who afterwards acquired 
considerable celebrity as a hunter and trapper in the far AVest, and 
by presenting buck-horn and bear-claw chairs, of his own make, to 
Presidents Lincoln and Johnson. 

The other, now the Mansion House, but then known as the " Tay- 
lor House," was presided over by William A. Tinney. "Uncle 
Bill" still resides here, good-natured and hearty, notwithstanding 
the arduous duties of his offices of Justice of the Peace, Police 


Magistrate and Acting Coroner. He distinguished himself in his 
old days by being the first white man in Pekin to lead a negro to 
the polls to vote. 

The manner of welcoming guests to these hotels was somewhat 
peculiar, as the following instance will illustrate : A traveler came 
off a boat one day, and went to the Eagle Hotel. There had been 
a little western " scrimmage " at the " Eagle " the night before, and 
though things had not yet been put in order, the proprietor, Seth 
Kinman, was sitting in front of the door, playing his favorite tune, 
the "Arkansas Traveler," with the greatest self-satisfaction. The 
stranger stopped and asked Seth, "Are you the proprietor here ? " 
Seth, without resting his bow, replied, "Wall, I reckon I be, 
stranger." "Do you keep tavern?" "Of course I do; keep 
tavern like h — 1," said Seth, fiddling away with all his might. 
" Just pile in ; hang your freight up on the floor and make yourself 
at home. The boys," continued Seth, " have been having a little 
fun, but if there's a whole table or plate in the house I'll get you 
some cold hash towards night." The stranger didn't like the place, 
and took his departure, leaving the " proprietor " still enjoying his 
violin. Late in the afternoon the traveler presented himself at the 
" Taylor House." 'Squire Tinney met him outside with his nwst 
austere expression and "Good morning — good morning, sir; walk 
in, sir ; take a seat, sir ; shave you as soon as the water gets warm." 
The stranger, not requiring the services of a barber, walked off in 
haste and amazement, and the 'Squire swore audibly " that he was 
some infernal Yankee come out West to steal honest people'smoney." 
The next steamboat that came along found our discomfited traveler 
on the beach, awaiting passage for anywhere out of Pekin. 


The big snow of 1830 will be vividly remembered by all the old 
settlers. The snow began falling on the night of the 29th of De- 
cember, and continued to fall fi^r three days and nights, until it 
reached an average depth of about four feet, but drifting in places 
as high as from eighteen to twenty feet. Great suffering was expe- 
rienced in consequence. The settlers relied for their daily food up- 
on the Indian corn which they were enabled to raise, together with 
wild game, which was abundant at that time. Plenty of the former 
was raised to supply the wants of all until the next season's crop ; 
but when the snow fell very little had been gathered. Game could 


not be had. The great depth of snow was a barrier to all travel, 
and it may well be imagined the snfferings of the people were very 
great indeed. 

This was the heaviest snow that ever fell in Illinois within the 
memory of the oldest settler of this part of the State. According 
to the traditions of the Indians as related to the pioneers, a snow fell 
from fifty to seventy-five years before the settlement by the white 
people, which swept away the numerous herds of buffalo and elk 
that roamed over the vast prairies at that time. This tradition was 
verified by the large number of bones of these animals found in 
different localities on the prairies when first visited by the whites. 
The deep snow is one of the landmarks of the pioneer. He reck- 
' ons, in giving dates of early occurrences, so many years before or so 
many after the deep snow. He calculates the date of his coming, 
his marriage and the birth of his children from it, and well might it 
make a lasting impression upon their minds. Could we picture the 
suffering of that winter; the dark forebodings that crept into every 
cabin, starvation staring the inmates in the face ; the meagre meal 
that for months was their only portion, we, too, would never forget 
it. But human tongue or pen can never adequately picture the 
trials endured by the pioneers who were here during that long and 
eventful winter. For weeks the sun was not visible, and so intense 
was the cold that not a particle of snow would melt uj)on the south 
sides of the cabins. People were for weeks absolutely blockaded or 
housed up, and remained so until starvation compelled them to go 
forth in search of food. 

Israel Shreves, who came to Tazewell county from Decatur county, 
Indiana, located first in Elm Grove township, where he remained 
two years, and then moved to section 28, Morton townshij), where 
he passed the remainder of his days, dying there Aug. 26, 1861. 
Here he reared a large family of children, eight of whom are still 
living. His son Julius resides upon the old homestead. During 
the deep snow Israel Shreves and Major R. N. CuUom (father of the 
present Governor of Illinois), went to the mill at Pleasant Grove, 
Elm Grove townshi}). This mill was some eight miles from Shreves' 
farm, and still farther from Cullom's ; but necessity compelled them 
to make an effort to obtain some meal. Each of them took a horse 
to carry their sack of corn. The men traveled upon snow shoes and 
led their horses. The snow was so deep that it was only with the 
greatest difficulty that they could get along at all. On the elevated 


places where the wind could strike, the snow would bear their horses 
up ; but in the " swags " it was so soft that they would sink, and but 
for their snow shoes the men would also have gone down. In places 
the snow was so deep that it would strike the sacks on the horses 
and brush them off. At such places the men were obliged to take 
the sacks upon their shoulders and carry them on to a spot that 
would bear their horses. They would then return to their horses 
and lead them on. Ofttimes it was quite difficult, owing to the great 
depth of the snow, to get the horses upon the hard snow. The cold 
was so intense, and the wind so high, that persons were in great 
danger of freezing to death ; but the two determined, sturdy pioneers 
pushed ahead and at last arrived at the mill. 

On the following day after their arrival at the mill Mr. Shreves 
started for home, and after a long and painful journey reached his 
destination in safety ; but so great was the physical exertion he 
made that nothwithstanding the intense cold he wiped the streaming 
perspiration from his brow. 

Mr. Cullom remained another night at the mill before attempting 
to leave for home, which he reached in safety after a tedious, dan- 
gerous journey. 

Mr. Shreves had seven large, fat hogs running in a ten-acre field. 
Their bed was quite a distance from the house, and they could not 
be reached very soon. When found they were all frozen to death. 

Major R, X. Cullom, during this winter, carried corn on his back 
from Mackinaw to his cabin, a distance of ten miles, to feed his 
horses. He traveled on snow-shoes. 

Rev. "Wm. Brown and his brother-in-law, Alfred Phillips, who 
lived two and a half miles from Mr. Brown's, cut browse for their 
cattle till they could shovel a path to Holland's Grove, now \yash- 
ington, to drive them there. This was a hard task. 

So much extra work was to be done in the building of homes that 
in the fall the pioneers did not gather in and crib their corn. They 
let it remain in the field until winter came before gathering. The 
big snow therefore found many of the settlers without any prepara- 
tion for a long siege. They would go out into the field, and where 
they could see the top of a corn stalk sticking up through the snow 
they would dig down until they came to the ear. To get wood they 
would cut trees at the top of the snow, and when spring came and 
the snow had disappeared, they often found the stump long enough 
to cut into fence rails. The snow lay on the ground until about the 


first of April ; and we have little doubt that many a weary one 
durino: that long: winter sighed for the comforts of the " old home ;" 
still, notwithstanding its great dreariness and the greater suiferings 
of the people, none became disheartened, for we find them in the 
spring of 1831 as determined as ever to carve out for themselves a 
home in this truly beautiful country. 

During this winter, from Dec. 29, 1830, till Feb. 13, 1831, it 
snowed nineteen times. After the snow had melted we are told that 
the bones of deer were so numerous in some })]aces that for one- 
quarter of an acre one could step from bone to bone over the whole 
surface, so many deer had perished there. 

The season following the winter of the deep snow was a very late 
one, and frost came every month in the year. The crops were poor, 
as may well be supposed, and the corn did not ripen. 

The longest winter ever experienced since this country was settled 
by the whites was that of 1842-43. The cold weather set in No- 
vember 4, and lasted until the following April. 


The most extraordinary atmospheric phenomenon occurring within 
the knowledge of the oldest settler took place in January, 1836. 
The intensest suffering was caused to man and beast by this sudden 
change, (^uite a snow had fallen the day previous to the change, 
and upon that day a slow, drizzling rain fell, making of the snow a 
" slush." The storm came from the northwest, and the clouds, upon 
its approach, assumed a threatening and extraordinary aspect, those 
higher being dark, and those ])el()W of a white frosty appearance. 
As fast as the storm advanced it instantaneously changed the tem- 
perate atmosphere to that of frigid coldness. Incidents arc related 
in connection with this sudden change which are indeed marvelous. 
William Hodgson, who had just moved upon the farm he now occu- 
pies, section 32, Groveland township, says he went into the timber 
for a load of wood just before the change. While he was loading 
his wagon the storm came upon him, and so sudden and terrible that 
he could scarcely manage his team. Before he could get to his 
house, which was only forty rods distant, the slush had frozen hard. 
The next day the surface of the country was one vast sea of ice. 
Two miles south of Hodgson's farm a drove of hogs out from 
protection froze to death. Cattle that were in the fields were held 
fast by the slush freezing about their feet, and it became necessary 


to cut away the ice to liberate them. J. Roberts, of Morton town- 
ship, speaks of this change in the following language : " In the 
winter of 1836, when there was some four inches of snow upon the 
ground, a warm rain fell which transformed the snow into slush. I 
was some thirty rods from my house when it began to freeze. I 
immediately started for it, and before I reached there it was frozen 
sufficiently hard to bear me up." 


We have spoken of the deep snow and the sudden atmospheric 
change ; we now wish to record the seasons that the greatest amount 
of water fell. It is claimed that the greatest rain-fall that has ever 
occurred in this country was in 1835. There was no record kept of 
the amount of water that fell by any of the methods in use at the 
present time, and all we have to judge by is the high water in the 
streams. The Illinois and tributaries are said to have been higher 
than at the breaking up of the big snow in the spring of 1831, or 
at any time since. The rains commenced falling in the early spring 
and continued throughout the early summer. There have been, 
perhaps, other seasons just as wet, but the streams were never so 
high at any other time. During this period there were many hard 
rains. In the early part of July a storm of rain, thunder and light- 
ning occurred, which for severity has scarcely ever been equaled. It 
spread throughout the West. The great prairies, then uncultivated 
and undrained, were a vast lake, and fish were plenty in almost 
every locality. The large ponds found here and there over the 
prairies in an early day contained fish large enough for domestic 
purposes. Tliese ponds would dry up in the summer but in spring- 
time were well filled with water, and how the finny tribe managed 
to get there is a query the "old settler" cannot answer in a more 
satisfactory way than " they rained down when small." During this 
season but little in the way of crops was attempted to be raised. 
Hogs were fattened in the fall upon the mast, and those that were 
not killed for food had to subsist during the winter upon acorns ; 
with them it was literally " root hog or die." 

The years 1842, 1844, and 1858, are also notable as years of great 
rain-fall. During the early history of the county, when there were 
no bridges, great difficulty was experienced in getting from place to 
place in the spring-time on account of the high waters. At such 
times ferrymen were allowed to charge double fare for carrying 


people or goods across th'e streams. It is remarkable that so few 
lives were lost during these seasons of high water, but the pioneers 
were all expert swimmers, and it was very seldom one was drowned 



In regard to the first land sales of government land in this part 
of the State, we cojiy from John W. Dougherty's " History of 
Washington : " 

" The first land sales for this district were held in Springfield in 
1830 or 1831. Prior to that date no title could be acquired to any 
land in this district. The settlers, however, recognized the justice 
of securing to each of their number the benefit of their labor, and 
gave effect to this idea by appointing one of their number. Col. Ben- 
jamin Mitchell, agent or registrar of claims. By this arrangement,' 
and the paying of twenty-five cents to the registrar, each applicant 
secured the registration of his claim, and the right to buy the land 
he had improved when it came into market. This gave the lands a 
commercial value in the hands of the holder, and also enabled the 
person making the claim to sell and transfer it if he so desired. 
These claims soon became an impoi-ttint item in the limited com- 
merce of these early times, — the other items of wliich were grain, 
beef, and pork. The principal purchasers were immigrants, most of 
whom had little if any money, but labor and good promises passed 
current at par, the latter being secured by the' honor of the prom- 
isor. They were usually religiously observed. Indeed, men usually 
make much of their honor when it is their only stock in trade. 
Still, we are inclined to think thepro rata of honesty was greater in 
those days than now, and for the following reasons : These men 
were not speculators or fortune hunters, but earnest men, seeking 
homes in the virgin soil of the Great West, and actuated by these 
generous impulses, honesty was the natural consequence." 


Money was an article little known and seldom seen among the 
earlier settlers. Indeed, they had but little use fi)r it, as all business 
was transacted by bartering one article for another. Great ingenuity 
was developed in the barter of their commodities, and when this 
failed long credits contributed to their convenience. But for taxes 
and postage neither the barter nor credit system would answer, and 


often letters were suffered to remain a considerable time in the post- 
office for want of twenty-five cents, which was then the postage on 
all letters fVom any great distance ; nor Avere they carried on the 
fast express or mail trains. It was only every week or so that a 
lone horseman, with mail bag thrown astride, would ride into a set- 
tlement or village. If, however, the village was on the line of a 
stage route, the old stage-coach would make its appearance as often. 
It was not common, then, for persons to get many letters ; indeed, 
one or two a month was considered a large mail. Nor did three 
cents pay the postage upon a letter at that day. It seldom took less 
than twenty-five cents, or two " bits," as Kentuckians would say. 


The large prairies of the county presented a most beautiful sight 
before they were settled. The following very descriptive lines on 
" The Prairies of Illinois," by Captain Basil Hall, graphically por- 
trays their beauty in their wild and native state : 

" The charm of prairie consists in its extension, its green, flowery 
carpet, its undulating surface, and the skirt of forest whereby it is 
surrounded ; the latter feature being of all others the most signifi- 
cant and expressive, since it characterizes the landscape, and defines 
the form and boundary of the plain. If the prairie is little, its great- 
est beauty consists in the vicinity of the encompassing edge of 
forests, which may be compared to the shores of a lake, being inter- 
sected with many deep, inward bends, as so many inlets, and at 
intervals projecting very far, not unlike a promontory or protruding 
arm of land. These projections sometimes so closely approach each 
other that the traveler passing through between them, may be said 
to walk in the midst of an alley overshadowed by the forest, before 
he enters again upon another broad prairie. Where the plain is ex- 
tensive, the delineations of the forest in the distant background 
appear as would a misty ocean beach afar off. The eye sometimes 
surveys the green prairie without discovering on the illimitable plain 
a tree or bush, or any other object save the wilderness of flowers 
and grass, while on other occasions the view is enlivened by the 
groves dispersed like islands over the plain, or by a solitary tree ris- 
ing above the wilderness. The resemblance to the sea which some 
of these prairies exhibit is really most striking. In the spring, 
when the young grass has just clothed the soil with a soddy carpet of 
the most delicate green, but especially when the sun, rising behind a 



distant elevation of the ground, its rays are reflected by myriads of 
dew-drops, a more pleasing and more eye-benefiting view cannot be 

" The delightful aspect of the prairie, its amenities, and the ab- 
sence of that sombre awe inspired by forests, contributes to forcing 
away that sentiment of loneliness which usually steals upon the 
mind of the solitary wanderer in the wilderness ; for, although he 
espies no habitation, and sees no human being, and knows himself to 
be far off from every settlement of man, he can scarcely defend him- 
self from believing th?^ he is traveling through a landscape embel- 
lished by human art. Tne flowers are so delicate and elegant as 
apparently to be distributed for mere ornament over the plain ; the 
groves and groups of trees seem to be dispersed over the prairie to 
enliven the landscape, and we can scarcely get rid of the impression 
invading our imagination, of the whole scene being flung out and 
created for the satisfaction of the sentiment of beauty in refined 

"In the summer the prairie is covered with tall grass, which is 
coarse in appearance, and soon assumes a yellow color, waving in the 
wina'like a ripe crop of corn. In the early stages of its growth it 
resembles young wheat, and in this state furnishes such rich and 
succulent food for cattle that the latter choose it often in preference 
to wheat, it being no doubt a very congenial fodder to them, since 
it is impossible to conceive of better butter than is made while the 
grass is in this stage. 

" In the early stages of its growth the grass is interspersed with 
little flowers, — the violet, the strawberry-blossom, and others of the 
most delicate structure. When the grass grows higher these disap- 
pear, and taller flowers, displaying more lively colors, take their 
place ; and still later a series of still higher but less delicately formed 
flowers appears on the surface. While the grass is green these beau- 
tiful plains are adorned with every imaginable variety of color. It 
is impossible to conceive of a greater diversity, or discover a pre- 
dominating color, save the green, which forms a beautiful dead color, 
relieving the splendor of the others. In the summer the plants 
grow taller, and the colors more lively ; in the autumn another gen- 
eration of flowers arises which possesses less clearness and variety of 
color and less fragrancy. In the winter the prairie presents a mel- 
ancholy aspect. Often the fire, which the hunters annually send 
over the prairies in order to dislodge the game, will destroy the 


entire vegetation, giving to the soil a uniform black appearance, like 
that of a vast plain of charcoal ; then the wind sweeping over the 
prairie will find nothing which it might put in motion, no leaves 
which it might disperse, no haulms which it might shake. No 
sooner does the snow commence to fall than the animals, unless 
already before frightened away by the fire, retire into the forests, 
when the most dreary, oppressive solitude will reign on the burnt 
prairies, which often occupy many square miles of territory." 


Fires would visit the grassy plains every autumn. The settlers 
who had pushed out from the timber took great precaution to 
prevent their crops, houses and barns from being destroyed, yet 
not always did they succeed. Many incidents are related of prairie 
fires. Kezer Hancock, after assisting in cutting about twenty tons 
of hay in 1838, most of which he mowed himself by hand, saw, to 
his great sorrow, one of those devastating prairie fires in its onward 
course toward it. On it came with great rapidity, and before any- 
thing could be done to save his hay it was converted into a black- 
ened mass. 

The first winter J. M. Roberts came to this county, he, with his 
father and brother, made 9,000 rails and laid them up around their 
fields. A hunter set fire to the grass in November to find a wounded 
deer. The fire spread and swept off all their fences ; their 9,000 
rails, 16 acres of corn, their main crop, and only by great efforts 
were their house, barn and hay saved. 

The great conflagrations were caused either accidentally, or design- 
edly from wantonness, or with a view of bewildering the game. 
The fire often spread further than it was intended it should. Where- 
ever were extensive prairie lands, one-half was burned in the spring 
and the other half in the autumn, in order to produce a more rapid 
growth of the naturally exuberant grass, destroying at the same time 
the tall and thick weed stalks. Violent winds would often arise and 
drive the flames with such rapidity that riders on the fleetest steeds 
could scarcely escape. On the approach- of a prairie fire the farmer 
would immediately set about "burning back," — that is, burning off 
the grass close by the fences, that the larger fire upon arriving would 
become extinguished for want of aliment. In order to be able, how- 
ever, to make proper use of this measure of safety, it was very es- 
sential that every farmer should encompass with a ditch those of his 


fences adjoining the prairie. AVhen known that the conflagration 
could cause no danger, the settler, though accustomed to them, could 
not refrain from gazing with admiration upon the magnificent spec- 
tacle. Language cannot convey, words cannot express, the faintest 
idea of the splendor and grandeur of such a conflagration during the 
night. It was as if the pale queen of night, disdaining to take her 
accustomed place in the heavens, had despatched myriads upon my- 
riads of messengers to light their torches at the altar of the setting 
sun until all had flashed into one long and continuous blaze. 

" O, fly to the prairies and in wonder gaze, 
As o'er the grass sweeps the magnificent blaze: 
The earth cannot boast so magnificent a sight, — 
A continent blazing with oceans of light." 

The following graphic description of prairie fires was written by 
a traveler through this region in 1849 : 

" Soon the fires began to kindle wider and rise higher from the 
long grass ; the gentle breeze increased to stronger currents, and 
soon fanned the small, flickering blaze into fierce torrent flames, 
which curled up and leaped along in resistless splendor ; and like 
quickly raising the dark curtain from the luminous stage, the scenes 
before me were suddenly changed, as if by the magician's wand, 
into one boundless amphitheater, blazing from earth to heaven and 
sweeping the horizon round, — columns of lurid flames sportively 
mounting up to the zenith, and dark clouds of crimson smoke curl- 
ing away and aloft till they nearly obscured stars and moon, while 
the rushing, crashing sounds, like roaring cataracts mingled with 
distant thunders, were almost deafening; danger, death, glared all 
around ; it screamed for victims ; yet, notwithstanding the imminent 
peril of prairie fires, one is loth, irresolute, almost unable to with- 
draw or seek refuge." 




THE FIRST meeting of the County Commissioners' Court of 
Tazewell county was held at the house of William Orendorif, 
April 10, 1827. Mr. OrendoriPs cabin stood in the edge of the timber 
just south of the present village of Hopedale. Jas. Lotta, Benjamin 
Briggs and George Hittle, the Commissioners, were all present. 
They seemed to have had the county's interest solely at heart, and 
their proceedings attest that they were judicious, honest and upright 
officials. They were sworif in on the previous day by William Oren- 
dorff. Justice of the Peace. Who it was that administered the oath 
of office to him we are unable to learn, but all things must have a 
beginning, and we surmise that after 'Squire Orendorif had admin- 
istered the oath to them, he in turn was sworn to faithfully perform 
the duties of his office by one of the Commissioners. 

The records of this Court open with the simple statement that the 
Court held a "special term April 10, 1827." It gives us no inform- 
ation whatever concerning its organization or previous history, but, 
like the Holy Scriptures, begins with unqualified statements and 
records its acts with greatest simplicity. 

The first order of the Court was, "that Mordecai Mobley be 
appointed Clerk." Bonds for the faithful perfijrmance of the duties 
of the office were immediately demanded, whereupon William Oren- 
dorif and William H. Hodge stejjped forward as his surety. The 
second order was to the effect that the Court be held at the house of 
Ephraim Stout, in Stout's Grove, until public buildings could be 
erected. This grove is located in the northern part of McLean 
county, but at the time was a portion of Tazewell. 

Another special term of the Court, being the second meeting, was 
held Wednesday, April 25, 1827, with all the above named Com- 
missioners present. John Benson was appointed Treasurer, William 


Orendorif and Absalom Funk going on his bond. At a meeting 
held the following day, William Orendorif was allowed $7 to replace 
the money expended by him for advertising for the formation of 
Tazewell county. 


The commissioners appointed to locate the permanent seat of 
justice made the following report: 

"Be it remembered that we, the undersigned, Commissioners 
appointed under the authority of the ' act creating Tazewell county,' 
to locate the seat of justice for the aforesaid county of Tazewell, 
agreeably to the provisions of said act, having satisfactorily explored 
and examined the county with that view, do unanimously agree upon 
and select the northwest quarter of section number seventeen, 
township 24, north of range 2 west of the Third Principal Meridian, 
as the seat of justice of said county, — the court-house to be situated 
at or near the spot where the said Commissioners drove down a stake, 
standing nine paces in a northeastern direction from a large white 
oak blazed on the northeastern side. 

"Given under our hands and seals this 22d day of March, 1827. 

"Job Fletcher, 
"AViLLiAM Lee D. Ewing, 
"Tom M. Neale." 

The site selected was that of the present village of Mackinaw. 
It was christened with the Indian name of the river near which it was 
located. Neale and Fletcher each received $13.50 for their labor of 
locating the county-seat, while, for sqme cause unknown to us, 
Ewing was paid more liberally, he receiN^ng $19.50. 


Thursday, April 26, 1827, the Commissioners again convened in 
official capacity. A revenue to defray the expenses of the newly 
organized county must be raised. Accordingly a tax of one-half of 
one per cent, was "laid on the valuation of the following description 
of property, to-wit : On slave or indentured negro or mulatto ser- 
vants; on pleasure carriages, distilleries, stock in trade; on all 
horses, etc., etc." There was not at that time any levy made upon 
real estate. 




William H. Hodge, County Surveyor, was ordered "to survey 
and lay off the town of Mackinaw." This was to be completed by 
May 20th. The Clerk was ordered to have an advertisement inserted 
in the Sangamon Spectator for three weeks, to the effect that on the 
second Monday in June, 1827, a public sale of lots in Mackinaw 
would be had. He was also ordered to have 100 handbills of the 
same nature printed. Thus we see the pioneer fathers appreciated 
the good results of advertising. 


According to the time specified, June 11, the settlers gathered 
from all parts of the county upon the site of their proposed 
town and county-seat. No doubt they looked forward with fond 
expectation for a bright and prosperous future for their capital. 
This, however, they peacefully enjoyed but for a short season, for 
soon the public buildings were removed elsewhere, and the flattering 
prospects of Mackinaw were overshadowed. Lots were sold on a 
credit of four, six and eight months, and we should judge at unu- 
sually large figures. 

Mathew Robb was appointed "cryer," — for which service he 
received $1.50 — William Lee, clerk, and the great sale began. Abra- 
ham Funk bid in the first lot, being lot 1 of block 1, for which he 
gave the handsome sum of $51. The sale went on, evidently with 
considerable animation, for good prices were obtained and ready sales 
made. The following is a full and complete list of lots sold, with 
name of purchaser and amount paid : 

Name. Lot. Block. Price. 

Abraham Funk 1 1 $51 00 

Thomas Dillon 2 1 29 50 

John Funk 3 1 15 25 

William Gilston 4 1 9 00 

RobertMcClure 35 00 

Mathew Robb 4 6 15 25 

Mordecai Mobley 2 6 45 00 

Richard Latham 6 6 23 00 

EH Redman 8 6 20 00 

Abraham Dillon 1 7 85 00 

Thomas Dillon 2 7 42 50 

J. B. Harbert 3 7 30 00 

Daniel Dillon 4 9 83 00 

Name. Lot. Block. Price. 

Hugh L. Welch 3 9 46 75 

Isaac Funk 2 9 34 50 

James Lurley 1 9 35 00 

Joel Hiatt 4 10 35 00 

William Council 3 10 23 00 

Abraham Funk 6 11 44 25 

Martin Porter 5 11 15 00 

Jonas H. Hittle 8 7 25 00 

Jacob Judv 7 7 20 50 

Thomas Briggs 5 9 11 00 

Henry Stillman 1 .... 6 85 00 

Samuel Judy 6 9 15 00 

The aggregate amount received for the twenty-five lots was 




A meeting of the Court was held at Stout's Grove, Monday, June 
4, 1827, Commissioners Hittle and Lotta being present. William 
H. Hodge brought in his bill for surveying 93 lots in Mackinaw, 
which, amounting to $35.50, was ordered paid, although we are at a 
loss to know where the funds came from, as we have no record of 
any being raised previously. 

For several years the petitions for roads occupied a very large 
proportion of the Court's time and attention, and consumed more 
space to record than all other proceedings. They are similar in con- 
struction and it would be useless, and worse, to speak of them as 
often as they occur. We give, however, as a fair sample, the first 
one presented, which was at this session. It was oftefed by George 
Hittle, and was " for a road from Mackinaw, the county seat, the 
nearest and best route to where Christopher Orendorif is building a 
mill on Sugar creek, thence as near as practicable on a direct route 
to the bridge over Kickapoo creek. Which was read and ordered 
that said route be viewed, marked and staked, and that Robert 
McClure, Mathew Robb and Mara Stout be appointed to view, mark 
and stake the same." These gentlemen viewed the route and 
returned a favorable report, and were allowed for the three days' 
labor it took, $2.25 each. Rob't McClure was given 75 cts. extra 
for " furnishing wagon to haul stakes in for three days." 


At the regular term in June, 1827, the Commissioners divided 
the county into election precincts as follows : That part of the 
county east of the third principal meridian and north of township 
22 composed Blooming Grove precinct ; all south of township 23, 
east of the third principal meridian and including also one range 
west of the same line, to the southern boundary of the county, 
comprised Kickapoo precinct ; all lying west of range 1 west of the 
third meridian and south of township 23, composed Sugar Creek 
precinct ; all west of the third meridian and north of township 22 
and east of range 3 west, composed Mackinaw precinct ; all west of 
range 2 west and south of the center of township 25, and north of 
township 22, composed Sand Prairie precinct ; all west of range 2 
west and north of the center of township 25 north, composed Ten 
Mile precinct. 



Election was ordered to be held in Blooming Grove precinct at 
the house of John Benson, and William Orendorif, Henry Vamickle 
and Ebenezer Rhodes were appointed judges. 

In Kickapoo precinct at Michael Dickeson's house, with George 
Hand, James Burleson and Isaac Funk, judges. 

In Sugar Creek precinct at the house of a Mr. Walters, with John 
Judy, George Miles and Walker Miller, judges. 

In Mackinaw precinct at M. Mobley's house at the county-seat, 
with Eobert McClure, Abraham Stout and Paton Mitchell, judges. 

In Sand Prairie precinct at the house of Samuel Woodrow; 
judges, Isaac Perkins, Xathan Dillon and William Eades. 

In Ten Milo- ' /u-ecinct at the house of Thomas Camlin. Austin 
Crocker, Jacob Funk and Hezekiah Davis were appointed judges. 

For many years there was a constant change going on in regard 
to election precincts and road districts. At almost every meeting of 
the Court some alteration was made. 


Tuesday, June 26, 1827, H. Warren, editor of the Sangamon 
Spectator, brought in his bill for advertising the sale of lots at 
Mackinaw, which, for six insertions, and 100 blank notes, 100 blank 
bonds and 100 handbills, amounted to $16.62J. This the Court 
deemed just, and directed the Clerk to draw an order on the Treas- 
urer in favor of Mr. Warren for said amount. 

On the same day the Court proceeded to let the contract for build- 
ing the court-house. The following specifications of this structure 
are spread upon the court records : 

"The body of the house to be of hewn logs 24 feet long and 18 
feet wide ; the logs to face at least one foot ; one story and a half 
high, nine feet to the story. The roof to be of joint shingles well 
nailed on ; two batten doors of black walnut plank, one inch thick, 
to be hung with three-inch butts. The doors to be well cased with 
good timber. Two twelve-light windows in the first story, and one 
four-light window in the end of the house in the second story. The 
window lights to be 8 by 10 inches ; the windows to be well cased, 
glass put in and put in the house, A lower floor of puncheons well 
hewed and jointed. A floor overhead of sawed plank one inch and 
one-quarter thick. Ten joists to be put in the house, 5 by 7 inches, 



County Clerk. 


to be sawed or hewed. The house to be well chinked and daubed, 
and the corners sawed down. The gable ends to be weather-boarded 
with shaved boards. Each window to have a shutter made of one- 
inch plank, and the same to be hung with two and one-half inch 
butts. A chimney place to be sawed out at one end of the house, 
say the four lower logs seven feet wide. The whole to be completed 
in a workmanlike manner on or before the first day of October next." 

The bid for the construction of this building was " cried off to 
Amasa Stout," he being the lowest bidder and agreeing to erect the 
house for $125. Evidently the contract was let in the manner of 
the present mode of selling goods at auction, save it was " knocked 
down " to the lowest instead of highest bidder. 

This court-house was rather an imposing structure for the time, 
being a story and a half in height, with glass windows. True, the 
architecture was not of ancient grandeur or elegance, nor of our 
more modern style ; but we doubt not, when the building was com- 
pleted, it was looked upon with as much pride as the people of 
to-day view the showy structures built after the latest and most 
improved plan. The site selected was lot 1 of block 11. 


George Hittle, one of the Commissioners, was allowed $1.50 for 
helping lay off the town of Mackinaw. He was also allowed $1.25 
for money expended for whisky on the day of the sale' of lots, — thus 
evincing that the Commissioners were liberal and hospitable. They 
would not invite the settlers to a wild, uninhabited place to attend 
the sale without providing refreshments. John Benson, County 
Treasurer, was given $24.50 for taking a list of the taxable property 
and assessing the taxes for 1827. 


The following are the names of the gentlemen composing the first 
grand jury. They were appointed in June, 1827, to serve at the 
October term of the Circuit Court : 

William Orendorff, John H. Rhodes, William Walker, Sandy 
Hurst, Peter McCullough, William Gilston, Thomas Rutledge, 
George Hand, Robert Guthrie, William Johnson, Robert Stubble- 
field, John Judy, Walker Miller, INIathew Robb, Ephraim Stout, 
Nathan Dillon, James B. Thomas, Thornton Dillon, James Scott, 
Seth Williams, Jacob Funk, William Holland, and Horace Crocker. 



William H. Hodge returned into court, during the month of 
August, 1827,«the amount of taxes he had succeeded in collecting, 
which was $100.67. He was allowed for his services seven and one- 
half per cent, of this sum. Thus we see the compensation for riding 
over what is now five or six counties, and collecting the yearly tax, 
was but a little over $7.50. 

At the March term, 1828, the County Treasurer came into court 
and settled his account with the county, handing over to the Com- 
missioners county orders to the amount of $4.81J, and $15.00 in 
money collected on fines. Mr. Benson then retired from the arduous 
duties of a public official to the humbler sphere of private life. 

Another Treasurer must be selected, and a very singular method 
was adopted for choosing Benson's successor. The office was let to 
the lowest bidder. The man who would agree to accept the position 
for the least amount was the one selected. The record puts it in the 
following terse language : " The Commissioners proceeded to let out 
to the lowest bidder the office of County Treasurer for the present 
year, 1828, which was purchased by Isaac Waters at $21. 87^." 
There was evidently close figuring for the office, caused, perhaps, by 
competition, for we see that Waters even divided a cent on his bid. 
What remarkable changes half a century has wrought in the manner 
of choosing public officials as well as in every thing else. 


At this meeting Jacob Funk petitioned the Court to revoke the 
ferry license of John L. Bogardus for non-attendance to his duties. 
It appears that the fault-finding Jacob looked with covetous eyes 
upon Bogardus, and by pure selfishness was prompted to thus peti- 
tion the Court. Bogardus was contentedly ferrying the people with 
their goods and chattels across the Illinois opposite Peoria, while 
Funk sat upon the bank and sought to find fault that would rob 
Bogardus of that right, which he would then himself seize. After 
summoning Bogardus before the Court and a careful investigation of 
the charges the petition was refused. Unable to gain his point in 
this way Funk applied for a license at or near the same point where 
Bogardus was engaged, but the Court desired no competition and so 
refused the application. 



At a meeting March 17, 1828, J. C. Morgan was appointed Clerk 
in the place of Mordecai Mobley. Whether Mordecai resigned, un- 
ceremoniously left, his term expired, or was removed, the records do 
not say. We only know the change was made. We often wished, 
as we feel confident all who may undertake the arduous, difficult 
task of reading these records will also do, that the change had not 
been made, for Morgan's chirography is not to be compared to 
Mobley's for correctness or legibility, nor is his orthography nearly 
so good, and as for punctuation, that is an art Morgan evidently 
was entirely unaquainted with. We may add that Mr. Mobley has 
not yet lost the art of writing a clean legible hand and of composing 
well. After an elapse of just 52 years, lacking three days, from the 
time he opened the first records of this county, he sends us a speci- 
men of his handwriting in the shape of a letter. Though over a 
half century of time — the destroyer of all things — has elapsed since 
he first recorded his name in the Commissioner's Court records, yet 
he writes quite as clearly and evenly to day as he did then. 


The first "tavern" license was granted at this term of the Court. 
A tavern in those days was a combination of an inn and a saloon. 
The proprietor, however, did not expect to derive any great revenue 
from the hotel, but looked to his liquors for an income. Many of 
these " taverns " were the smallest of log cabins. Here and there all 
over the country, sometimes miles from any other cabin, they might 
be found. Some of them were indicated to be such by signs nailed 
to a post, tree, or to the side of the cabin. These were of the 
rudest make and design. Some simply had the word "entertain- 
ment" scrawled upon them, while others, more explicit, read "enter- 
tainment for man and beast." Some were still more definite, and 
said simply, "whisky and oats." The storms of a half century, the 
advancement of civilization, the culture of the age, have all combined 
to transform these rudest of signs, scribbled by an uncultured pioneer 
upon hewn boards, into gilded and glittering letters artistically traced 
upon French-plate glass. 

The name by which the place was known where liquor was vended 
was shortly after this changed from "tavern" to "grocery" or 
" groggery " and subsequently assumed the appellation of " saloon," 


and finally, that coming into disrepute, many have adopted the more 
modern title of " sample room," " halls," "gardens," etc. 

On the 3rd day of March, 1828, Rufus North, Jacob Funk and 
Jonas Hittle applied for tavern licenses, which, upon filing good and 
sufficient bonds, and paying into the county treasury the sum of 
$2.00, were granted. They were restricted by the following rates 
established by the Court immediately thereafter granting said 
licenses : 

For each meal 18f cents. 

Lodging each person 6^ 

For each horse fed all night on grain and forage 25 

For each single feed 12^ 

For each half pint of whisky ]2| 

For each half pint of brandy 25 

For each half pint of rum and cordial. 25 

For each half pint of wine 25 

For each quart of cider or beer 12^ 

These as will be seen were moderate charges, and evidently the 
tavern keepers thought the rate established for lodging was too mod- 
erate, for we find it was soon raised to 12 J cents. 


It now appears that while Funk was providing entertainment for 
man and beast, his neighbor Bogardus had his ferry license, which he 
had obtained from Sangamon county, proved and spread upon the 
records here. He also secured the passage of an act prohibiting any 
one to establish a ferry within one mile of his own. 

Bogardus was evidently an old and extensive operator in the ferry 
business, for we find he held his license granted while Tazewell 
county was under the jurisdiction of Sangamon, and further, we find 
on Sept. 5, 1828, he made application to this Court for another ferry. 
He selected, as the most remunerative place for his branch ferrj', 
the Illinois at the mouth of Fox river. It must be remembered 
that Tazewell county at that time spread over a vast extent of terri- 
tory. The entire northeastern part of this great State was under 
their control. Old settlers have told us they well remember when 
Tazewell county constables were dispatched to Chicago to summon 
men to appear at the courts of this county. 

Yes, though unlearned in law and unacquainted with science and 
literature, the Commissioners held jurisdiction over a large district, 
and that they conducted the public affairs rightly, and built a firm 
and solid foundation upon which the future prosperity and greatness 


of this portion of our beloved State should rest, can not be gainsaid. 
This is plainly evident from the unparalleled strides made in agricul- 
tural and mechanical progress ; from the hundreds of thousands of 
busy inhabitants now dwelling within this territory ; and from the 
vast stores of wealth accumulated solely from resources within it. 
Those great and unconcealed wonders reflect honor and credit each 
day upon their founders ; and as days and years multiply, when the 
same territory over which they presided shall be teeming with mil- 
lions of earnest and energetic people, then will greater honors and 
more exultant praise and adoration be expressed for the brave, sturdy 
pioneers who explored and opened up a region so prolific, and founded 
a community that for genius, enterprise and wealth will in the near 
future out-rank many older settled countries, and indeed will vie 
with many kingdoms of the earth. Then these vast prairies will be 
cultivated as a garden. Every forest tree and woodland will be util- 
ized, and populous cities with numerous factories and vast stores of 
commerce may be numbered by the score. Then will the modes of 
travel be superior to the remarkable railroad facilities of to-day, and 
transport the increased products with greater facility. Indeed, every- 
thing shall then be as different and as superior to what they are at 
present as the things of to-day are as compared with those of fifty 
years ago. Our readers may regard this as wild and unreasonable 
speculation — as wholly visionary ; but they are only the conclusions 
deduced from a careful study of history — of a comparison of what 
has been accomplished, with certain advantages, with the results that 
the superior advantages now enjoyed will as certainly accomplish. 


The May term, 1828, was convened in the new court-house. 
Whether or not the Commissioners were pleased with the work we 
do not know. They spent no time in passing wordy resolutions 
commending the architect's skill, or otherwise expressing their opin- 
ion of the work, but immediately proceeded to their official business. 
We fear, however, that at the present time, if a court was convened 
in such a structure w^e might look for resolutions, emphatic and 
strong, condemnatory of it. The building rested upon piling a few 
feet from the ground, and beneath it many stray hogs found shelter. 
From the continued wallowing quite a basin was formed, which was 
often filled with water. From the burning rays of summer's sun 
hogs Avould seek this cheerful spot and lazily roll around, enjoying 


in fullest measure the refreshing bath. The floor, having been laid 
of green oak, soon shrunk, leaving large cracks between puncheons. 
Through these winter's chilling wind whistled, while in summer the 
contented hogs grunted a melodious accompaniment to the eloquent 
appeals and oratory of the pioneer lawyer. 


Necessarily, as faithful historians, we are compelled to mar the 
pleasant progress of this chapter by reference to prison bars. It 
seems as the county advanced in wealth and population the evil 
principle kept pace with it; and, as immaculate and good as the 
pioneer fathers undoubtedly were, even among them there were 
wicked and vicious characters. Accordingly, June 28, 1828, after 
due notice, the contract for building a jail was " cried oif to Robert 
McClure, he being the lowest bidder." It appears that Mathew 
Robb was a partner of McClure' s in this contract. 

Robb was a native Kentuckian, and came to Stout's Grove, 
McLean county, in 1827. That place at the time was the county- 
seat of this county, and Hon. Mathew Robb was the noted man 
of the place. He was Justice of the Peace for many years. A 
couple by the name of John Pore and a Miss Brown concluded 
to live together for better or for worse, and accordingly Pore called 
upon 'Squire Robb to perform the marriage rites. The former 
crossed Sugar creek for the purj)ose of taking Robb over ; but as 
the weather had been rainy, the creek was high and inconvenient to 
cross. Pore crossed it on a log while the 'Squire sat on horseback 
on his side of the stream. Mr. Pore brought his bride down to the 
creek ; as it was now about eight o'clock at night torches were lit. 
It was raining at the time, but they paid no attention to that. 
'Squire Robb rode a little distance into the water in order to distin- 
guish the bridegroom and bride on the opposite bank, and the inter- 
esting ceremony was performed. McClure was born in Kentucky 
in 1792 and came to Stout's Grove in 1827. 

They agreed to erect the building for $325.75, almost three times 
the amount paid for a court-house. It was to be completed before 
the first Monday in September, 1829. It was a two-story structure, 
16 feet square, made of solid hewn timber, and was one of the strong- 
est and most costly jail buildings erected by the pioneers throughout 
Central Illinois. Nevertheless, the very first prisoner incarcerated 
within its heavy walls took flight the same night. This individual, 


whose name was William Cowhart^ is also noted for being the first 
horse-thief in Tazewell county. 


It was a horse that belonged to James Willis that Cowhart pur- 
loined. Of all bad characters horse-thieves were the most hated by 
the pioneers, and as soon as it was noised around that a horse had 
been stolen the settlers set about determined to bring speedy retri- 
bution upon the head of the offender. He was soon found and 
brought back to the settlement and turned over to the Sheriff. This 
was before the completion of the jail. The prisoner was chained to 
one of the men and sent into the field to work. At night he was 
chained to the bedstead. In this manner he was kept for some two 
weeks. The jail being completed he was carried thither and 
ushered into the new prison, no doubt with much satisfaction on the 
part of the injured settlers. The heavy hewn door swung to leav- 
ing Cowhart the first and only inmate. What must have been their 
chagrin when on the following morning they found their prisoner 
had flown. With the aid of a helper he bid them adieu during 
the night. 

We subjoin the following interesting and detailed account of this 
affair from the pen of the venerable Nathan Dillon, the first settler 
of the county. It also very strongly illustrates some of the charac- 
teristics of the pioneers. This reminiscence first appeared in the 
Bloomington Pantagraph in 1853. 


" James Willis and his brother were the first pioneers on Sandy, 
in the neighborhood of where the flourishing village of Magnolia, 
in Marshall county, now stands, they having located there as early 
as 1827 or '28, their nearest neighbor at that time being William 
Holland, who had already settled at Washington, Tazewell county, 
where he still lives. One cold Friday in the winter James Willis, 
who had been boarding at William Hall's, in Dillon settlement on 
the Mackinaw, started on a trip with a young man calling himself 
by the name of Cowhart, whom he had hired to go and work for 
him at his new location. The distance was fifty miles and Hol- 
land's the only family on the road. Willis was mounted on a fine 
horse, well equipped. The day was very cold and when they got to 


Crow creek, eighteen miles north of Holland's, Willis dismounted 
and let Cowhart have his horse, overcoat and equipage, and took the 
gun belonging to Cowhart, supposing it to be loaded. 

" Cowhart mounted, but instantly took the other end of the road. 
Willis, thinking that a shot from the gun might bring the rogue to 
a sense of duty, brought it to bear upon him, but upon trial found 
that the touchhole had been plugged with a green stalk, and so the 
man, money and equipage disappeared without any hindrance. 

"Willis was quite unwell eighteen miles from any house and it 
was snowing, but he beat his way back to Holland's. It happened 
that Abraham Hiner, a neighbor of mine, was there, and Willis 
made out a description of the robber and sent it by Hiner to me, 
with the request that I should do what I could for him. 

" We immediately called our neighbors together and it was agreed 
that Daniel Hodson, my brothers Daniel, AValter and Joseph, and 
myself Avould give him a chase, though it still remained cold and it 
was thirty-six hours after the commission of the robbery, which 
occurred forty miles away. 

" The next morning (Sunday) we started out destitute of any 
knowledge which way the rogue had taken, struck across the head 
of the Mackinaw stream through a country all wilderness, and 
stayed all night at Money creek. It blew up colder in the night, 
and the next morning the weather was as sharp as it ever gets. We 
were on the way again by sunrise ; went on to the head timber land 
of the Mackinaw where we found a little settlement. The good 
woman where we stopped assured us that the object of our pursuit 
had eaten his dinner there just about that hour two days before. 
The ground was bare in places and covered with drifted snow in 
others ; we were good trackers and took the trail and followed him 
to Cheney's Grove, where he had stayed over night. Remaining 
with Cheney till morning we started early and pursued him to 
Fielder's (near where Urbana now stands). There he had spent the 
night forty-eight hours previous. The cold Monday, however, al- 
ready spoken of he had traveled only ten miles, laid by the remain- 
der of the day, disposed of the horse and plunder, and resumed his 
journey on foot, being one day and ten miles' travel ahead of us. It 
was in this part of the country that he struck out upon the great prai- 
rie, without path or track of any kind. The snow was still deeper 
and enabled us to keep his track to Georgetown, where he had passed 
the night previous. We here procured a pilot and pursued him to 


Newport on the Wabash. Arriving there at about one o'clock at 
night Ave put up our horses. We had expected to take him in bed 
here, but he was up and off. We renewed the pursuit on foot, it 
snowing all the while ; we soon procured fresh men and horses, and 
assisted by a good tracking snow, overtook him near Rockville, In- 
diana. It seemed a hard turn for the poor wretch to right about 
face, but with a sneaking smile on his countenance he returned with 
us to the Wabash, where a fine-looking old man approached us with 
a cup of whisky in his hand, and in a bold, open manner said : 
' You have caught the villain.' He made some other remarks and 
we passed on, Cowhart being betAveen my brother Joseph and my- 
self We observed to him that such talk must be very disagreeable, 
at which he burst into a loud cry, and the blood gushed from his 
nose at a greater rate than I had ever seen it flow from the nose of 
any man. It seemed as if he would bleed to death, but after apply- 
ing snow pretty freely he recovered and became calm ; but instead 
of that sneaking smile his face Avore a very solemn air. The first 
AA'ords he said Avere : ' Had it not been for my old father I should 
not ha\^e been in this fix ; said he had persuaded him about three 
years before, and they had agreed to undertake the business, but this 
AA^as the first time he had A^entured or been caught in such a fix.' 

" When issuing out of the Wabash bottom we ascended a steep 
point Avith deep raA'ines on each side. We noticed him slyly in- 
specting the grounds. His countenance lighted up as if he Avas 
about giving us the slip. We told him that if he made such an at- 
tempt Ave Avould surely shoot him. He pretended to regard as 
strange Avhat we said, but afterAvards confessed that he had intended 
to run doAvn the steep, covered as it Avas with thick vines, and es- 
cape by running along the trackless ice in the stream. 

" When Ave arriA^ed at the taA'ern at NcAvport it Avas some time be- 
fore sundown, and as Ave had slept none the prcA'^ious night we con- 
cluded to rest the balance of the evening. The bar-room was full 
of men gathered in to Avitness our movements. Brother Joseph and 
myself obtained leave of the landlady to take the prisoner into her 
room until Ave could dry our feet, AAdiich Avere excessively Avet from 
AA'alking in the snoAV. After some time the landlord came into the 
room and Avhispered to the prisoner, at Avhich the good lady of the 
house took umbrage, saying that he had better speak aloud so that 
we could hear. He then said there Avas a man in the other room 
that Avished to see him, and I remained a moment to inquire of the 


woman what was the prisoner's real name. When I repaired to the 
bar-room I found a young man there writing. I ordered our friends 
to get our horses, beginning to mistrust the house was no, place for 
us. About the time we were ready to start the man at the writing- 
desk proved to be a lawyer, and presented a petition to our prisoner 
to sign, praying for a writ of habeas corpus. I snatched the peti- 
tion from the prisoner's hand, saw what it was, gave it to the lawyer 
and told him to keep it to himself or I would give him trouble ; 
whereupon he grew saucy, but went back when I walked towards 
him until he reached the end of the room ; told me, I believe, that 
I was ' out of order ;' not to touch him. I told him plainly that if 
I heard another word from him I certainly should slap his jaiv, then 
left him pale as death and turned to the prisoner and took him by 
the collar. He attempting to get away, some of the men took hold 
of me to assist him, exclaiming that there should be no dragging 
out. I gave him a stout jerk, at the same time Hodson and my 
brothers Daniel, Joseph and Walter assisted him with a shove, and 
he went out in short order. AVe set him astride of one of our 
horses just as the landlord and another man approached, and said we 
had no business to come there in such a way. The prisoner begged 
for help. We told him that if he attempted to get off the horse, or 
if any man attempted to assist him, we would ' blow him through.' 
With that we left them and got into our own State the same night. 
Next day we started for home, which we reached with our prisoner, 
after being out nine days, some of which were as cold as I ever 

"Willis recovered all that Cowhart had robbed him of except 
two dollars and fifty cents. 

"It was the same winter that the jail at Mackinaw was being 
built ; and the prisoner was guarded by old Jimmy Scott, Deputy 
Sheriff, until it was deemed sufficiently strong to keep him safely. 
Soon after he was put into it, however, somebody Mas friendly 
enough to let him out, and he escaped trial and the penitentiary. 

"Now I will just say to my friends: I have shown you in this 
chapter the way to bring in the boys who steal your horses ; if they 
are stolen imitate the grit of the deep-snow men, and never give 
them up until you have them safe." 

At the April term, 1829, the Commissioners offered a reward "of 
$20 for the apprehension and delivery of William Cowhart who was 
let out of jail, and also the person who let him out." Cowhart 


proved to be an expensive settler to the county, for, we find the 
Court gave James Scott $68 for keeping him. For guarding 
Cowhart, John Hodgson, William Davis, John Ford, A. Wright, 
William Sampson and F. Seward each received $2, Nathan Dillon 
$33.68 ; Daniel Hodgson $5, and Martin Porter $1, making a total 
of $119.68, Avithin $5.32 as much as the court-house cost, and it 
would have paid the County Treasurer's salary for three years. 


At the December term, 1829, the first fine received for a violation 
of the peace was recorded. This was a case wherein Isaac Storms 
assaulted James Brown. For many years the only cases before the 
justices of the peace were for assault and battery. The pioneers 
enjoyed a "free fight" and entered into sport of a pugilistic nature 
with great interest, seldom resorting to knives or pistols. But when 
it came to administering law from the justice's bench it was con- 
demned and a fine imposed, however, simply because the law read 
thus and so. 


One of the curious provisions of the law in the times of which 
we are now writing was, that stock was permitted to run at large. 
The Supreme Court of the State reversed the common law idea 
prevailing almost universally in regard to stock running at large. 
In consequence of this every man was compelled to fence his entire 
farm to protect his crops from wandering herds. The decision of 
the Court required stock to be fenced out instead of in. It would 
have been much less expensive for each man to have protected him- 
self from his own stock. 

Each settler had recorded in a book kept by the County Clerk, 
certain ear-marks and brands adopted by him for marking his stock, 
and by which he could identify his cattle and hogs. The vast prai- 
ries were then in their native condition, free from fences, cultivation 
or any sort of improvements. By many they were thought to be 
worthless for all practical farming purposes, except to furnish graz- 
ing for stock. Horses and cattle often wandered into adjoining 
counties. There were, however, means by which such stock might 
be recovered. In each county seat was an estray pen wherein all 
unclaimed and unknown stock was confined. Notice was quite often 
made of the number, kind and marks of the stock taken up. In 


1829 a contract for building an estray pen at Mackinaw was award- 
ed to J. C. Morgan and Jonah Hittle. The pen was 30 feet square 
and cost the sum total of $13. 


During the year 1829 the Commissioners pursued the even tenor 
of their way, granting petitions for roads, ferries, tavern licenses and 
election precincts ; appointing and removing officers with an inflexi- 
bility of purpose that is really amusing. When they investigated a 
matter there were no palliating circumstances to screen the delinquent. 
But the judicial guillotine cut off official heads with a refreshing im- 
partiality. Negligent officers feared the power of the " tripple C " 
more than Damocles feared the hair-suspended sword. They simply 
and plainly said " go," and the official hesitated not but went at once, 
and that was the end of it. 

The Commissioners commenced the year's labor by decapitating, 
officially, all the road supervisors of the various districts. Then 
Abraham Carlock was appointed Treasurer to succeed Isaac Walters, 
and at a salary of $40, which shows an increase in the emoluments 
of the office of nearly 100 per cent. 


In March, 1830, George W. Hinch applied for a saloon license 
to retail liquors in Pekin. This was the first saloon in that city. 
The petition requests that " George W. Hinch be allowed to sell all 
kinds of spirituous liquors by the smaul. " 


William Walter was desirous of contributing to the comfort of 
his fellow settlers in the way of manufacturing boots and shoes. To 
this end he desired the Court to give him lot 8 in block 8 in the 
town of Mackinaw. The enterprising Commissioners granted the 
request, providing he would improve and occupy said lot for at least 
one year. 


The citizens of Sand Prairie election precinct petitioned the Court 
to move the place of holding elections to Pekin, as the "present 
place of holding elections is inconvenient and oppressive to many 
citizens. " 



Sarah Stout has the honor of being the first pauper in Tazewell 
county. At the July term the Court gave her to the care of Nathan 
Dillon for three months, after which time the Court again took her 
in charge and let her out to the lowest bidder. 

clerk's OFFICE. 

In July, according to a previous notice, a clerk's office of the fol- 
lowing description was cried ofi* to the lowest bidder : " Building 
to be frame, 14 feet square, one story high, 9 feet between floors, 
weather-boarded with planks or boards well shaved ; with one door 
and two windows ; a plank floor laid down with green plank with- 
out nails. Covered with shingles." On the records, but marked 
over, are the words, " with brick chimney put in it." The judi- 
cious Commissioners evidently concluded they could not aiford such 
a luxury as a brick chimney, and repealed that clause of the speci- 
fications. The contract was let to Jonas H. Hittle, for $100. 


In August, 1831, an election Avas held, when Nathan Dillon, 
Timothy Hoblit and Isaac Blaken were chosen County Commissioners. 
The Clerk, seemingly endeavoring to gain the good will of the newly 
elected dignitaries, addressed them as the Honorable Nathan Dillon, 
etc. They had scarcely received the reins of government into their 
hands before they began a system of improvement truly enterpris- 
ing. The Clerk was immediately ordered " to contract for the build- 
ing of a good stick-and-clay chimney to the court-house on the most 
advantageous terms." The next order was to Isaac Baker to procure 
a good table for the use of the Court. On reconsidering, the whole 
system of repair was placed exclusively in the hands of Jonas Hit- 
tie. Contractor Hittle received the following specific instructions : 
" On the first floor a bench to be erected in the west end, for the use 
of the Judge, to be reached on either side by good steps. In front 
of this bench [which was simply a platform] a bar to be raised con- 
sisting of good banisters, and plank arranged for the witnesses' 
seats. On either side of the Judge's bench to be good seats for the 
jury, and two movable scats for the Clerk. 

"A stairway to be built in the northeast corner reaching the sec- 
ond story. The upper floor to be laid and divided into two rooms 
by a partition, these rooms to be used as jury rooms. A good 14- 


light window to be placed in the east end, and the chimney place to 
be closed up. A cheap cast stove to be purchased and put up in the 
northwest corner of the room. All the work to be completed by 
April 10, 1831." 


The Court convened in the court-house at Mackinaw in March, 
1831, when it transacted its usual routine business of granting 
road petitions, liquidating pauper's bills, settling up with public of- 
ficials and attending to various matters; after which the Court 
packed up their bag and baggage, shook the dust of Mackinaw from 
their judicial feet and turned their faces westward. They brought 
up at Pekin, June 6, 1831, in the old school-house on the corner of 
Elizabeth and Second streets, subsequently known as " the Doolittle 
school." Just why the Court left their pleasant quarters at Macki- 
naw, especially after so recently making such extensive improve- 
ments in and around the court-house, the records do not state. But 
from other sources we learn that by an act of the Legislature passed 
Dec. 25, 1830, the county of Tazewell was divided and McLean 
county formed therefrom. To further carry out the design of some 
of the leading spirits in procuring this division, a committee con- 
sisting of William Porter, John T. Stuart and Milton Chilton was 
appointed by the same body to re-locate the county-seat. By the 
same act appointing the committee, which was passed Feb. 16, 1831, 
the courts of the county were moved to Pekin, where they should 
remain until the seat of justice was permanently located. 

Thus in obedience to the mandate of higher authority the Court 
submits with becoming resignation, and not one word of growling 
or grumbling does it utter so far as we glean from the records. 
Considerable dissatisfaction was displayed, however, on the part of 
the citizens of I^Iackinaw at this desertion. They had indulged 
themselves in the fond hopes of making a great and prosperous city. 
These hopes and expectations were based solely, almost, upon the 
influence and advantages of being the county-seat. 

The Clerk's office in Pekin was located " in the upper room of 
William Haines' corner building, occupied by William M. Farns- 
worth." The Court paid as rental for this room, where it also sub- 
sequently convened, |2 per month. These quarters were retained 
until Oct. 1, 1831, when the office was moved to Gideon Hawley's 
room, where it remained for a month ; after which the Court was 


held for a time, as far as we can learn, in D. H. Holcomb's tavern. 
Thus we have a very striking and altogether significant contrast — 
a court of justice and a groggery in the same cabin. 


If the Court thought to escape the importunities of their old 
petitioner, Jacob Funk, on making the move to Pekin, they soon 
found they were sadly mistaken. No sooner had they found a room 
wherein to convene in official capacity than the indomitable Jacob 
appeared and again importuned the Court to revoke Bogardus' ferry 
license, A citation was immediately issued commanding the said 
Bogardus to appear and show cause why his license should not be 
taken from him. Promptly at the convening of the Court at the 
September term. Funk was on hand and requested that attention be 
given to the citation issued against Bogardus. The Court, however, 
let other matters tak*e the precedence until Sept. 8, when Bogardus 
appears before the Court and is confronted by Funk and Eads, 
and, in the language of the record, the " trial is gon into." After 
hearing the evidence pro and con the Court gravely decided " that the 
ferry license issued to John Bogardus by the Sangamon county 
Commissioners and confirmed by this Court is hereby revoked." 
Thus Funk had at last gained a victory over his enemy, Bogar- 
dus, and no doubt was content. Abner Eads, however, was not 
satisfied with having Bogardus ousted, but applied for a ferry at the 
same place ; but this the Court promptly refused. Bogardus again 
petitioned for a ferry across the river at Fort Clark, but the Court 
not wishing more trouble, refused to grant it. 


In Sept., 1831, the Court granted to Laman Case a license to ped- 
dle clocks. For this privilege for three months they assessed him 
$25.00. To Case belongs the honor of being the first peddler in 
Tazewell county. 

At this time the Court was charging for yearly licenses to " vend 
merchandise," ^9; for liquors, $3. The former price of saloon 
license was $2 per year, while for selling clocks the Court charged 
$100. They evidently regarded time-pieces as a luxury they could 
easily do without, while they looked upon liquors as a necessity. 

At the June term, 1832, one Morrison, "a man of coullor," pre- 
sented his certificate of freedom from his owner, William N. Burnett, 



and had it confirmed by the Court. Thus Morrison was the first 
slave to be emancipated in Tazewell county. 


In June, 1832, John Summers was allowed $78 for keeping old 
man Miller. In the June previous Summers came into Court and 
explained that a certain Nicholas Miller, a pauper, was living at 
county expense while he had a well-to-do son named Joseph, who 
should, both in equity of the law and from filial affection, support 
his father. Thereupon the Sheriff was posted after the undutiful 
Joseph. It appears, however, that Joseph was not found at the time, 
nor until 1834, if we rely upon the records for imformation, for no 
mention is made of him until that time. He then appears and gives 
as his reason for not supporting his parent, " inability to do so." 

At the same time appeared Hosea Stout and Benjamin Jones, rel- 
atives of Sarah Stout, the first pauper, and gave the same reason for 
not "taking charge of their poor relation," 

Thus the veteran and venerable paupers were thrown back upon 
the county, whereupon the Court ordered " Nathan Dillon and Wm. 
McClure to dispose of said paupers at public sale or private con- 
tract. It seems that they were not regarded as valuable paupers and 
not one bid was made for them. But all through the records for 
years are bills allowed for their maintenance. In 1835 the Court, 
being worried with the many claims for bills for supporting Miller, 
lifted up its voice and peremptorily commanded the Sheriff to sell 
him. The poor old man had outlived his years of usefulness and 
even became a burden to the indulgent county. 


A statement of the fiscal concerns of the county for the year 1832 
was made as required by law. We give this in full, thus showing 
the receipts and expenditures for the sixth year of the county's ex- 
istence. It will be seen that the expenses for all purposes were 
scarcely more than half a year's salary of the poorest paid official of 
the present day. 




Commissioners' fees $71.00 

Clerk's fees 60.00 

Keeping poor 161.00 

Cost of elections 72.00 

Criminal charges 32.00 

Sheriff's fees 72.75 

Clerk's office rent 24.00 

Viewing roads 55.00 

Assessor's fees 40.00 

Sundry account 31.75 

Keeping estrays 70.00 

Total expenses $689.50 


Revenue from tax $463.12 

Treasurer's receipts 122.62 

State paper 9.00 

Fines assessed in 1831 5.00 

Fines assessed in 1832 24.00 

Ferry tax 10.00 

Tax on merchants' licenses 82.00 

Tax on merchants' permits 5.00 

Town tax 8.50 

Total income $729.24 


The first inquest held in the county, according to these records, 
was on the body of little Hamilton Porter, a widow's son, in 1833. 
The boy, who was nine years old, was accidentally shot. Andrew 
Tharp, Coroner, was allowed $18.75 for performing this duty. 


We come now to a period wherein the county-seat again took 
a move. The removal which we are about to refer to was in com- 
pliance with the order of three Commissioners appointed by the Leg- 
islature "to select a permanent location for the seat of justice of 
Tazewell county. " Before proceeding further, however, on this 
particular move we will give the history of all the county-seat 
ramblings from the beginning, away back in the early part of the 
year 1829. 

On the 22d day of the first month of that year the Legislature 
passed an act making and defining a new boundary for Tazewell 
county. This act, no doubt, was procured by ambitious persons 
dwelling in other parts of the county than Mackinaw and vicinity, 
who desired to secure the county-seat. By this act the county was re- 
duced in size very materially, yet it still extended over a vast region, 
containing 79 townships and parts of townships. In 1830 the town 
of Pekin was laid oif, and she being anxious to supplement her many 
advantages by adding thereto the county-seat, which it was alleged 
she desired done. We have no reason to doubt that such allegation 
was true. Mackinaw, the county-seat, however, being so near the 
center of the county, she had little hope of success unless she could 
cut off a portion of the eastern part of the county, thus throwing 
Mackinaw near the boundary line. 


At the succeeding election for members of the Legislature, 
William L. D. Ewing, of Vandalia, was chosen Senator, and 
William Brown, of Pekin, Representative. Brown was easily 
induced to consent to cut off from Tazewell county, for the county 
of McLean, all that portion of Tazewell county embraced in ranges 
1, 2 and 3 east, and 1 west of the third principal meridian, contain- 
ing over 100,000 acres. On the 25th of December of the same 
year (1830) McLean county was created by the Legislature. Two 
months later John T. Stewart, Matthias Chilton and William 
Porter were appointed by the General Assembly to select a 
permanent county-seat for Tazewell county. In the meantime 
courts and public offices should be at Pekin. These commissioners 
failed to make any selection of a location. Indeed they neglected 
to consider the matter at all so far as any records of their actions 
are concerned. Year after year came and went until July 12, 
1835, before anything further was done. At that date the Legisla- 
ture appointed John C. Calhoun, of Sangamon county, James 
Gaylord, of Putnam, and Isaac C. Pugh, of Macon, as a commis- 
sion to permanently locate the county -seat, in lieu of the former, 
which failed to act. 

This able commission convened Sept. 17th, and gravitated toward 
Tremont, where they met the generous and enterprising John 
H. Harris. This gentleman, to secure the county-seat for 
Tremont, offered to donate to the county 20 acres of land. This 
tract was just south of the town of Tremont on the northwest 
quarter of section 19, Tremont township. A further donation of 
$2,000 in money, to aid in erecting public buildings, was proffered 
by the citizens of Tremont. This was placed in the State bank, at 
Springfield, to await the decision of the commission. They 
were satisfied with the location and looked no further. Two 
thousand dollars in money and 20 acres of rich prairie land were of 
great consideration in the eyes of the worthy gentlemen, for at 
the time the annual revenue of the county did not reach $1,400. 
As might have been expected this selection was very unsatisfactory 
to Pekin. 

The commission made an elaborate report, which for smooth, 
oily wording and rhetorical finish excels any other report, petition 
or order spread upon the records of this Court. At the conclusion 
of this well- written document the commissioners say : "The point 
named was selected with a view to the convenience of the present 


and future population of Tazewell county. It is a position as 
nearly central to the present and probable future population of the 
county as we could select and at the same time secure the other 
advantages for the healthy and favorable site for the building 
of a town." 

The Court records and public offices were moved to Tremont in 
1836, where the county-seat remained until 1850. In the mean- 
time the county was greatly developed; Pekin became the me- 
tropolis and the principal seat of commerce of the county. The 
State, during the great internal improvement excitement, — from 
1836 to 1840, — had began the construction of a railroad from 
Pekin to Tremont, and the former town had increased rapidly. 
About the year 1839 complaint was raised by the people at Pekin 
against the county-seat being at Tremont, and thereupon began a 
bitter warfare between the two places. It is alleged that in order 
to hold the county-seat and cripple Pekin, the people of Tremont 
conspired with parties desiring new counties and county-seats, 
around Tazewell county, and in 1841 had an act passed by the 
Legislature cutting oif the south half of township 21, range 2, to 
DeWitt county, and all Tazewell county west of range 4, and south 
of township 22 and west of range 5, and south of the middle of 
town 23, to the county of Mason. A month scarcely elapsed 
when, Feb. 27, another act was passed taking all that part of 
Tazewell county, being the northeast quarter of township 25 north, 
and of the east half of 26 north, range 2 east, and all of townships 
27 and 28, westward to the Illinois river, and forming of it the 
county of Woodford. After having these large slices taken off, for 
the formation of the counties named, it seems that both the most 
liberal and the most selfish should have been satisfied ; but it appears 
they were not. Again, in February, 1843, it was proposed, and an 
act so passed by the Legislature, to cut off for Woodford county 
that part of this county east of section 29, township 26, range 4, 
and all of townships 26, range 2, and 26, range 3. This was, 
however, on the condition that the people should approve the 
measure by ballot. At an election held in May, 1843, the proposi- 
tion was rejected, and a stop made to this dividing up and cutting 
off of Tazewell's territory. Had they continued it much longer 
there would have been nothing left of the county but Pekin and 
Tremont. Then, we doubt not, a division would have been made 
and both towns have at last gained a county-seat. 


At the time the Legislature passed the last mentioned act it also 
authorized the people of the county to vote at their regular August 
election upon the proposition of the removal of the county-seat 
from Tremont to Pekin. This they did and defeated the proposi- 
tion. During the following winter Pekin and the western por- 
tion of the county suffered seriously from a malignant scarlet fever, 
which caused the death of over fifty of the inhabitants of Pekin. 
This checked the progress of that city for a time and nothing 
further was done toward moving the county-seat until 1849. On 
the 2d day of February of that year the Legislature again passed 
an act authorizing the people to vote upon the measure of removal 
the first Saturday in April of the same year. At that election 
Pekin at last triumphed and won the long-coveted county-seat, 
which she has since retained. 

The question having been finally and definitely decided the court- 
house was immediately erected by the citizens of Pekin, in fulfill- 
ment of their promise. The last meeting of the Board of Super- 
visors, which had come in vogue in the mean time, that was held 
at Tremont was Aug. 26, 1850, when it moved in a body to their new 
and more commodious quarters, and on the same day dedicated 
the edifice by holding therein their first meeting at Pekin. 

During these twenty years of local war, of course the bitterness 
of feeling was intense, and great injury was done to all parts of the 
county. Many of the older citizens attribute very largely the 
prosperity and commercial advantages attained by Peoria over 
Pekin to the bitter feuds engendered during this long and 
eventful strife. 


We will return to the immediate labors of the Commissioners' 
Court and follow their proceedings during its last decade of service. 

At the January term, 1836, the people, or tliat portion of them 
who were dissatisfied with the location selected for the county-seat, 
petitioned the Court in the following language : 

"We, the undersigned, citizens of Tazewell county, respectfully 
solicit the Commissioners to suspend proceedings in the county-seat 
matter until better ground can be obtained, either by re-location or 
a legal removal of the donation ; and we individually and collect- 
ively pledge ourselves to support you in this matter." 

The petition was signed by 115 persons. No action was taken 
upon it. 


Messrs. Pugh and Gaylord, two of the State commissioners, pre- 
sented their bills for locating the county-seat, which were as follows : 
Gaylord, 35 days' work at $3 per day, $105 ; Pugh, 36 days' work 
at $3 per day, $108, Owing to the ill feeling still so manifest in 
regard to the location chosen by these gentlemen, the Court refused 
to take any action on these bills at that time. At the March term, 
however, they allowed the two gentlemen, — the third never having 
sent in his bill, — the moderate sum of $27 a piece, or at the rate of 
77|^ cents per day. It must have been rather humiliating to those 
" $3-a-day " gentlemen to have had their services so lightly appre- 
ciated. They do not molest the Court further, however, but are 
resigned to its dictation. 

clerk's office AT TREMONT. 

December 11, 1835, a one-story frame building, 18 by 24 feet, 
was ordered erected on a private lot in Tremont, for Clerk's office. 
The contract was let to Theo. Fisher for $285. To secure the faith- 
ful performance of the work he was compelled to give bonds in the 
sum of $1,000. 

Thomas P. Wilson, County Surveyor, in 1836 laid off" into lots 
the twenty acres of land given by Harris at Tremont. The Clerk 
was then ordered to advertise the sale of these lots in the following 
papers : Sangamon Journal, Missouri Republican, Louisville Adver- 
tiser, and Cincinnati National Republican. 

The sale occurred in May, 1836. The aggregate amount received 
from the sale of lots was $18,636. Of this $4,271.18 was paid in 
cash, and $12,440.12 in notes secured by mortgages on the property. 
The highest price paid for any lot was for lot 1 in block 5, bought 
by James Wibrav for $620. 


After settling up all their business and liquidating all their little 
bills at Pekin, the Court bid farewell for once and forever to the old 
Methodist church edifice which had sheltered their judicial heads for 
half a dozen years. They filed out, closed and barred the door, and 
turned their faces Tremont-ward, where, June 6, 1836, they assem- 
bled in the Clerk's office. 

They must have more imposing and commodious apartments, 
however, and accordingly ordered the Clerk to advertise for bids for 
building a temporary court-house. This was a two-story frame, 20 


by 40 feet. The contract was let to William Dillon, June 25, for 
$1,150. Of course the court-house could not entirely fulfill its 
purpose without a jail near. Being very economical, and having 
a jail at Mackinaw, the Court ordered it removed to Tremont. The 
jail had not followed the Court on their travels but remained at its 
original site. The contract for removing the prison was given to 
John T. Bird, who was to receive $138 for the same. It was re- 
moved and veneered with brick, and a brick addition was erected 
as a residence for the Sheriff's family. 


At the August term, 1836, John C. Morgan was ordered to con- 
tract for plastering and building the chimney for the Clerk's office. 
This was the last official act of the faithful Morgan. He had been 
Clerk of the Court for eight long years, going with it as it moved 
from place to place, and always discharging his duties with greatest 
fidelity. He had seen Commissioner after Commissioner occupy the 
Judge's bench, yet he still remained. At the September term he 
tendered his resignation and J. H. Morrison succeeded him. It 
appears that the newly elected Commissioners, Messrs. Railsback, 
Hull, and Fisher inclined to be more favorable toward Morrison, 
and to prevent an unmerited removal Morgan resigned. 


In December a plan for a court-house was adopted and the con- 
tract ordered to be let in January, 1 837. It was to be a brick build- 
ing, two stories above basement in height; 60 feet long, including 
portico of 10 feet, by 40 wide. The specifications conclude with 
the following finishing touches for the structure : " The windows to 
be closed with good blinds and painted four coats, two of French 
green ; the outside doors to be fitted with best locks, and the entire 
building to be fitted in full Grecian order of architecture. All 
plates referred to are in Shaw's second edition of Architecture, 1832. 
Said building is to be surmounted by a cupola, finished with octa- 
gon blinds and containing a good bell deck, and the dome to be 
surmounted with an iron rod supporting three gilt balls." 

The contract for its erection was let to William F. Flagg, Jan. 
13, 1837, for $14,450. The building was first occupied in Septem- 
ber, 1839. Flagg was an extensive contractor and builder, and 
withal a man of great mechanical skill and genius. He built a 


court-house for Putnam county, and a court-house and jail for La- 
Salle, and a court-house for this county within a period of four 
years. In 1848 he commenced the manufacture of reapers, and was 
sued for an infringement of patent by C H. McCormick, and dam- 
ages laid at $20,000. Abraham Lincoln was employed to defend 
him. The suit was carried on for two years in the United States 
courts and finally McCormick was beaten. Shortly after this Mr. 
Lincoln met Mr. Flagg on the street in Bloomington and sauntered 
into his shop, who inquired of him how much his fee was for 
gaining the case for him. Mr. Lincoln leaned on the counter, 
rested his head upon his arms, and after a little consideration said : 
" I think ten dollars will pay me for my trouble." Nor would he 
accept more. 

After the transaction of this business the Court "adjourned to 
meet to-morrow at 9 o'clock a.m," which we see was a more fash- 
ionable hour and in keeping with the modern spirit of the age. 
The early Commissioners away back in 1827 and '28 met at 7 
o'clock promptly ; but the customs of civilization began to make 
themselves felt, and the honorable Commissioners would fain 
indulge in a second morning nap and not don the ermine until the 
" third hour of the day." A few years later we find 10 o'clock was 
the stated time for opening court. The Circuit Court, when Stephen 
T. Logan was judge, "adjourned to meet at 6 o'clock to-morrow 


During the years 1840 and '41 we find a remarkable increase in 
the number and amount of bills allowed for keeping paupers. 
Throughout the record during these two years are bills upon bills of 
this nature. The increase seemed surprising to the Commissioners 
themselves, and they made particular inquiry into the status of 
aifairs before granting the bills. It seems the county was imposed 
upf)n in several instances by the unnatural actions of those who 
preferred that their relations should be kept at the county's expense 
rather than their own. One Jane Morrill it was found had a hus- 
band living able to provide for her. 

Poor old Nic. Miller, the ancient pauper, was still on hand, but 
his bill these years was curtailed to nearly one-half. Year after 
year the customary bill for his support was handed in, until through 
familiarity the name of "Nic. Miller" became a by-Avord. We 


doubt not that when the old veteran died, and no more bills for 
his care were presented to the Court, the generous, kind-hearted 
Commissioners dropped a tear, felt a pang of sorrow steal through 
the tender cords of their heart, and softly muttered, " Poor old Nic. 
Miller is no more !" Death, the poor man's best friend, called the 
old gentleman away during the year 1845. The poor old man who 
had been refused bread by his own son, and who had been buffeted 
about by many adverse winds, now returned to trouble them no 

It appears that many of the paupers duringjth§ two years above 
referred to rightly belonged to McLean ci)unty, for we find the 
Court held a special session in June, 1841, to take some action in 
regard to the exodus of paupers from that county into this. 

CENSUS OF 1846. 

The census of 1846 is the first spread upon the records. We find 
every few years census-takers were appointed, but the enumeration 
was never recorded in the Court records. Why they were thus 
omitted we know not. We give the enumeration for 1846 : 

Washington precinct, _____ 1,987 

Tremont " _____ 1,967 

Pekin «__--_- 2,354 

Union " - - - - - - 771 

Delevan «______ 508 

Mackinaw «_____- 1,136 

Sugar Creek «------ 384 

Total population of the county - - 9,107 


In September, 1847, the Commissioners bought land for a poor- 
farm for which they gave $965.25. The laud is located near the 
present county farm in Elm Grove township. William Woodrow 
was given the contract for erecting a house on this farm, but the fol- 
lowing Commissioners annulled the contract and re-let it to John 

In December, 1848, the Clerk was ordered to advertise for bids 
for building a jail, costing $3,500, but in the early part of 1849 all 
proceedings looking toward a new jail were postponed. No doubt 
this was owing to the agitation of the removal of the county- 


seat to Pekin, for on the records we read, in speaking of the post- 
ponement, " Circumstances having recently transpired rendering the 
letting of said jail impolitic. " 

At the April term, 1849, the usual large number of orders were 
granted, — among them one to Abraham Lincoln for $10, being 
his fees as the county's attorney in the case of the County vs. 

Wednesday, Nov. 7, 1849, the last meeting of the County Com- 
missioners' Court was held. After transacting such business as 
properly came before them, the Commissioners adjourned never to 
re-assemble, and so passed away the time-honored and economical 
system of county management by a trio of commissioners. 




IN 1831, Black Hawk and his band had crossed to their old 
homes on Eock river, but had negotiated a treaty and returned to 
the west side of the Mississippi, promising never to return. But 
on April 6th, 1832, he again crossed the Mississippi Avith his entire 
band. It was not on a war raid that brought him over in 1832^ 
but as there are diversity of opinions in regard to his motives we 
will briefly give a few of those of most credibility. It is claimed 
that he was invited by the Prophet to a tract of land about forty 
miles up Rock river. Others say he crossed with no hostile inten- 
tions but to accept an invitation of a friendly chief, Pit-ta-wak, to 
spend the summer with him. Still others who agree that he did 
not come to fight, sav when he retired to the west side of the 
Mississippi the previous year he received a large quantity of corn 
and other provision, but in the spring his provisions were gone, his 
followers were starving and he came back expecting to negotiate 
another treaty and get a new supply of provisions. 

There is still another explanation that may enable the reader to 
harmonize the preceding statements and to understand why Black 
Hawk returned in 1832, It is well known that in nearly all the 
treaties ever made with the Indians, the Indian traders dictated the 
terms for their allies and customers, and, of course, received a 
large share of the annuities, etc., in payment for debts due to them. 
Each tribe had certain traders who supplied them. George 
Davenport had a trading post at Fort Armstrong. His customers 
were largely the Sacs and Foxes and he was held in high esteem by 
them; in fact, his word was hnv. It is said that Black Hawk's 
band became indebted to him for a large amount and were unable 
to pay. They did not have good luck hunting during the winter 
and he was likely to lose heavily. If Black Hawk, therefore, 
could be induced to come to this side of the river again and the 


people so greatly alarmed that a military force would be sent in 
pursuit of him another treaty could be made ; he might assist in 
making terms and get his pay out of the payments the Govern- 
ment would make, and all would be well. Mr. Amos Farrar, who 
was Davenport's partner for some years, and who died in Galena 
during the war, is said to have declared while on his death-bed, 
that the " Indians were not to be blamed, that if they had been let 
alone there would have been no trouble — that the band was owing 
Mr. Davenport and he M'anted to get his pay and would, if another 
treaty had been made. " 

Although Black Hawk's movement across the Mississippi was at 
once construed as a hostile demonstration, and Davenport skillfully 
cultivated the idea, he was accompanied by his old men, women and 
children. No Indian Avarrior ever went on the war-path incum- 
bered in that way. More than this, it does not appear, from the 
6th of April until the battle of Stillman's Run on the 12th of 
May, that a single settler was murdered, or suffered any material 
injury at the hands of Black Hawk or his band. In truth, Hon. 
H. S. Townsend, of Warren, Jo Daviess county, states that in one 
instance, at least, when they took corn from a settler they paid him 
for it. Capt. W. B. Green, of Chicago, writes : " I never heard 
of Black Hawk's band, while passing up Rock river, committing 
any depredations whatever, not even petty theft." Frederick 
Stahl, Esq., of Galena, states that he was informed by the veteran 
John Dixon that " when Black Hawk's band passed his post, before 
the arrival of the troops, they were at his house. Ne-o-pope had 
the young braves well in hand, and informed him that they 
intended to commit no depredations, and should not fight unless 
they were attacked. " W. S. Rankin, of Pekin, who was in the 
northern part of the State at the breaking out of the war, and par- 
ticipated in it, says he has no idea that Black Hawk Avould have 
molested the whites had the military not attacked them ; that his 
coming was purely peaceable. 

We do not wish to uphold Black Hawk in the depredations he 
committed upon the whites. We do, however, desire to record 
events impartially. We believe Black Hawk's motives were 
greatly misunderstood, and it is due him and due to posterity to 
record the facts of this war as nearly impartial as it is in our power 
to do. Whatever his motives might have been, it is the unanimous 
testimony of the survivors now residing on the old battle-fields of 


that day, that except the violation of treaty stipulations and an 
arrogance of manner natural to the Indian who wanted to make a 
new trade with the " Great Father, " the Sacs and Foxes at first 
committed no serious acts of hostility, and intended none, until the 
alternative of war or extermination was presented to them by the 


In the meantime the settlers all along the frontier had been 
making active preparations to defend themselves. Forts and 
stockades were built in every settlement. At Pekin, around the 
court-house, or the Snell school-house, in June, a picket fort was 
built. This was called Fort Doolittle. A singular oversight in 
the construction of this stockade, and one that caused a great deal 
of merriment when the danger was over was, that Fort Doolittle 
was so constructed that in case of a siege the occupants would 
have been entirely destitute of water. A fort or rather a palisade 
was constructed around Perkins' mill, near Circleville. A fort was 
also constructed at Washington. Happily, however, none of these 
were ever besieged by the Indians. Often the settlers would 
receive a big scare and they would all seek protection yet no 
depredations were committed here. 


No sooner had volunteers been called for than recruiting began 
in Tazewell county. Capt. Adams began to muster his men 
at Pekin and ere long was oiF to the seat of war with a company. 
Capt. Adams was in command with Lieutenants B. Briggs and 
Alexander McNaughton, and J. M. Roberts, musician. They were 
accompanied by Col. Daniel Bailey and Major Isaac Perkins. Col. 
Bailey induced men to go that the full quota might be raised, which 
was 75, by promising those who had no horses to press into service 
horses for them. One volunteer after being out a few days began 
to grow timid, and soon became so badly scared at the prospects of 
meeting the Indians that he went to Capt. Adams and told him he 
must go home as he was so badly frightened that he could do 
nothing but run if they got ii^to a battle. The Captain told him 
he was glad he had thus informed him, for if they had got into 
a fight he might have stampeded all his men. He got permission 
to go home. He had a good horse and there was a volunteer who 


had none, so the soldiers took his horse from him and gave it to the 
other man, and sent the timid ranger home afoot, and it is said the 
way he come was a caution. He came nearly running himself 
to death, coming almost all the way back .to Tazewell county 
on the run. 

They soon joined companies from McLean, Peoria and Fulton 
counties. There was a question now who should have command of 
these battalions, Col. Bailey or Major kStillman. Col. Bailey 
claimed it on the ground of seniority, but as they were old friends 
this contention did not last long. It was agreed that both should 
command, take turn about. On reaching Dixon Gen. Gaines found 
them both jolly good fellows, and the men all liked them, so decided 
that they should hold equal rank and both command. 

Col. Bailey lived at Pekin and died several years ago in that 
city. Major Isaiah Stillman, afterwards pi'omoted to General, died 
at Kingston, Peoria county, Monday, April 15th, 1861, in about 
the 67th year of his age. He was one of the early settlers of the 
State and for a number of years resided in this county. 

We have made the greatest endeavor to get the names of 
Tazewell county volunteers but have failed. We have made 
inquiries from everybody who was supposed to know and even 
made a trip to Springfield, thinking to find them on the records in 
the Adjutant-General's office, but all in vain. 

stillman's defeat. 

Dixon was the point where the regular and volunteer troops were 
to meet. Major Stillman with his men reached Dixon, May 10th. 
The steady, careful movements of the regulars made the volunteers 
very impatient, and the latter were also exceedingly anxious to ob- 
tain the laurels to be won. The men under command of Major 
Stillman were particularly anxious to "ketch the Indians" before 
the latter could get away. They said the regulars would come 
crawling along stuffing themselves with beef, and the Indians would 
never be "ketched." The officers yielded to the impatience and 
jealousy of the men and requested Governor Reynolds to let them 
go out and reconnoitre the country and find the Indians. Captain 
Eads, from Peoria, insisted very strongly that they should be allowed 
to go. The other captains all volunteered for they did not wish to 
be termed cowards. The question Avith them was not whether the 
matter was prudent and necessary, but whether they dared to go. 


Major Stillman consented to go against his better judgment. He 
asked Mr. John Dixon's opinion, and the latter told him very de- 
cidedly that the business of " ketching the Indians " would prove 
very disastrous for a little force of less than three hundred men. 
Major Stillman then said that as all of his officers and men were 
determined to go, he must lead them if it cost him his life. Still- 
man's force started, and just before night on the 12th of May, 1832, 
they encamped at White Rock Grove, in the eastern part of Marion 
township. Ogle county, near what is now called Stillman's creek. 
He was in close proximity to Black Hawk's encampment, but did 
not know it. Soon after becoming aware of the immediate presence 
of an armed force Black Hawk sent a small party of his braves to 
Stillman's camp with a flag of truce. On their approach they were 
soon discovered by some of the men, who, without reporting to 
their commander, and without orders, hastily mounted and dashed 
down upon the approaching Indians. These not understanding this 
sudden movement and apparently suspicious, all, save two who 
claimed to be Pottawatomies, retreated toward the camp of their 
chief. The whites killed two as they further pursued the retreating 
Indians. The two Indians who refused to run were brought into 
camp. They said : " Me good Pottawatomie," but pointed over the 
hill and said, " Heap of Sac." John W. Caldwell claimed that they 
were spies from the Sacs and Foxes. Mr. Caldwell and Joseph 
Landes of Groveland township, J. M. Roberts of Morton and El- 
more Shumaker of Washington, are the only Black Hawk M^ar 
soldiers who went from this county now living. W. S. Rankin of 
Pekin was in the war but he did not enlist from this county, al- 
though his home was here. The two captured Indians proposed to 
trade for a gun belonging to David Alexander, of Pekin. While 
they were poking their fingers into the barrel, some of the men who 
chased the retreating foe returned and said: "Parade, parade." 
They declared the Indians were thick over the hill. When Black 
Hawk and his war chief, Ne-o-pope, saw the volunteers dashing 
down upon their camp, their flag of truce disregarded, and believing 
their overtures for peace had been rejected, they raised the terri- 
ble war-whoop and prepared for the fray. 

At this juncture the volunteers formed and moved forward. Be- 
fore going far an Indian prisoner was brought into the camp and 
sent to the rear. The men moved on and made a halt near a slough. 
Here the officers went ahead and some kind of a parley was held 


with the Indians. The latter swung a red flag in defiance. Orders 
were then given to march forward, when Capt. Eads of Peoria came 
riding back, and said he was not easily fooled, and that there was 
not less than a thousand Indians coming. The men were then 
marched back in some confusion across the slough to high ground. 
There they formed, or tried to form, but were in bad order. The 
Indians then poured out of the timber, to the front, right and left, 
and both parties commenced firing. But the whites were in such 
bad order that those in the rear were in danger of shooting those in 
front. The Indians came on whooping, yelling and firing, and en- 
circled around on both sides. Major Stillman ordered his men to 
mount and retreat and form a line across the creek, and also ordered 
them to break the line of the Indians on the left. Here was confu- 
sion, and one veteran says they did not go to the right or to the left 
but right straight for home. When they arrived at the creek great 
effort was made by the officers to halt their men and fight. The 
brave Capt. Adams cried out to his men " Come back, you cowards, 
and we will whip them." With eight men he made a stand and 
repulsed a squad of Indians each time, who made eight separate and 
distinct charges upon them. At last, seeing that with that little 
force he could do nothing, he told his men they would have to look 
out for themselves. Elmore Shumaker and Jonathan Haines were 
with him at this time and soon saw him fall. He sold his life dearly 
though. He had his horse shot from under him when the re- 
treat began. He bore a deadly hatred towards the Indians as they 
had killed many of his relations. Major Perkins was overtaken and 
killed about a mile and a half from the creek, and his body terribly 
mangled. The loss at this disastrous engagement fell most heavily 
upon this county. Of thirteen sturdy pioneers who fell at this, the 
battle of the Sycamore, nine were from Tazewell county. 

The main force scampered off to Dixon as fast as they could. 
David Wright, in speaking of the hardships incident to this retreat 
would often say, he " was three days and nights in the howling wil- 
derness with nothing to eat and nothing to cook it in." 


After the fatal engagement which has since been known as 
" Stillman's defeat " or " Stillman's run," the Indians began to com- 
mit great depredations upon the whites. Among other fiendish and 
murderous raids was one made upon a little settlement on Indian 


creek. Three families by the names of Davis, Hall and Pettigrew 
lived there. The Indians appeared in the day-time and massacred 
them in cold blood, taking a savage delight in their infernal deeds. 
Some of the inmates were immediately shot down, olhers were pierced 
through with spears or dispatched with the tomahawk. The Indians 
afterwards related with an infernal glee, how the women had squeaked 
like geese when they were run through the body with spears, or felt 
the tomahawk entering their heads. All the victims were carefully 
scalped; the children were chopped to pieces with axes; and the 
women were tied up by the heels to the walls of the house. There 
were two young ladies, daughters of Mr. Hall who formerly lived in 
this county, who tried to conceal themselves by crawling into bed. 
They were discovered by two young braves who determined to have 
them for wives. Their names were Rachel and Silvia Hall, aged 
fifteen and seventeen. They were hurried by forced marches beyond 
pursuit. After a long and fatiguing journey with their captors, 
through a wilderness country, with but little to eat, and being sub- 
jected to a variety of fortune, they were at last rescued, $2,000 being 
given as a ransom. It is said that the Indians exacted by far the 
largest ransom for the elder sister, as she was more quiet and gave 
less trouble, but they let the younger sister go pretty cheap, as she 
was so saucy and impudent that she made her captors much trouble. 
The women are still living and have relations in this county. Mrs. 
Ellen Studyvin, of Dillon township, whose husband was in the Black 
Hawk war, tells us she very distinctly remembers this massacre. 
Many of the troops as they were passing stopped at her house for 
water. The Misses Hall just after their release took dinner with 
her. They related very fully all the details of the horrible murder 
of their father, mother and little sister, and their neighbors. They 
said they could see the scalp of their little sister every day in the 
wigwam. Each of these young ladies were given a section of land, 
after their rescue from the Indians, by the United States. W. S. 
Rankin, of Pekin, who was in the Black Hawk war, was well ac- 
quainted with the two Indians that found these girls and took them 
from their captors. They were White Crow and Little Priest, Win- 
nebagoes ; both smart, well-behaved Indians. The former had great 
love for Mr. Rankin, who lived at the Galena lead mines before the 
war. White Crow heard that he had been killed and mourned 
greatly, but when he saw him unharmed he threw his arms around 
him and came near hugging him to death for joy. 



The war went on resulting in the defeat of the Indians and the 
capture of their leader. The rangers came home and were dismiss- 
ed from service. They received therefor the remunerative sura of 
86 cents per day for self and horse. Afterwards the General Gov- 
renment was kind enough to give each participant 80 acres of land. 

"old mike" and THE RACE FROM THE INDIANS. 

Joseph Landes, of Groveland township, who was in the Black 
Hawk war, participated in the engagement at Old Man's Creek, or 
since known as Stillman's creek, and the battle is known as Still- 
man's defeat. Mr. Landes said they made the Indians run at this 
battle, but the whites led them in the race towards Dixon, most of 
their company making the best time. The horse Mr. Landes rode 
never forgot this race and the firing in the rear. Always afterward 
when "hog-killing" time came and the first hog was shot, "Old 
Mike" would start oif as though another race with the Indians was 
to be had. Mr. Landes' boys often joke their father about making 
the Indians run. 

The war did not .extend to this county, but a man by the name of 
Johnson was greatly frightened and fortified his house. He was 
easily scared, and one of his neighbors who was fond of a good joke 
told him one day that the Indians were coming. Johnson ran to 
his cabin, bolted the door and stood ready with his gun for any 
emergency, and not a hostile Indian withing fifty miles of him. 


We cannot close this sketch until we speak of that true and 
generous hearted chief, Shaubena, and the part he took in the con- 
flict. At the time the war broke out he, with his band of Pottawat- 
omies, had their wigwams and camps on the Illinois within the pres- 
ent limits of the city of Pekin. Shaubena was a friend of the white 
man, and living in this county during those perilous times, and- 
known by so many of the early settlers, that we think he deserves 
more than a passing mention. Although not so conspicuous as 
Tecumseh or Black Hawk, yet in point of merit he was superior to 
either of them. Shaubena was born at an Indian village on the 
Kankakee river, now in \Yill county, about the year 1775. While 
young he was made chief of the band, and went to Shaubena Grove 
(now in De Kalb county), where they were found in the early set- 
tlement of that section. In the war of 1812 Shaubena, with his 


warriors, joined Tecuraseh, was aid to that great chief, and stood by 
his side when he fell at the battle of the Thames. At the time of 
the Winnebago war, in 1827, he visited almost everj" village among 
the Pottawatomies, and by his persuasive arguments prevented them 
from taking part in the war. By request of the citizens of Chicago, 
Shaubcna, accompanied by Billy Caldwell (Sauganash), visited Big 
Foot's village at Geneva Lake, in order to pacify the warriors, as 
fears were entertained that they were about to raise the tomahawk 
against the whites. Here Shaubena was taken prisoner by Big 
Foot, and his life threatened, but on the following day was set at 
liberty. From that time the Indians (through reproach) styled him 
the "white man's friend," and many times his life was endangered. 

Before the Black Hawk war Shaubena met with his men in coun- 
cil at two different times, and by his influence prevented his people 
from taking part with the Sacs and Foxes. After the death of Black 
Partridge and Senachwine, no chief among the Pottawatomies exert- 
ed so much influence as Shaubena. Black Hawk, aware of this 
influence, visited him at two difl^erent times, in order to enlist him 
in his cause, but was unsuccessful. On one, of these occasions 
when Black Hawk was trying to induce him and his band to join 
them and together make war upon the whites, when with their 
forces combined they would be an army that would outnumber the 
trees in the forest, Shaubena wisely replied " Aye ; but the army of 
the palefaces would outnumber the leaves upon the trees in the 
forest," While Black Hawk was a prisoner at Jeiferson Barracks 
he said, had it not been for Shaubena the whole Pottawatomie nation 
would have joined his standard, and he could have continued the 
war for years. 

To Shaubena many of the early settlers of this county owe the 
preservation of their lives, for he was ever on the alert to save the 

Shaubena, by saving the lives of the whites endangered his own, 
for the Sacs and Foxes threatened to kill him, and made two 
attempts to execute their threats. They killed Pypeogee, his son, 
and Pyps, his nephew, and hunted him down as though he was a 
wild beast. 

Shaubena had a reservation of two sections of land at his grove, 
but by leaving it and going west for a short time the Government 
declared the reservation forfeited, and sold it the same as other 
vacant land. Shaubena finding on his return his possessions gone. 


was very sad and broken down in spirit, and left the grove for ever. 
The citizens of Ottawa raised money and bought him a tract of 
land on the Illinois river above Seneca, in Grundy county, on 
which they built a house and supplied him with means to live on. 
He lived here until his death, which occurred on the 17th of July, 
1859, in the 84th year of his age. He was buried with great pomp 
in the cemetery at Morris. His squaw Pokanoka was drowned in 
Mazen creek, Grundy county, on the 30th of November, 1864, 
and was buried by his side. In 1861 subscriptions were taken up 
in many of the river towns to erect a monument over the remains 
of Shaubena, but, the war breaking out, the enterprise was aban- 
doned. Only a plain marble slab marks the resting-place of this 
friend of the white man. 


The Pottawatomies who lived here were afterwards given a reser- 
vation thirty miles square near Topeka, Kansas, where many of the 
same families who lived here are living and tilling the soil. J. C. 
Thompson and his brother William, who lived in Tazewell county 
and were accounted fine, bright young men, went among these In- 
dians in 1854, and each of them married a squaw. J. C. died there 
three years ago, and in 1878, while Mr. W. S. Rankin was in Kan- 
sas, he saw William who still had his Indian wife. 


Mr. Joshua Wagenseller tells us an amusing story connected with 
the Indians who camped on Dillon creek. An Indian, familiar to 
many of the early settlers, by name of Chief Walker, often came to 
Pekin. On one occasion he offered a barrel full of dollars to any 
young white man who would marry his daughter. Six young men, 
from Pekin, thought they would go out and see the young Indian 
and perchance could strike a bargain with Chief Walker, A barrel 
of Nsilver dollars was an inducement to take most anything in the 
shape of a woman for a wife. The boys all posted off to Chief 
Walker's wigwam. On arriving the old chief met them and led 
them into his cabin to see the daughter. The boys filed in, took 
seats around the room and saw the object of their visit sitting 
silently therein. The boys sat and gazed upon the maiden for a few 
moments, not a word was spoken, supreme silence reigned. The 
situation began to grow more embarrassing, the boys looked at one 



another, at the Chief and then at the girl. Soon one of them 
sneaked out, another followed, and one by one they all slipped away, 
leaving the Chief and his loved daughter alone. Each one of the 
wife hunters told the others, " any of you can have her and the dol- 
lars, I don't want her." So Chief Walker failed to marry oif his 
daughter, and none of the boys got the proffered barrel of dollars. 



TAZEWELL county comprises an area of about six hundred 
and thirty-five square miles, and is bounded on the north by 
Woodford county, on the east by McLean and Woodford, on the 
south by Logan and Mason, and on the west by the Illinois river. 


The surface of the country, over a large portion of this county, 
is a high, undulating prairie, with here and there groves and belts 
of timber. The soil is generally a rich brown mold, varying some- 
what in different localities, in the proportion of clay, etc., which 
it contains, some portions being more argillaceous than others. In 
the timber, however, which occupies not more than one-fifth of the 
entire surface, and in the broken country along the Illinois river, 
the soil is of a somewhat different character, the lighter colored and 
more argillaceous subsoil appearing at or near the surface. 

The principal streams which drain this county are the Illinois 
and Mackinaw rivers. Along the Illinois river we find, in some 
places rather extensive sandy tracts of river formation, and the bald 
bluffs of the Loess, are in some localities conspicuous features in the 
general landscape. 

The principal kind of timber found in the upland wooded tracts 
of this county are, the several varieties of oak and hickory, black 
walnut, butternut, maple, bass-wood, red-bud, sassafras, etc. On 
the river bottoms, and in low damp lands generally, the sycamore, 
buckeye, black ash, elm, etc., are abundant. The sandy ridges are 
generally covered with a growth of scrubby oak, and black jack, 
with a thin admixture of other species. 

The geological formation appearing at the surface in this county, 
consists almost entirely of the Drift, and later formations, the older 
rocks outcropping only at a comparitively few localities. The 
underlying rocks, however, as far as can be ascertained from these 
outcrops, consists entirely of the Coal Measure series. 


In the western portion of the county, in the ravines and broken 
country along the Illinois river, we observe, in a number of places 
at the base of the Drift, a bed of cemented gravel or conglomerate, 
showing sometimes an irregular stratification, similar to that of 
beach deposits. A ledge of this material 9 or 10 feet thick may be 
seen in the north-western quarter of section 7, Groveland township, 
up one of the side ravines which comes down through the Illinois 
river bluffs, a little south of Wesley City, and other similar ledges 
appear in various places in the vicinity of Fond du Lac and also on 
the Mackinaw in the eastern part of the county. Another similar 
bed of cemented gravel, of, however, a comparatively insignificant 
thickness, may be seen about half way up the face of the bluff at 
the steamboat landing in the city of Pekin, where it does not appear 
to be more than a few inches thick. 


All the stratified rocks which outcrop within the limits of this 
county, as before stated, belong to the coal measures, and the actual 
exposures are confined, for the most part, to a thickness of about 60 
or 80 feet of the middle portion of the formation. In the whole 
county there is but one boring which affords an artificial section of 
the beds down to the base of this formation. This one is that made 
by Voris & Co. on the bottom lands of the Illinois river directly 
opposite the city of Peoria. The first bed of the coal measures 
which is met with in the boring is about 40 feet below the lower 
coal seam, which is worked in this section, No. 4 of the Illinois 
river section as given by Prof. Worthcn. The following is a sec- 
tion of the first 459 feet of the boring. Below that depth the 
records kept by Messrs. Voris & Co. were not completed as to the 
thickness and material of all the different beds : 


1. Alluvial soil of river bottom, - - - 4 

2. Sand, ------- 4 

3. Gravel (boulder drift), - - - - 20 

4. Clav shale, ------ 59 

5. Bituminous slate, ----- 3 

6. Fire clay, ------ 15 

7. Clay shale, - - - - - - 15 




Coal, -_---- 




Clay shale, ----- 




Sandy and argill shale (very hard). 




Sandstone, _ - - - - 




Nodular argill, limestone, - - - 




Compact, fine-grined sandstone, 




Hard, dark blue, sandy shale. 




Coal, ------ 




Sandy and argill shale, - - - 




Bituminous shale, with bands of limestone. 



" Cherty rock," _ - - - 




Hard, silicious rock, mainly chert, - 




Fine-grained sandstone, - - - 





As nearly as the limits of the formation can be made out from 
this section it may be referred to the coal measure. The greatest 
depth reached in boring was 774 feet, and the lowest rock was a 
gray, porous limestone, the fragments of which, brought up by the 
instruments, were exactly similar in appearance to some of the upper 
limestones of the Niagara group, exposed in the northern part of the 
State, with which formation this bed may doubtless be properly 

Passing up a small branch which comes down through the bluffs 
from the southward, just back of the village of Fond du Lac, we 
observe a striking exposure, of about 25 feet of verticle thickness, 
of concretionary sandstone, sandy shale and soft sand rock. The 
more shaly beds contain numerous ironstone concretions, and the 
more massive portions, indistinct vegetable impressions, but no other 
fossils. Along the Illinois river bluffs, between Fond du Lac and 
Wesley City, there are several points where coal is now or has been 
worked. In the vicinity of Pekin there are but few natural expo- 
sures of the underlying rocks, but the lower coal is mined at several 
points in the neighborhood of the city. At Mr. Hawley's place, 
about 5 miles southeast of Pekin, a shaft was sunk which passed 
through both the upper and lower coals, affording a section of the 
intermediate beds, which, as reported to us, was as follows : 



1. Argillaceous shale, _____ 4 

2. Light-colored limestone, - _ _ _ - 2 ' 

3. Coal, -------- 4 

4. Fine clay, - -.- - - __8 

5. Sandstone, -------50 

6. Bluish-black slate, ------ 4 

7. Coal, ________ 4 

8. Fire claj^, - - -.- - - -8 

In the central and eastern portions of the county there are a few 
localities where borings, etc., have been made, but satisfactory 
records, in all cases, could not be obtained in regard to the varia- 
tions in the strata. - At Ropp's mills, near the centre of the north 
line of section 20, Elm Grove township, a shaft was sunk to the 
depth of 85 feet, and, as it was reported to us, struck limestone at 
that depth. The shaft, however, was abandoned before completion, 
on account of keeping it free from water. At Delavan, in the 
southeastern part of the county, a boring was made which was re- 
ported to have passed through 60 feet of sandstone, and below that, 
75 feet more of arenaceous and argillaceous shales. No coal was 
reported in this boring. 

We find by the boring opposite Peoria, by Voris & Co., two 
seams of coal at the depths of 120 and 230 feet, and respectively 4 
and 3 feet in thickness, which are most probably the equivalents of 
Nos. 1 and 3 of the general sections referred to. Although we have 
no positive data as to the existence of these or other beds under the 
coal No. 4 in other portions of the county, yet, from their existence 
at this point, and from our general knowledge of the coal measure 
in this portion of the State, it seems quite probable that these seams 
of coal might be found at the proper depth in other portions of this 
and adjoining counties. A boring of from 200 to 250 feet below 
the known horizon of No. 4, or from 500 to 700 feet below the sur- 
face in different parts of the State, would probably penetrate all the 
coal measures, and settle all the questions in regard to the existence 
and development of the underlying coal seams. 


This county is not abundantly supplied with building stone; 
Along the Illinois river, however, the sandstones of the Coal 
Measures have been quarried to some extent to supply local demand. 


and in some localities appear to afford a stone suitable for founda- 
tion, cellar walls, etc. The limestone beds which also occur in the 
Coal Measure strata in this region, though generally of inconsider- 
able thickness, may also furnish a limited supply for the same 
purpose, as well as for the manufacture of lime. Dimension stone 
etc. when used in this county are brought from beyond its limits, in 
great measure from the quarries at Joliet. 

Clay and loam suitable for the manufacture of a fair quality of red 
brick, are found here and have been made use of in all the different 
towns in the limits of the county. Sand for building purposes is 
also sufficiently abundant. 


We may properly mention again under this head, the artesion 
well sunk by Messrs. Voris & Co. on the edge of the bottom land 
along the Illinois river opposite Peoria, in which a current of water, 
holding in solution sulphuretted hydrogen, was struck at a depth 
of 734 feet. When struck it was stated to have had a head of 60 
or 70 feet, and the flow is said to be nearly as strong at the pres- 
ent time. This water appears to be derived from the upper portion 
of the Niagara group, but before the boring had reached its present 
depth a strong current of saline water was met with, at a distance 
from the surface of 317 feet. 

Copperas and saline springs occur in various places in the county, 
and occasionally give names to some of the minor streams. Such 
names as Salt creek, and Lick creek, occur here, as in other por- 
tions of the State. These springs, however, are few in number, and 
can hardly be considered of any economic value. 




MANY of the various species of animals that roamed the native 
prairies of Tazewell county, or made their homes in the wild 
forests within its borders, and lived undisturbed and free from the 
haunt of the hound or the crack of the hunter's rifle, are gone from 
this section forever. Not even a specimen is preserved in taxidermy. 
The buffalo which grazed upon the verdant prairies has been driven 
westward. With or before it went the beaver, elk, badger, panther, 
black wolf and black bear. Some animals that were quite numerous 
have become very rare, such as the gray fox, the catamount, otter, 
lynx, and the beautiful Virginia deer. 

There still remain many of the different species, mostly inhabiting 
the country adjacent to the Illinois river and a few of the other larger 
streams. These are, however, fast disappearing, and ere long will be 
known only in history, as are the deer, the beaver, and the bison. 
Among those still to be found here are the gray wolf, which is 
numerous in some parts, the opossum, raccoon, mink, muskrat, the 
common weasel, the small brown weasel, skunk, woodchuck, or 
Maryland marmot, prairie mole, common shrew mole, meadow and 
deer mouse, and the gray rabbit. Of squirrels there are the gray 
timber squirrel, the fox, chipmunk, the large, gray prairie squirrel, 
the striped and the spotted prairie squirrel, and the beautiful flying 
squirrel. The dark brown and the reddish bat are common. Other 
small animals have been found here which have strayed from other 


Of the 5,000 existing species of birds many have sojourned in this 
county, some temporarily, and others for a considerable time. Many 
migratory species come only at long intervals, and therefore but little 
is known of them. 


There is not a more fascinating study than that aiforcled by our 
feathered friends. Their free movements through seemingly bound- 
less space, the joyous songs of many, and the characteristic tones of 
all, their brilliant colors, their lively manners, and their wonderful 
instincts, have from earliest ages made a strong impression on the 
minds of men, and in the infancy of intellect gave rise to many pecu- 
liar and mysterious associations. Hence the flight of birds was 
made the foundation of a peculiar art of divination. Religion bor- 
rowed many symbols from them and poetry many of its ornaments. 
Birds avail themselves of their powers of wing to seek situations 
adapted for them in respect to temperature and supply of food. 
The arrival of summer birds is always a welcome sign of advancing 
spring, and is associated with all that is cheerful and delightful. 
Some birds come almost at the same date annually ; others are more 
influenced by the character of the season, as mild or severe. 

The following list is as nearly correct as can be compiled from the 
available information upon the subject : 

Perchers. — This order of birds is by far the most numerous, and 
includes nearly all those which are attractive either in plumage or 
in song. The ruby-throated humming-bird, with -its exquisite 
plumage and almost ethereal existence, is at the head of the list. 
This is the humming-bird which is always the delight of the 
children, and is the only one found in Illinois. The chimney 
swallow, easily known from other swallows by its very long wings 
and forked tail, and which is a true swift, is quite numerous. Of 
the whippoorwill family there are two representatives, — the 
whippoorwill proper, whose note enlivens the forest at night, and 
the night-hawk. The belted king-fisher, so well known to the 
school boy, is the only member of its family in this region. At 
the head of the fly-catchers is the king-bird, the crested fly-catcher 
and the wood pewee. 

Of the sub-order of singers there are the following : The robin, 
the wood thrush, Wilson's thrush, the blue-bird, the ruby-crowned 
and the golden-crested wren, tit-lark, the black and the white 
creeper, blue yellow-backed warbler, yellow-breasted chat, worm- 
eating warbler, blue-winged yellow warbler, Tennessee warbler, 
and golden-crowned thrush. Shrike family. — This family is 
represented by the great northern shrike, red-eyed fly-catcher, 
white-eyed fly-catcher, the blue-headed and the yellow-throated 
fly-catcher. Swallow family. — This family of birds are very 


numerous in Tazewell county. Among them are the barn swallow, 
white-bellied swallow, bank swallow, clifF swallow, and purple 
martin. Wax-wing family. — The cedar bird is the representative of 
the wax-wing in America. Mocking-bird family. — The genera of 
this family are the cat-bird, brown thrush, the house and winter 
wren. Finch and Sparrow family. — The snow bunting and Smith's 
bunting appear only in winter. The purple finch, the yellow bird 
and the lark finch inhabit this county. Of the passerine genus of 
this family are the Savannah sparrow, the field and the chipping 
sparrow, the black snow-bird, the tree sparrow, the song sparrow, 
the swamp and the fox-colored sparrow, the black-throated bunting, 
the rose-breasted gros-beak and the ground robin. Titmome family 
— are represented by the chickadee and the tufled titmouse. Creep- 
er family. — There are two specimens of this family, — the white- 
bellied nut-hatch and the American creeper. Skylark family. — This 
melodious family is represented here by only the common skvlark 
of the prairie. Black-bird family. — The rusty blackbird, the crow 
blackbird, the cow-bird, the red-winged blackbird, the meadow lark, 
the orchard and the Baltimore orioles of this family, are the most 
beautiful and brilliant of birds that inhabit this region. Crow 
family. — The blue-jay and the common crow comprise the species 
of this family. 

Birds of Prey. — This order of birds comprises all those, with few 
exceptions, which pursue and capture birds and other animals for 
food. They are mostly of large size, the females are larger than the 
males, they live in pairs, and choose their mates for life. Most rap- 
torial birds have disappeared. Among them are the golden eagle, 
which was always rare but now no longer seen here ; the bald eagle, 
or properly the white-headed eagle, once quite common, now scarce. 
Some well preserved specimens of this genus are in the county. 
This eagle enjoys the honor of standing as our national emblem. 
Benjamin Franklin lamented the selection of this bird as emblemati- 
cal of the Union, for its great cowardice. It has the ability of ascend- 
ing in circular sweeps without any apparent motion of the wings or 
the tail, and it often rises in this manner until it disappears from 
view ; when at an immense height, and as if observing an object on 
the ground, it sometimes closes its wings, and glides toward the 
earth with such velocity that the eye can scarcely follow it, causing 
a loud rustling sound like a violent gust of wind among the branches 
of the forest. The Hawk family are eight or nine species, some but 


seldom seen, others common. The turkey-buzzard has almost, if 
not quite, disappeared. Of the owl genera are several species, 
though all are but seldom seen because of their nocturnal habits. 
Among them are the barn owl, the screech owl, the long and the 
short-eared owl, the barred owl, and the snowy owl, the latter being 
the rarest. 

Climbers. — But few of this order remain in the county, the most 
common of which are the woodpeckers. Of the various kinds are 
the golden-winged, the pileated, the hairy, the downy, the yellow- 
bellied, red-bellied and the red-headed. At an early day the Car- 
olina parrot was often seen, but he has now entirely deserted this 
section. The yellow and black-billed cuckoos are occasionally seen. 

Scratchers. — This order contains but few genera in this county. 
The wild turkey, the choicest of game, has almost entirely disap- 
peared, and was the only one of its family that ever sojourned here. 
In an early day they were in abundance. Grouse family. — The 
chiefest among this family is the prairie chicken, which, if not care- 
fully protected, must ere long follow the wild turkey, never to re- 
turn. The ruffied grouse, wrongfully called " pheasant," has of late 
made its appearance. It is quite fond of cultivated fields, and, if 
properly protected and encouraged until it becomes fairly settled, 
will make a fine addition to the game, and fill the place of the 
prairie chicken. Partridge family. — The fate of that excellent bird, 
the quail, is only a question of a short time. The Dove family. — The 
wild pigeons continue to make their semi-annual visits, but not in 
such vast numbers as years ago. Acres of forest were so often filled 
at night with these birds that the breaking of boughs and the flying 
of pigeons made a noise that could be heard for miles, and the shot 
of a sportsman's gun could not be heard at a distance of ten feet. 
Highly interesting is the description by Audubon of the enormous 
flights which he observed on the Ohio in the fall of 1813; they 
obscured the daylight and lasted three days without interruption. 
According to a very moderate estimate of his, each flight contained 
the stupendous number of one billion, one hundred and fifteen 
thousand million, one hundred and thirty-six thousand pigeons. 
These flights caused a general commotion among the entire rural 
population. Desirous of booty and anxious lest their crops should 
be spoiled, the farmers, arming themselves with rifles, clubs, poles, 
torches and iron pots filled with sulphur, proceed to the resting-places 
of the birds. The work of slaughter being accomplished, every- 


body sat down among mountains of dead pigeons, plucking and salt- 
ing the birds which they selected, abandoning the rest to the foxes, 
wolves, raccoons, opossums and hogs, whole herds of which were 
driven to the battle field. The plaintive notes of the Carolina dove, 
commonly known as the turtle-dove, are still heard. 

Swimmers. — This order of birds, which formerly frequented this 
county in large numbers, have almost disappeared. They are mi- 
gratory, and in their usual season would appear coming from the 
north or south, as winter passes into summer or summer into winter. 

Diver family. — The great northern diver or loon, sometimes visits 
this section, but inhabits the frigid zone. Gull family. — Of this 
family are Wilson's tern and the silvery gull. Pelican family, — The 
rough-billed pelican was the only genus of this family that ever 
stopped in Tazewell county, and it has now altogether ceased to 
make its visits here. Cormorant family. — The double-crested cor- 
morant, or sea raven, has been seen here. Duck family. — This 
family of migratory birds visited the ponds and streams of this county 
in large numbers before it became so thickly settled, both on their 
northern and southern passage, but now mostly confine themselves to 
the Illinois, where large numbers are found. This family furnishes 
most game for sportsmen and for the table. There are the wood 
duck, the big black-headed duck, the ring-necked duck, the red- 
head, the canvas-back, the dipper, the sheldrake or goosander, the 
fish duck, the red-breasted, and the hooded merganser, the mallard 
and the pintail, the green-winged and the blue-winged teal, the 
spoonbill and the gadwall, the baldpate, the American swan, the 
trumpeter swan and the white-fronted goose. 

Waders. — Probably less is known of this order of birds than of 
any other, because of their slyness and solitary habits. They fre- 
quented the marshes, but cultivation has drained their favorite 
haunts. Crane family. — The whooping crane, always rare, is now 
never seen. The sandhill cranes stop on their journeys north and 
south. Heron family. — The great blue heron or crane, least bittern, 
the green heron, night heron and the American bittern, compose 
those of this family visiting this region. Ibis family. — The glossy 
ibis has been seen here. Plover family. — The golden plover, the 
killdeer and the king plover comprise this family known here. 
Phalarope family. — The Wilson's and the red phalarope have fre- 
quented the swamps of this county. Snipe family. — Various birds 
of this family have been common in and around the swamps of this 


county. Among them were Wilson's snipe, gray or red-breasted 
snipe, the least and the semi-palmated sandpiper, the willett, the 
tell-tale, the yellow-leg, the solitary sandpiper, the spotted sand- 
piper, the field plover, long-billed curlew, the common rail, the 
clapper rail or mud hen, and the coot. 

Reptiles. — All of the species of this class that ever inhabited this 
region are still to be found here except the poisonous snakes. The 
rattlesnake, of the genus crotalus, is of a yellowish brown color, and 
has a series of horny joints at the end of the tail, which make a rat- 
tling sound. These were the most venomous of all snakes found 
here, and were numerous in the early settlement. There are two 
kinds, the bandy or striped and the prairie rattlesnake, the latter be- 
ing still occasionally found. The copperhead was always rare. 
Among the harmless snakes are the water-snake, the garter-snake, 
the bull-snake, the milk snake, the black-snake, and the blue racer. 

Many reptiles found here are erroneously called lizards, but are 
salamanders and other like innocent creatures. Lizards are never 
found in this county. Among the tortoises or turtles are found the 
map turtle, the snapping and the soft-shelled turtle. Of the batra- . 
chian, or naked reptiles, there are a few, and, though loathsome to 
sight and touch, are harmless. The toad, the bull-frog, the leopard 
frog, the tree toad, with some tailed batrachia, comprise the most of 
this order. 


Although fishes are the lowest class of vertebrates, their varied 
forms and colors, which often rival those of precious stones and 
burnished gold, the wonderful power and velocity of some, the 
wholesome food furnished by many, and the exciting sport of their 
capture, combine to render fishes subjects of great interest to the 
casual observer, as well as to the amateur and professional naturalist. 
The number of known species of fishes is about ten thousand. The 
waters of this county are quite prolific of the finny tribe. The 
commerce in fish has become quite extensive along the Illinois. 
Sickle-backed family. — This family furnishes the game fish, and are 
never caught larger than four pounds in weight. The various 
genera found here are the black bass, goggle-eye, the croppy, or big 
black sun-fish, and the two common sun-fish. Pilce family. — There 
is but one species of this family, the pickerel, which is caught 
weighing from five to twenty-five pounds. Sucker family. — Of this 


tribe are the buffalo, red-horse, white sucker, two species of black- 
suckers, mullet ranick. Fish of this family are found in all the 
streams of the county. They abound wherever there is water. 
Cat-fish family. — Of this voracious family the channel cat-fish, the 
mud cat-fish and two species of the small cat-fish inhabit the waters 
of this county, and are caught ranging in weight from one to thirty 
pounds. Besides these varieties there are the chub, silver-sides and 
fresh-water herring, and large numbers of other species denominated 
minnows, which are found in the smallest spring branches, as well 
as the larger streams. 


There are probably over 500 species of plants growing sponta- 
neously within the bounds of Tazewell county, but we will not 
attempt to give a complete list of the herbaceous plants, or indeed 
name any of the mosses, mushrooms, etc. 


While Nature has not given a great quantity of these, she has 
furnished a liberal variety. In this respect Tazewell county is in 
advance of most of the Northern States. No one or two species of 
tree monopolizes the ground in the forests, as they do in many 
sections of the United States. Some of the less hardy shrubs, like 
the wild prairie flowers, are slowly disappearing before the encroach- 
ments of civilization, yet we shall endeavor to enumerate them all, 
as well as the trees. 

Oak Family. — The White Oak is king of the forest trees in this 
country in respect to grandeur, strength and general utility, and in 
early day afforded "mast," a first-class feed, for hogs running at 
large. Those which wintered in the wild woods were often fat 
enough for market in the spring, although not fed a grain by 
human hand. The Burr Oak is a fine tree, with a rich and beauti- 
fully cut foliage. The wood is valuable, and the acorns are sweet. 
They are buried in deep, mossy cups, whence the tree is also called 
" overcup oak." The Swamp White Oak is a tall tree and grows in 
low grounds. The Yellow Chestnut Oak is a tree of medium 
height and has leaves like those of the chestnut. The Laurel Oak 
is a very common tree on gentle slopes of ground, having the leaves 
undivided and somewhat like laural leaves in appearance : whence 
the name. In the days before the railroads brought pine so plenti- 





fully into this prairie country, the people found this one of the best 
trees for making shingles : whence it is also called " shingle oak." 
Barren Oak, or " black jack," is found mostly in sandy barrens. It 
seldom exceeds 25 feet in height. Leaves, wedge-shaped and three- 
lobed. Black Oak, or "yellow oak," has the inner bark yellower 
than the other oaks have, and is valuable for dyeing and tanning. 
Externally the bark is very rough and almost black. The tree is 
large and quite common. Red Oak is a tall, handsome tree on 
northern hill-sides and in shady woods. The acorn cup is flat and 
saucer-shaped. Swamp Spanish Oak, or " pin oak," is found, but 
is scarce. The tree is much like red oak, but is not so tall. All 
the white-barked oaks decay on the outside first, and all the black- 
barked varieties decay first on the inside. Hence rails made of any 
of the black oaks have a hard exterior and seem sound long after 
all the inside is rotten, thus being very deceptive ; but white-oak 
rails last many years longer in the fence. The up-land black oaks 
make a hotter fire than any other kind of wood. The Hazel-nut 
and two species of Iron-wood belong also to the oak family, botani- 
cally speaking. The iron-wood, which is also called "American 
hornbeam," "blue beech," and "water beech," is a beautiful tree, 
but is scarce. The more common species have the seeds of the 
appearance of hops. 

Birch Family. — The Red Birch is the only member of this family 
found in Tazewell county. The outer bark peels itself off horizon- 
tally around the trunk and limbs, like that of the cherry. 

Willow Family. — The Prairie Willow is small, and was very com- 
mon before the white man's plow deprived it of its native home. 
The Glaucous Willow grows 8 to 10 feet high, and is common. The 
Black Willow grows 15 to 25 feet high, twigs brittle at the base, 
bark of the trunk somewhat black, and the leaves pointed at each 
end. Common. The Long-leaved Willow occurs, growing gener- 
ally as a small shrub. The Shining Willow, and possibly one or 
two other species, can be found. To the AVillow Family belong also 
the Quaking Asp, or Aspen, the Cotton-wood, the Silverleaf Poplar, 
Lombardy Poplar, and Balm-of-Gilead, all of which grow spontane- 
ously in this county, although the last three have been introduced 
by the settlers. Of the Aspen there are two kinds, — The American 
and the Large-toothed. The poplars and the Balm-of-Gilead have 
a great tendency to sprout from the roots. The Lombardy poplar 
does not prosper well in this windy country. It grows too tall. 


Walnut Family. — The Black Walnut is a large, noble and most 
valuable tree, too well known to need description. It is yet "com- 
mon " in this county. A few Butternuts, or " white walnut " are 
also found. The wood is of a lighter color and more brittle than 
that of black walnut. It is now being used for veneering. Of the 
Shellbark Hickory there are two kinds, — one with a scaly bark and 
furnishing most of our hickory-nuts in the market, and the other with 
a smoother bark and lighter heart-wood, and bearing the largest kind 
of hickory-nut. The Bitter-nut Hickory is very common. 

Plane-tree Family. — The only representative in America is the 
Button-wood, or " Sycamore, " a large, coarse, white-barked tree com- 
mon in river " bottoms, " but is of little value. 

Nettle Family. — At the head of this family stands the American 
or White Elm. Although so common in the forest, it promises to 
become one of the most popular ornamental or shade trees. The Red 
Elm (" slippery-elm ") is scarce. Called " red " on account of having 
red heart-wood, while the white elm has white heart-wood. The 
Hackberry is a beautiful tree of full forest height, hardy and tough. 
The Mulberry is very scarce. 

Rose Family. — The Crab-apple, Wild Plum, Wild Black Cheery 
and Red Haw (two species) are abundant, — the cherry on high land 
and the rest along the streams. There are also found the Choke- 
cherry, Nine-bark (a shrub), Black Raspberry, Blackberry, (and pos- 
sibly the Dewberry), Chokeberry, two species of wild rose (Early 
and Dwarf), and a very few June-berry. The Blackberry has been 
very abundant, but its ground the farmer finds more valuable for corn. 
The other berries are very scarce. The Dwarf Wild Rose used to 
ornament the prairies, especially their margins, but there is scarcely 
any room left now-a-days for the modest little thing by the rough 
hand of agriculture. 

Maple Family. — The White Maple, commonly called "soft maple," 
is by far the most abundant, especially as a shade-tree in the towns 
and villages ; but is soft and brittle and the limbs are easily broken 
off by the wind, so that it is now about to be abandoned as a shade 
or ornamental tree. As an example of the adaptability of the prairie 
to the growth of timber, we may refer to the fact that the first set- 
tlers here 30 to 40 years ago planted the common locust ; and after it 
grew up 20 to 35 feet high the worms and the winds made an un- 
sightly tree of it, and the white maple (acer dasycarpum) was next 
resorted to, which has already attained the height of 40 and 50 feet, 


with top and trunk in due proportion. Box Elder and Sugar Maple 
(both members of this family) and white elm are now being substi- 
tuted, thus making the third crop of good sized forest trees raised 
on the prairies within the short space of civilized life here. The 
Sugar, or "hard," Maple makes the most beautiful and durable 
shade-tree, as well as ornamental tree, but it is of slow growth. 
Indeed duribility and slowness of growth necessarily go together. 
Box Elder is of a scrubby form, and the least esteemed of the 
three most popular shade trees. As members of this family there 
are also the Bladder-nut, a beautiful little bush, and the Buckeye, a 
a tree of heavy foliage, soft wood, and large, poisonous nuts, and 
growing only in the river bottoms. Like the currant, it sheds its 
leaves in August, 

Custard-Apple Family. — The Pawpaw is abundant along the Illi- 
nois river. 

Linden Familu. — Bass-wood evervbodv knows. It is also called 
"white-wood," " linden," and " lime-tree," and in the Southern States 
it is known by the name of " lin," from its old European name lind, 
which gave the family name to the great Linnaeus, the father of botan- 

Rue Family. — The Prickly Ash used to be a common bush or 
shrub, but is now fast disappearing. It is characterized by a very 
rank and pungent odor and taste, is covered with short briers or 
thorns, and bears a small brown berry. The Hop-tree, or " wafer 
ash," is a small tree sometimes met with. 

Cashew Family, or Sumachs. — The Smooth Sumach is by far the 
most abundant, growing even as weeds upon prairie farms. The 
Fragrant Sumach and the Poison Ivy are also to be found in Taze- 
well county. 

Buck-thorn Family. — Red-root, or New Jersey tea, was abundant 
in the margin of the uncultivated prairies, but is pretty well des- 
troyed at the present day. A decoction of its leaves has been em- 
ployed as a substitute for China tea. Possibly a species of common 
Buck-thorn may be found in this county. 

Staff-tree Family. — Burning-bush (" waahoo ") is a beautiful bush, 
sometimes cultivated for the fine show of odd-shaped crimson ber- 
ries it displays after the leaves have fallen off. The Climbing Bit- 
tersweet is also to be found in this county ; but at the most is ex- 
ingly rare. 

Pulse Family. — Trees and plants of this family are characterized 


by bearing pods of seeds like beans. The Red-bud is a shrubby 
kind of tree, and, contrary to waahoo, displays a red top in early 
spring, before leaves appear on it or any other tree. The color is a 
beautiful crimson, and is made by the buds and flowers. The Honey 
Locust is famous for its large thorns and long pods, the inner border 
of the latter containing a large quantity of a sweet substance which 
tastes something like honey. A species or variety is said to occur 
which has but few thorns, if any. A few specimens of the Ken- 
tucky Coffee-tree grow in this county. The seeds of this tree are 
of the size of gum-drops, and have a hard, glossy, beautiful shell. 
A small shrub often called "swamp locust '^ is probably False 

Saxifrage Family. — The Gooseberry, and Wild and Black Currants 
thrive in this section, though the latter are not abundant. 

Dogwood Family. — Four species of Dogwood flourish here, the 
most abundant of which is the Panijcled Cornel, bearing white ber- 
ries about the size of peas. 

Honeysuckle Family. — The most "extensive individual" of this 
family is the common Elder, growing like weeds in gardens and 
farms. The Yellow Honeysuckle and Sweet Viburnum, or " sheep- 
berry," are found in this vicinity, but are exceedingly rare. The 
Black Haw is a common bush, averaging 10 feet in height, and pro- 
ducing very edible sweet fruit. 

Madder Family. — The Button-bush flourishes on the borders of 
ponds and streams. 

Olive Family. — It would sound more natural to Westerners to call 
this the Ash family, as the ash is the principal representative here. 
The White Ash is the most prevalent kind, and is valuable on ac- 
count of its strength, hardness, durability and freedom from warp- 
ing, as well as its quality for making a blazing fire. The Blue Ash 
is about as good. Distinguished from the White by having square 
twigs. Perhaps two other species of ash can be found in the county, 
— the Green and the Swamp. 

Vine Family. — The Winter or Frost Grape is common, and the 
Summer Grape rare. The Virginia Creeper is also common. 


We will name only about 200 of the most common, growing spon- 
taneously, and give them, as nearly as we can conveniently estimate, 
in the order of their abundance, the more common first : 


Grmoing Wild. — Besides several species each of grass, sedge, ferns, 
aster, golden-rod, wild sunflower, evening primrose, cone-flower, 
fleabane, cinquefoil, tick trefoil, violet, crowfoot, milk-weed, cress, 
loosestrife, and beggar's lice, there are the sneeze-weed, wood sorrel, 
wild bergaraot, strawberry, wild cranesbill, boneset, spring beauty, 
clear-weed, arrow-head, tick-seed, blue cardinal flower, May apple, 
self-heal, scouring rush, spider-wort, ginseng, sweet William (two 
species), meadow parsnip (two or three species), cow-bane, wild 
onion, louse- wort, vetchling, ditch stone-crop, cardinal flower, milk- 
vetch, three-seeded mercury, pepper root, wild-mint, spotted touch- 
me-not, soft rush (and probably one or two other species of rush), 
rue anemone, liver-leaf, marsh marigold, early meadow rue, blood- 
root, Indian turnip, mitre-wort, white and purple trilliums, cat-tail 
flag, cup-plant, everlasting, avens, bell-flower, ox-eye, blue-joint 
grass, white lettuce, hawk-weed, lobelia (medical), gentian, yellow 
adder's tongue, harbinger of spring, skull-cap, hare-bell, stone-root, 
groundsel, catch-fly, false Solomon's seal, Gerardia (two species), 
dodder, wild senna, wood sage, American pennyroyal, wood nettle, 
black snake-root, water plantain, rattle-snake master, Dutchman's 
breeches, button suake-root, Solomon's seal, blue cohosh, Seneca 
snake-root, bastard toad-flax, arrow-leaved tear-thumb, iron-weed, 
water star-grass, peppermint, Greek valerian, trumpet-weed, hop, 
bell-wort, rosin-weed, prairie dock. 

Growing in Cultivated and Waste Places. — Blue-grass, white clover, 
dandelion, water smart- weed, hog- weed (" rag- weed"), plantain, 
door-weed ("goose-grass," two species), sneeze-weed, wire-grass, 
panic-grass (several species), fox-tail grass, hair-grass ("tickle- 
grass"), spear-grass, shepherd's purse, green pig- weed, Spanish 
needle (three species), chick-weed, purslane, common smart- weed. 
May -weed, goose-foot ("lamb's-quarter"), ground ivy, blue vervain, 
hedge mustard, yarrow, nightshade, cinquefoil (two species), mild 
water-pepper, mallow, burdock, white pig-weed (" tumble-weed "), 
wild sunfloAver (several species), mother-wort, black mustard, cheno- 
podium urbicum and murale, Euphorbia maculata, orchard grass, 
wood sorrel, polygonum Pennsylvanicum, clear-weed, wild pepper- 
grass, black bindweed, barnyard grass, biennial wormwood, sow 
thistle (?) (two species), scurvy grass, convolvulus bindweed (three 
species?), catnip, cockle-bur, common thistle, three-seeded mercury, 
toad-flax, false red-top (grass), fescue (grass), jimson-weed, red-top 
(grass), red clover, bouncing Bet, curled dock (" yellow dock "), 


mullein, great rag-weed ("horse-weed"), white vervain, timothy, 
cirsiiim altissiraum, Indian mallow, ground cherry, hemp, fetid mari- 
gold, cut-weed, bugle-weed, wire-grass (two species), swamp milk- 
weed, horse-tail, green milk-weed, morning-glory, speedwell, silk- 
weed, hop, scrophularia nodosa, verbena Aubletia hoary vervain, 
climbing false buckwheat, wild balsam-apple, sida, hedge nettle, 
fire-wood, tansy, chess, wild rye, buckwheat, white sweet clover, 
asparagus, white mustard, poke, prince's feather (polygonum orien- 
tal e). 

All plants growing in cultivated and waste grounds, except four 
or five repeated in each of the above lists, may be considered as 
introduced by Anglo-Saxon civilization. While the wild plants in 
the woods are supposed to be the same now as originally, the prairie 
has changed its grassy clothing for cultivated crops and hundreds of 
different weeds. Before settlement by the whites the prairie was 
mostly covered by one kind of grass. Several other kinds could be 
found, especially in places here and there, notably the blue-joint, 
which grew the tallest of any. Along the sloughs and in other wet 
places there was the slough grass and several species of golden rod, 
aster and wild sunflower. All other kinds of weeds were scarce. 
Here and there were patches of rosin weed. But the golden-rod, 
aster, and sunflower made beautiful yellow stripes across the prairies 
in low places, which were peculiarly charming. In the earliest 
stages of the growth of prairie grass it was interspersed with little 
flowers — the violet, strawberry -blossom and others of the most deli- 
cate structure. Soon these disappeared, and taller flowers, display- 
ing more lively colors, took their place, and still later, a series of 
still higher, but less delicately formed flowers appeared. While the 
grass was green the prairies were adorned with every imaginable 
variety of color. In the summer the plants grew taller and the 
colors more lively ; in autumn another generation of flowers came. 
A poetess beautifully writes : 

Where'er I turn my eyes 

There springs a lily : here the wild pink vies 

With clustering roses and the rich blue-bell, 

The morning-glories and the daffodil, 

And countless others. How and whence they came, 

I leave for botanists, to tell and name. 

The original prairie grass can scarcely be found anywhere now. It 
cannot stand close pasturage. The blue or June grass bears pastur- 



age the best of any ; but where live stock are kept oif this grass it 
will be eradicated by other kinds of grass. A curious fact similar 
to this, and of interest to botanists, is the eradication of the May- 
weed along the road-sides by hog-weed, smart-weed, and Spanish- 
needles. Possibly this has been aided by the greater amount of wet 
weather for a few years past. 

The most troublesome weeds which are on the increase at the 
present time are the common and the tall thistle, Indian mallow, 
toad-flax, wild lettuce or sow thistle, and jimson-weed. Clear-weed 
and mercury are becoming abundant in the gardens and door-yards 
where shade trees are plentiful, but they are not troublesome. 



John Wood. 

THE first indictment for murder in this county was against John 
Wood. It was made by the grand jury at the April term of the 
Circuit Court, 1844. Wood had caused the death of his own child 
by throwing it up against the ceiling. He was tried, found guilty 
and sent to the penitentiary for four years. 


Henry Berry, a young man, was stabbed at a house of ill-fame in 
Pekin, Sept. 29, 1859, by a man named Bulger. Berry was an im- 
portant witness against two men who were confined in jail for com- 
mitting larceny. 


John Ott. 

On Friday morning, Oct. 12, 1860, George W. OrendorfP, who 
lived about four miles southeast of Delavan, left his family, consist- 
ing of his wife and two little girls, Emma aged nine and Ada seven 
years old. On his return in the evening he found his entire family 
murdered. This is the most hellish, fiendish murder ever commit- 
ted in the county and after a lapse of twenty years the feelings of 
sympathy and indignation has not died out, nor will it as long as 
the sad, sickening affair remains pictured in language. 

When Mr. Orendorff reached home he found his wife lying upon 
the floor lifeless, and by her side lay her elder daughter, and near them 
lay little Ada moaning piteously in the agonies of death, which soon 
relieved her of the pains of the mortal wound she had received on 
the head. On the floor a few feet from where the mother was lying 
was found an old rusty axe stained with human blood. It was with 


this weapon that this triple murder was committed. Mrs. Orendorft* 
had been engaged in washing in the back part of the house, and the 
bodies were all found in the front room with the door closed. Mrs. 
Orendorff had received upon the head eight distinct strokes with 
this axe, either of which was sufficient to have produced death. 
She was a most estimable woman, and the little girls were at such an 
age as to make them peculiarly interesting to the bereaved father. 
One of them had apparently been out getting flowers, as she had a 
bunch of flowers in her hand when the assassin struck her down. It 
was indeed one of the most heart-rending sights that could have been 
witnessed, — to see a poor defenseless mother and her two unoffend- 
ing little children lying in their own blood upon their own 

Diligent search was at once made for the perpetrators of this terri- 
ble deed, which resulted in finding a young man named John Ott. 
He was concealed in a shock of corn near Lincoln and brought back 
to Delavan. Many of the best citizens were so infuriated that 
strong feelings of lynching him were displayed, but at the urgent 
solicitation of Mr. Orendorff*, the bereaved husband and father, Ott 
was handed over to the civil authorities to await trial. A man 
named Green, a cousin of Ott's, was also arrested. 

The Board of Supervisors of the county offered a reward of $2,000 
for the capture of the murderer, and requested the State to offer an 
additional reward. 

Wednesday, Feb. 6, 1861, John Ott was arraigned before the 
Circuit Court and pleaded guilty to the murder of Mrs. Orendorff 
and het" two daughters. He was then immediately sentenced to be 
hung Friday, Mar. 1, 1861. 


At eleven o'clock, Friday morning. Mar. 1, 1861, John Ott was 
publicly executed for the murder of Mrs. Mary Orendorff and her 
two little children. When arraigned Ott obviated a protracted trial 
by pleading guilty. An effort was immediately made to have him 
executed in public, by applying to the Legislature for a special act, 
but failed. Preparations were then made for executing him in ac- 
cordance M'ith the existing law. A scaffold was erected in the yard on 
the east side of the prison and enclosed with a wooden structure to 
exclude the public gaze. As soon as this was determined on, rumors 
began to circulate that a portion of the people of the county 


would band together and demolish the structure. With this rumor 
came also some of a more startling import, involving the safety of 
the other prisoners confined in the jail. These rumors assumed such 
an alarming shape by the Wednesday preceding that the Sheriif was 
induced to apply for assistance from abroad, A request was sent 
to Capt. Miles, of Washington, to secure the attendance of his rifle 
company. The Peoria National Blues were also notified that their 
services would be needed, and, after receiving orders from the Gov- 
ernor, they held themselves in readiness to come. On Thursday 
evening the Washington Rifles, accompanied by the Quarter-Mas- 
ter General, arrived, and the men marched to the American house to 
await further orders. 

During the early part of Thursday night, the crowds which gath- 
ered about the jail and along Court street, gave evidence that some 
unusual excitement was anticipated. The impression prevailed that 
a concerted attack would be made before sunrise upon the enclosure 
at the scaffold. The arrival of the troops from Peoria was anxious- 
ly looked for, but they did not reach Pekin until about three 
o'clock. They consisted of three companies, the National Blues, 
Emmett Guards and German Rifles, and were accompanied by the 
Adjutant-General. They were marched to the court-room to await 

At that time quiet prevailed throughout the city. But between the 
hours of five and six o'clock a startling noise was heard in the vicin- 
ity of the jail, and upon investigation it was found that the entire 
structure surrounding the scaffold was leveled to the ground. 
The actors in this affair had done the work completely and quickly, 
and quietly dispersed. After the demolition of the temporary 
structure the military were posted in position to protect the jail, but 
no demonstration was attempted against the building. 

At an early hour Friday morning, people came pouring in from 
all parts of. the country, and by ten o'clock it was estimated that at 
least five thousand had assembled in the city. 

About ten o'clock preparations for the execution were commenced. 
The number of persons indicated by the law, with a few others, were 
invited to witness the proceedings in the jail. The prisoner, who 
up to that time had been engaged in religious exercises, was brought 
from his cell. Some time was occupied in removing the manacles 
from his ankles. During this operation, and while the Sheriff" was 
robing him for the grave, Ott exhibited considerable firmness, but 


he looked subdued and resigned. At a quarter before eleven he was 
led forth to the place of execution. He was passive in the hands of 
the Sheriff, and it seemed as though 'he had determined to meet his 
fate without exhibiting any evidence of fear or trepidation. Besides 
the officers the Revs. Messrs. Sawver, Rvbolt and AVindsor, with a 
few others, ascended the scaffold with the prisoner. A dense crowd 
filled the streets in the vicinity, and the tops and windows of many 
neighboring houses were occupied with spectators. The military 
were drawn up around the scaffold to prevent the crowd from pass- 
ing the fence. At the close of the prayer offered by the Rev. Mr. 
Rybolt, the prisoner stepped forward and addressed a few disjointed 
remarks to the people. With much calmness he declared that he 
alone was guilty of the crime for which he was about to die ; that 
Green was innocent ; his doom was just ; and he hoped to be for- 
given in heaven, where he hoped to meet those who were there to 
witness his death. 

As he closed he was placed upon the trap, the rope adjusted about 
his neck, the cap drawn over his head, the trap fell, and with a mut- 
tered prayer on his lips for mercy the spirit of John Ott passed into 
eternity. His neck was broken by the fall and life was soon ex- 
tinct. After hanging nineteen minutes the body was taken down, 
placed in a coffin and removed to the jail yard. Soon the crowd 
began to disperse and all was quiet. Thus terminated the first 
and only legal execution for murder in Tazewell county. 


John Ott was born near Dayton, O., Nov. 6, 1839, and conse- 
quently was not twenty-one years old when he committed the fearful 
crime for which he suffered death. While quite young his parents 
removed to Iowa, and soon to Indiana, where they were living when 
their wayward son was hung, both old and feeble. John remained 
at home until about sixteen years old, when he went to live with his 
uncle. At school he learned to read, and obtained some knowledge 
of arithmetic, but never learned to write. 

Not long after he went to live with his uncle he began to sow the 
seeds of his future ruin. His first theft was a three-cent piece. 
From this he went on, from time to time stealing money and other 
things. Finally he became enamored of a woman who must have 
had a large amount of the demoniac in her nature, for she urged him 
to set fire to barns, to rob and the like. These things, however, he 


would not do. Still he wanted money to enable him to deck him- 
self out. The desire for money grew to a blind maddening passion. 
He stole some jewelry and fled to -Illinois^ where he brought up at 

There he heard, as he said, people talk about Orendorif having 
plenty of money, and that Miller, who worked for Orendorif, was 
laying up money fast. Money he wanted, money he would have. 
He thought and cared for nothing else. So in his own mind he 
determined to get it, and said nothing to anyone about his intentions. 
When asked if he went to Orendorif 's intending murder, he replied : 
" No ; I did not expect to find anyone at home." When asked if he 
did not think it might be necessary to commit murder to get the 
money, he replied : " Yes ; I had taken that into account on going 

When he started out from his cousin's, where he lived, he went 
west till he struck the road leading north. Down this he walked 
some distance and then struck straight for Orendorff 's home. He 
saw Mrs. Orendorif at the stable and inquired after Mr. Miller. 
Then leaving her as if to go out to the east and west road he slipped 
around the straw stack near the house, and remained there about half 
an hour meditating murder. Having determined to do the deed, he 
sallied out ; but as he approached the house he saw the innocent ones 
and his heart failed him. He then requested Mrs. Orendorif to tell 
Miller when he came home to come over to his cousin's. She 
replied, " I will," and these are the last words she is known to have 

But no sooner had he left the house than his diabolical intent 
began to gather strength in him once more. This time, he hid him- 
self behind a straw stack, remaining there about half an hour. 
Having fully determined to do the deed, he started toward the house, 
picking up a club on the way. As he passed into the kitchen he 
laid hold of Mrs. Orendorif and told her she must die. She sprang 
away from him, and ran screaming into the front room. She was 
not able to open the door before'her pursuer was upon her and felled 
her with powerful blows with his club. Then he struck down one < 
of the children, who followed and clung to her mother. The 
the other little girl had run out of the house. He met her at the 
corner of the house and beat her down also. Having done this he 
next took the axe and finished his bloody work. The one he struck 
out of doors, he carried in and laid beside her mother. He burned 


the club in the stove. He then took what money he could find 
and fled. 

Joseph W. 3IcDowell. 

Joseph W. McDowell, indicted for the murder of A. J. Finley, 
was arraigned before the Circuit Court Thursday, Feb. 7, 1861. 
Both sides were represented by able counsel. For the prosecution 
appeared State's Attorney FuUerton, and Mr. Grove, assisted by 
C. A. Roberts and J. M, Hanna, while the defendant was represented 
by Messrs. Puterbaugh and James Roberts, of Pekin, and Julius 
Manning, of Peoria. The jury returned into Court Sunday morn- 
ing with the verdict of " guilty." A new trial was granted, and in 
June, 1861, a change of venue to McLean county was taken, and 
the prisoner tried and sentenced to one year in the penitentiary. 
He never entered within the walls of that prison, however, as he 
was met at the doorway with a pardon. McDowell now resides in 
this county a respected citizen. 

Edward McDoioell, 

a brother of Joseph W., was indicted at the February term of the 
Circuit Court as a party concerned in killing A. J. Finley. He 
was arraigned before the Court Feb. 15, 1861, and granted a change 
of venue to Mason county. He was tried at the March term of the 
Circuit Court and acquitted. 

Enoch Green 

"Was indicted in February, 1861, for participation in the Orendorff 
murder. At the June term, 1861, he was discharged. 

Thomas Hougle. 

Sunday evening. May 24, 1863, Thomas Hougle shot and killed 
Abner H. Underbill. The tragedy was enacted upon the farm of 
Underbill, about two miles east of Delavan. Hougle had lived 
with Underbill for sometime, but left his employer and a quarrel 
ensued between them concerning a woman, when Hougle with a 
shot-gun committed the murder. Hougle was' immediately arrested 
and had a speedy trial, which closed Saturday, June 13, 1863. He 
was convicted of murder, and Judge Harriott sentenced him to be 
hung July 9, 1863. Two days before the date of the execution, 
Gov. Yates commuted the death sentence to a life sentence in the 
penitentiary. He was taken from the Tazewell county jail July 9, 
when not a prisoner was left within its heavy stone walls. 


George Dunn. 

Thursday, Feb. 9, 1865, the body of David Townsend was found 
on the farm of Benjamin O'Brien, near Groveland. A jury was 
called and a post-mortem examination made by Dr. F. Shurtleff. 
The jury came to the conclusion that Townsend had been shot with 
a pistol in the back of the head. He was killed on or about the 
26th of December. The body was concealed under some logs, where 
it remained undiscovered until the above date. Townsend and an- 
other man named George Dunn, had been chopping wood for Mr. 
O'Brien, and from the sudden and peculiar manner in which Town- 
send's companion left the neighborhood, there seemed to be little 
doubt of his being the murderer, although he was never found. 


On Thursday, Oct. 19, 1865, the body of a man, at the time sup- 
posed to be that of George Jackson, was found in the Illinois river 
near Pekin. The head had been severed from the body, and to pre- 
vent the body from floating a quantity of iron was fastened around 
it. The body bore marks of five or six deadly wounds. The corpse 
was not identified positively, but was thought to be that of George 
Jackson, a well known resident of the county who had been mys- 
teriously absent for some weeks. The mayor of Pekin offered a re- 
ward of $500 for the apprehension of the murderer. 

Nothing was heard from Jackson until in 1866, when his wife 
went to England, and on arriving in Liverpool almost the first per- 
son she met was her supposed murdered husband ! Who the mur- 
dered man really was has never yet been discovered, or who com- 
mitted the deed. 

Thomas A. Williamson 

Was arrested Monday, Aug. 27, 1866, for the murder of Charles 
Koch, of Delavan township. Koch was last seen in the neighbor- 
hood about July 18, but his body was not found until Saturday, Aug. 
25, when it was found in the corn-field near his house. The fact 
that Williamson was living with Koch at the time, and the contra- 
dictory stories he told concerning the missing man, excited suspicion, 
and led to an inquiry among the people of the neighborhood. Wil- 
liamson left and suspicion became stronger then ever. A search was 
made and Koch's body found. The murdered man was a German 
and had no relatives in this country. 


At the February term of the Circuit Court, Williamson was tried 
and found guilty of murder. Judge Harriott sentenced him to be 
hung Friday, March 22, 1867. Just previous to the day of execu- 
tion, however, a postponement was obtained until June 21. This 
fact was not known to the Sheriff until Thursday night. Much dis- 
satisfaction was manifested among the people at this delay of the ex- 
ecution. On the loth of June Gov. Oglesby commuted the sentence 
to twenty-one years in the penitentiary. He was discharged from 
prison about April 1, 1879, and went to Kansas, where he says he 
will live a good and peaceable life. 

Enoch West. 

A man named West was arrested by Deputy Sheriff Stone June 
9, 1868, in Fulton county, for the killing of a German named 
Henry Winninghaum. The Circuit Court was in session, but his 
trial was postponed until the September term, when he was convict- 
ed and sentenced to the penitentiary for nineteen years and six 
months. ' A new trial was granted, however, and at the February 
term, 1869, he was again tried, and sentenced to twenty years in the 

William Berry and others. 

On Friday night, July 30, 1869, Deputy Sheriff Henry Pratt 
was murdered near Circleville whilst endeavoring to arrest a band 
of desperadoes, who had long held the community in terror. 
Armed with the necessary legal papers, the Deputy Sheriff, accom- 
panied by the jailor, George Hinman, assistant City Marshall 
Kessler, and Constable W. F. Copes, proceeded to Circleville for 
the purpose of making the arrests, when he was shot and killed by 
Ike Berry, one of the parties named in the warrant. Jailor 
Hinman was wounded, and Mr. Copes made a narrow escape. 

The body of Sheriff Pratt was brought to Pekin Saturday morn- 
ing, when the most indescribable excitement ensued. Hundreds of 
armed men started to scour the country for the murderers, and by 
Saturday afternoon five of the gang were captured and lodged in 
jail. William Berry, who was said to be the leader of the band, 
was arrested in the city early Saturday morning. The other 
members of the gang were Emanuel Berry, Ike Berry, Matthew 
McFarland, C. Daily and Robert Britton. The latter was arrested 
at San Jose, Mason county, Saturday night, by Marshal Stone, and 
Ike Berry was captured by M. M. Bassett, at Bath, Mason county, 
some weeks after. 


Late Saturday night, July 31, an organized body of men, mostly 
from Delavan, where Berry had killed a young man some time 
before, proceeded to the jail, overpowered the police, battered down 
the iron doors of the prison, and after a desperate struggle took 
William Berry from his cell and hung him to a tree in the jail yard. 
During the struggle, Berry, who had by some means secured a knife, 
severely wounded three of the lynchers. 

The trial of the remaining desperadoes came off afterwards at 
Jacksonville, Morgan county, it having been taken to that Court on 
a change of venue. The jury found a verdict of guilty and sen- 
tenced the prisoners to the penitentiary as follows : Ike Berry, for 
life; Robert Britton, 20 years; Emanuel Berry, 15 years; Matthew 
McFarland, 15 years; Cornelius Daily, 15 years. Simeon Berry 
was found " not guilty," and is now living in Elm Grove township in 
this county. McFarland was pardoned some three years ago, went 
out West and was killed. Daily was also pardoned about the same 
time, and has disappeared. Attorneys Bassett and Rodecker, and 
Barnes for the defense. Brown, State's Attorney Morgan county, 
Whitney, State's Attorney of this county, and C. A. Roberts, ex- 
State's Attorney, for the prosecution. Thus, with the career of a 
band of bad men, ended the first and only mob violence known in 
the history of Tazewell county. 

William Ashby. 

Saturday, Aug. 13, 1870, the body of Alfred Carl, a lad of ten 
years of age, was found concealed in the brush near the upper end 
of Pekin lake. About noon the previous day he was sent out by 
his step-father, William Ashby, a mulatto, after his horse. Not 
returning Ashby went after him and returned without finding him. 
The neighbors became suspicious and went in search of the lad, and 
found the body, which to them showed evidences that he had been 
murdered. The skull was crushed. Ashby was indicted for the 
murder, tried and acquitted. 

William Costly. 

William Costly, alias Nigger Bill, was indicted for the murder of 
Patrick Doyle, at Pekin, tried and acquitted. 

Jehiel Stevens. 

Was indicted Sept. 13, 1870 for the murder of a man by the 
name of Crawl, at Pekin. Crawl was waylaid. o^e night near the 



Wide-awake engine house on Court street, and pounded to death, for 
which crime Stevens was arrested. A change of venue was taken 
and he was tried at Lincoln and acquitted. 

Samuel E. Willard. 

Tuesday morning, June 8, 1875, Samuel E. Willard shot and 
killed Charles Ziegenbien. Both of these men were farmers, living 
on adjoining farms, on section 10, Spring Lake township. Willard 
appeared before Esquire Tinney at Pekin, and on his own evidence 
was placed in jail on the charge of murder. Willard was indicted 
at the September term of the Circuit Court for murder, and tried at 
the November term. The evidence showed that for two years 
there had been trouble between Willard and Ziegenbien ; that each 
had threatened to take the life of the other. The difficulty out of 
which the murder grew arose from the trespass of Ziegenbien's 
stock on Willard's premises on the previous Sunday. Willard took 
up his horse and tied it in the brush not far from his barn, sending 
word to Ziegenbien to come and get it and pay charges. He went 
over after it, taking a boy with him. The boy went to see if 
Willard was at home ; not finding him he went into the barn after 
the horse. It was not there. Ziegenbien remained on his horse at 
the gate. When the boy came out he heard the horse in the brush, 
went and got it and proceeded to Manito. There the two men met 
and quarreled. The next morning Ziegenbien started his cows 
down the road by Willard's house, and as they passed Willard's 
hired men set the dogs on them. Ziegenbien came out and went 
down the road to Willard's barn-yard gate, went inside the yard and 
was engaged in loud talk with the men for dogging his cows. Wil- 
lard came out and demanded what he wanted, Ziegenbien replied, 
" none of your damned business." Willard ordered him off the 
premises, and went to his house for his gun, procured it and came 
down to the front gate. Ziegenbien was then passing along the 
road toward his house. Willard stopped him and gave him a talk- 
ing; told him he had invaded his premises, abused his family, and 
, interfered with his rights as a citizen. Ziegenbien went on toward 
his house. Willard followed on the inside of the fence for some 
distance, finally climbing over. Ziegenbien told him he was a 
coward to bring out his gun. Willard told him he had come loaded 
down with arms to kill him. Ziegenbien replied that he was. not 
armed. Willard then laid down his gun and wanted to fight. 


Ziegenbien would not fight. Willard then picked up his gun when 
Ziegenbien took hold of the barrel, Willard then fired twice, the 
first shot striking Ziegenbien just below the ribs, killing him 
instantly, the second shot passed over his head. Ziegenbien was a 
constable and had a revolver as it was his custom to carry. 

The trial of Willard occupied the greater part of the November 
term of the Circuit Court of that year. Considerable interest was 
felt in the case, as both the murderer and murdered were well 
known. The trial lasted ten days, and is said to have been one of 
the most closely contested criminal cases ever tried in this county. 
The attorneys for the prosecution were, States Attorney Henry, Ro- 
decker, Shoup & Dearborn; for the defence, Cohrs, Roberts & 
Green, and Prettyman. 

The jury found Willard guilty of murder and sentenced him to 
the penitentiary for fourteen years. 

George W. Johnson, Stephen D. Johnson and John Pruitt. 

The above named persons were indicted for murder in the county 
of Mason, but they took a change of venue to this county. They 
were tried in May, 1875. The case was one of unusual importance, 
on account of the length of time consumed in obtaining a jury and 
trying it ; the enormity and brutality of the murder, the large 
number of witnesses brought from Mason county, and the ability 
and reputation of the attorneys engaged in the trial. 

The scene was enacted at a dance, and while some of the parties 
were under the influence of liquor. George W. Johnson and John 
Pruitt were acquitted, and Stephen D. Johnson was sent to the 
penitentiary for two years. 

George Clinton. 

George Clinton, a police officer, shot and killed William Thorpe 
at Mackinaw, Friday, June 28, 1876. In the preliminary examina- 
tion it was found the act was justifiable and no crime. 

Mrs. Anna E. Weyhrich. 

Peter Weyhrich, an old resident of Sand Prairie, died very sud- 
denly Wednesday night, June 20, 1877. The sudden death and 
incidents attending it caused grave suspicion of foul play. A jury 
was impanelled and a post-mortem examination made of the de- 
ceased, and the stomach sent to Chicago for examination, where it 
was decided that he came to his death by poison. Mrs. Weyh- 


rich, wife of the deceased, was arrested and tried for the mur- 
der. The case was taken from this to Logan county and tried 
the last week in March, 1878. States Attorney Prettyman and J. 
B. Cohrs prosecuted, and Messrs. Roberts & Green defended. 

The trial was a long and tedious one, and the prisoner was found 
guilty and sentenced to fourteen years in the penitentiary. A mo- 
tion for a new trial was made and denied, when an a])peal to the 
Supreme Court was taken. This tribunal reversed the decision and 
remanded the case for a new trial, which took place in July, 1878, 
and resulted in her acquittal. 

Jacob and David Hudloic. 

Rudolph Myers, of Sand Prairie township, left Pekin on the night 
of Dec. 22, 1877, for his home. About 10 o'clock he returned to 
the city and went to the Central House. There he told of his 
assault about half a mile below the city, — how three men apprached 
him in a threatening manner ; that one had a dirk, another proceeded 
to gag him, and the third did the robbing ; that he told them to 
take everything if they would not harm him ; that after robbing 
him they brutally and violently kicked him and fearfully maltreated 
him ; that his watch and chain and money were stolen, and then 
how he made his way back to Pekin. Medical aid was summoned, 
and it was discovered he was seriously injured internally. At one 
o'clock, P.M., Sunday, he died. 

Some time elapsed before any apprehension of the murderers was 
made. On Wednesday, April 17, 1878, at the instigation of Chris- 
topher Ropp, of Elm Grove, Jacob and David Hudlow were arrested 
as being the offenders. They were clearing timber in Spring Lake 
township at the time. They were tried at the May term of the 
Circuit Court, found guilty of manslaughter, and sentenced to the 
penitentiary for fourteen years. 




IN 1847 a State election was held for members of the Constitu- 
tional Convention, which Convention prepared and submitted to 
the people a new constitution, which was adopted by a large majority. 
By this constitution, in place of the Commissioners' Court a County 
Court was organized in each county. This Court consisted of a 
County Judge, and, if the Legislature saw proper to so order it, two 
Associate Justices. This the Legislature favorably acted upon. 
The last meeting of the County Commissioners' Court was held 
Nov. 7, 1849. After the transaction of such business as properly 
came before them, they adjourned until court in course, but never 

On the 3d of December of the same year the first regular term of 
the County Court was held. The duties of the Court in a legisla- 
tive capacity were precisely the same as those of the County Com- 
missioners' Court. In addition to the legislative power the members 
of this Court were permitted to exercise judicial authority, having 
all the rights and privileges of justices of the peace, together with 
all probate business. This Court consisted of a County Judge and 
two Associate Justices. The Judge and Associate Justices acted 
together for the transaction of all county business, but none other. 
The Justices had an equal vote with the Judge, and received the 
same salary while holding court, which was §2 per day. Two of 
the three constituted a quorum. 

Benjamin F. James was chosen the first County Judge, being 
elected Nov. 6, 1849, — the first November election held. The first 
Associate Justices were Joseph Stewart and Lawson Holland. 
During the existence of this Court the people were agitating the 
question of township organization. Many counties of the State, 


since the new constitution, had adopted that mode of conducting 
county affairs. The constitution gave counties the privilege of 
adopting either the County Court or the Board of Supervisors. 
At the fall election in 1849 a vote was taken "for" or "against 
township organization," which resulted in favor of the new measure. 

The County Court had but a short existence. The last meeting 
was held Saturday, April 6, 1850. In the mean time, however, the 
Court appointed B. S. Pretty man, Anson Gillon and J. M. Coons a 
commission to divide the county into townships. This duty they 
performed in due time. Generally they constituted each congres- 
sional township a separate town. Beginning at Fond du Lac town- 
ship they fixed the boundary as it now is, and named it " Fond du 
Lac," according to the wish of the people. The first election under 
the township organization was held at Farm creek school-house. 

Washington township was laid off six miles square east and ad- 
joining Fond du Lac. It was called Washington because the village 
and post office bore that name. The east half of township 26 north, 
and range 2 west, was attached to Washington at the request of the 
citizens, as there were not sufficient • inhabitants to form a separate 
town. The first election was held in the district school-building at 

Deer Creek had its boundaries fixed as they are at present. The 
first election was held at the Monmouth school-house. The town- 
ship was named by Major R. N. Cullom, taking the name of the 
creek that flows through it. 

Morton was laid off and named as it is at present. Harvey Camp- 
bell proposed the name in honor of Gov. Morton of Massachusetts. 
First election was held at W. W. Campbell's. 

Groveland was constituted a township, and its boundaries fixed as 
they now are. The first election was held at the Randolph house, 
Groveland. The township took its name from the village. 

Pekin township was at first one tier of sections less north and 
south than it is at present. The northern tier of sections of Cin- 
cinnati was taken from that township and added to Pekin. It was 
named after the city of Pekin. 

Cincinnati township was laid oflp by this commission one tier of 
sections larger than it is at present. The first election was held at 
the Cincinnati hotel, Pekin. 

Elm Grove had its boundaries fixed as they now are. First elec- 
tion held at Elm Grove school-house. - 


Tremont had its boundaries defined by including a Congressional 
township. First election was held at the court-house at Tremont. 

Mackinaw township had its boundaries permanently fixed. First 
election was held at school-house in the town of Mackinaw. 

Little Mackinaw has never had its boundary lines changed. First 
election held at a school-house on Little Mackinaw creek. 

Hopedale at first was christened Highland. The present bounda- 
ries were fixed. A portion of Boynton township was attached to 
Hopedale, there not being enough inhabitants to organize a town- 
ship. First election '\\;as held at Mrs. Purviance's residence. The 
name Highland was changed because there was another township 
in the State wearing that name. 

Dillon was constituted for a Congressional township. First elec- 
tion was held at the school-house in Dillon. 

Sand Prairie, formerly JeiFerson, had its boundaries described as 
they are at present. First election held at John Hisle's. Malone 
township was not organized, but the territory was attached to Sand 

Spring Lake had its boundaries -described as they remain at pres- 
ent. First election held at Charles Scewell's. 

Delavan was constituted a township as it remains at present, and 
had a portion of Boynton attached to it. 

Hittle was first named Union, then changed to Waterford, and 
finally to Hittle. It included its present territory and a portion of 
Boynton. First election held at Hittle Grove church. 

The last meeting of the County Court was held Saturday, April 
6, 1850. It then adjourned sine die. 


This system of county government is so entirely different in origin 
and management from the old mode by county commissioners, which 
had such a long and favorable run, that we deem a brief synopsis of 
the differences quite pertinent in this connection. 

Elijah M. Haines, in his " Laws of Illinois Relative to Township 
Organization," says the county system "originated with Virginia, 
whose early settlers soon became large landed proprietors, aristo- 
cratic in feeling, living alone in almost baronial magnificence on 
their own estates, and owning the laboring part of the population. 
Thus the materials for a town were not at hand, the voters being 


thinly distributed over a great area. The county organization, where 
a few influential men managed the whole business of the community, 
retaining their places almost at their pleasure, scarcely responsible at 
all except in name, and permitted to conduct the county concerns as 
their ideas or wishes might direct, was, moreover, consonant with 
their recollections or traditions of the judicial and social dignities of 
the landed aristocracy of England, in descent from which the Virginia 
gentlemen felt so much pride. In 1834 eight counties were organ- 
ized in Virginia, and the system extending throughout the State, 
spread into all the Southern States and some of the Northern States, 
unless we except the nearly similar division into 'districts' in South 
Carolina, and that into 'parishes' in Louisana from the French 

" Illinois, which with its vast additional territory became a county 
of Virginia on its conquest by Gen. George Rogers Clarke, retained 
the county organization, which was formerly extended over the State 
by the constitution of 1818, and continued in exclusive use until 
the constitution of 1848. Under this system, as in other States 
adopting it, most local business Avas transacted by three commission- 
ers in each county, who constituted a county court, with quarterly 
sessions. During the period ending with the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1847, a large portion of the State had become filled up with 
a population of New England birth or character, daily growing 
more and more compact and dissatisfied with the comparatively arbi- 
trary and inefficient county system." It was maintained by the 
people that the heavily populated districts would always control the 
election of the commissioners to the disadvantage of the more thinly 
populated sections, — in short, that under the system, "equal and 
exact justice" to all parts of the county could not be secured. The 
township system had its origin in Massachusetts, and dates back to 

De Tocqueville, in his work entitled " American Institutions, " in 
speaking of our political system, very properly remarks that two 
branches may be distinguished in the Anglo-American familv which 
have grown up without entirely commingling, — the one in the South, 
the other in the North. He discovers the causes which led to this 
condition of things, which are apparent to the most casual observer. 
" They arise, " he says, " not from design, but from the force of cir- 
cumstances at the beginning. The planting of the original colony 
of Virginia at Jamestown had for its design the single and naked 

304'" '^ hist6"ey" OF tIzewell county." 

object of pecuniary profit to the proprietors. Its mission involved 
no principle for the benefit of mankind. It recognized the crown of 
Great Britain, from whence it derived the charter of its existence, as 
the source of political power. There was no recognition of the 
principle of self-government. 

"But the circumstances attending the first settlement of the Col- 
onies of New England, so called, were of an entirely different char- 
acter. The early colonists in this instance were non-conformists, or 
dissenters from the Church of England. They came as exiles, flee- 
ing from the wrath of ecclesiastical tyranny, whose displeasure they 
had incurred, — cast out as public offenders, 'as profane out of the 
mountain of God.' Whilst the colonists of Yirgina came with the 
law, those of New England came against the law, or perhaps, more 
properly speaking, without law. Thereupon arose on the part of the 
latter a positive necessity for the establishment of law for their mu- 
tual protection. The result was a written compact, — this being the 
first written constitution extant, based upon the general good. It 
was the first time since the 'morning stars sang together' that the 
people themselves met in council and framed a government based 
upon equal rights." 

The supervisor is the chief officer and representative of the town- 
ship, and it is his duty to prosecute and defend all suits in which 
the township is interested. The township clerk keeps the records 
of the towsnhip, and the treasurer takes charge of the funds. The 
establishment, vacation and repair of the public roads is committed 
to the three commissioners of highways. The supervisor, the two 
justices of the peace whose terms of office soonest expire, and the 
township clerk constitute a township board for examining and 
auditing the accounts of the town. 

The Board of Supervisors convened for the first time just one 
month after the adjournment of the County Court. It assembled at 
the court-house in Tremont May 6, 1850, the following members be- 
ing present : R. W. Briggs, Tremont ; William S. Maus, Pekin ; W. 
J. Thompson, Jefferson ; R. N. Cullom, Deer Creek ; B. F. Oren- 
dorff. Little Mackinaw ; W. W. Grossman, Delavan ; Seth Talbot, 
Elm Grove ; C. J. Gibson, Fond du Lac ; George L. Parker, Grove- 
land ; Samuel P. Bailey, Cincinnati ; Nathan Dillon, Dillon ; Ly- 
man Porter, Mackinaw ; Horace Clark, Morton ; Charles Holder, 
Highland ; Hezekiah Armington, Union ; George H. Daniels, Spring 
Lake. Hon. Richard N. Cullom was chosen chairman. 


The last meeting of the Board at Tremont, was held August 26, 
1850, when the Board moved in a body to Pekin and held a meeting 
on the same day in the new court-house, built by that city. 

Since 1850 the business affairs of the county have been under 
the guidance of a Board of Supervisors, at present composed of 24 
members. It would be unprofitable, as unnecessary, to present in 
detail the numerous orders, reports, resolutions, etc., of this body. 
Their proceedings partake a great deal of the nature of a legislature. 
Among so many men there are always some cool business heads, as 
well as a good many glib tongues. Some of them are practical, in- 
dustrious workers, others are of the buncombe order, always ready 
to make a speech or a voluminous report. This has always been the 
case with such assemblies, and we suppose always will be. 

By an act of the Legislature, approved Feb. 2, 1849, in regard to 
the disposal of the court-house at Tremont, it provided that in case 
the countv-seat was moved to Pekin, a deed of trust of the court- 
house, should be made to Joseph L. ShaAV, Wells Andrews, Lyman 
Porter, Thomas P. Pogers and William A. Maus. The building was 
to be used and occupied exclusively for the purpose of education 
and for the use and benefit of the people of this county. Accord- 
ingly when the vote was taken and it was decided to make the move, 
and when the move was made, the above act was complied with, and 
for several years a high school was conducted there. 


This structure, which stands near the south-east corner of the 
public square, was ordered erected by the Board in 1857. The 
contract for its erection was awarded to J. P. Hall, and it was 
completed in the spring of 1859. The building committee of the 
Board consisted of R. B. Marley, David Hainline, James Mitchell, 
G. H. Rupert and William S. Maus. The committee ajipointed 
Dr. Maus superintendent. He was also authorized to provide for 
furnishing the office with suitable furniture. The idea of introduc- 
ing iron furniture was considered rather a novel one, but it was 
urged that while the building might be rendered fire-proof as to the 
exterior, the interior fixtures being constructed of wood, there 
would really be no certainty that the records would be protected 
from fire. It was believed that in nearly every case where 
court-houses or other buildings containing records had been de- 



stroyed by fire, the cause originated in the interior. In such a case 
fire-proof walls alone would prove but a slight protection. The 
good sense of the Supervisors convinced them that iron cases, shelv- 
ing and furniture would prove the best kind of insurance they could 
place upon the records of the county. 

Acting under authority from the building committee. Dr. Maus 
visited several establishments in the East where iron furniture was 
manufactured. On his return he perfected a plan for the furniture 
needed, the drawing of which was executed by Thomas King. 
The building was first occupied the latter part of May, 1859, and 
ever since has kept the public records, which are invaluable, in safe 

At a meeting of the Board May 2, 1861, Supervisor Pratt intro- 
duced a resolution that, whereas our forts, arsenals and government 
stores had been seized and, "whereas many of our citizens have 
volunteered in defence of our country, and have come forward with 
the same spirit that actuated our sires in the days of ' 76, leaving 
their wives and children, homes and firesides, with their lives in 
their hands, periling their all at their country's call, and many of 
them without money or means to pay a single day's board, and their 
families entirely unprovided for, trusting to the God of mercies for 
the means of their sustenance," — therefore resolved that the Board 
pay their board and expenses while and before being mustered into 
service ; also maintain their families during their absence. The 
resolution was tabled and a substitute offered by Supervisor Maus, 
and passed, to the effect that a committee be appointed to examine 
all accounts and expenses incurred in raising volunteers, as well as 
such relief as may be necessary for the support of the families of 
such married men during their absence, and report the result to the 
Board. Said committee was appointed, and at the next meeting 
reported claims " for the support of women and children where hus- 
bands and fathers have volunteered," to the amount of $1,100. 
The whole matter was turned over to the Board, when $132.75 of 
the amount was allowed. 

Again Supervisor Pratt attempted to get aid for the volunteers 
by making a motion that $2.50 per week be allowed on all bills for 
boarding volunteers while being organized. This motion was also 

It seemed the majority of the people were in favor of the Board 
contributing means for the support of volunteers. A petition to 


that eifect was presented to the Board. The City Council of Pekin 
also took cognizance of this refusal to aid troops. At a special 
meeting held Thursday, May 23, 1861, seemingly for no other pur- 
pose. Alderman Harlow offered the following : 

"Whereas, the Supervisors of Tazewell county have been peti- 
tioned to bear a portion of the expense of volunteers and have 
refused, therefore, resolved, that we, the Board of Aldermen of the 
city of Pekin, do utterly disapprove and condemn the action of said 
Board of Supervisors, and, with all good and loyal citizens, feel that 
old Tazewell has been disgraced by the action of said Supervisors." 

While the Board was not as liberal in this respect as some would 
have had it, yet it paid out considerable money for the support of 
families of soldiers. In September, 1864, the Board decided to 
give a bounty of $150. to each volunteer under the first call of that 
year for 500,000 men. In January, 1865, a bounty of $300. was 
offered. The sum of $128,000 was appropriated to pay said bounty. 
This was based on the quota of the county being 400; but in 
February it was found to exceed that number by 144, and a further 
sum of $53,000 was appropriated. To raise this a tax of three 
cents on the dollar was levied. A special assesment was made, and 
the tax collected in short order. The levy was made upon the 
property of soldiers, which was unavoidable, but the Board subse- 
quently refunded such tax. 

The Board have experienced much difficulty in regard to the 
swamp lands of the county : indeed, we believe they have been 
the source of the greatest trouble and expence to the Board. A 
vast system of drainage was undertaken, which proved highly 
beneficial although quite expensive, and for years more or less 
controversy was had in regard to this matter. The present Board is 
composed of the following gentlemen : 

Chairman, Richard Holmes, Delavan ; John H. Anthony, Wash- 
ington ; Peter Fifer, City of Washington ; John Eidman, Cincin- 
nati ; Daniel Sapp, Spring Lake ; Matthias Mount, Dillon ; E. J. 
Orendorff, Hopedale ; D. John Bennett, Elm Grove; Asa Hicks, 
Little Mackinaw; James K. Pugh, Malone ; John Meyers, Sand 
Prairie ; William Smith, Morton ; S. C. Hobart, Tremont ; Jacob 
Brennamann, Boynton ; James Mitchell, Deer Creek ; C. S. Worth- 
ington, Groveland; J. H. Porter, Mackinaw; John Q. Darnell, 
Hittle ; Samuel R. Mooberry, Fond du Lac ; C. B. Cummings, J. 
M. Gill, I. Lederer, City of Pekin ; Thomas Skelly, and E. Schur- 
man, Pekin township. 



AX interest paramount to every other in agricultural pursiiits 
is that of stock-raising. Many of the farmers have realized 
this and have turned their attention largely to this branch of agri- 
culture ; and the result is that Tazewell county can boast of as fine 
stock as any other county in Illinois. While this chapter is headed 
as if to treat on stock indiscriminately, yet as cattle are receiving, 
and have received, more attention than any other class of domestic 
animals, we shall devote most of the space to cattle. As thorough- 
bred stock was introduced into Tazewell county at a very early day, 
as early indeed as in almost any part of the State, we will speak of 
the first introduction of such stock into Illinois. The first, perhaps, 
that were brought into the State were by James X. Brown, in 1834, 
when he arrived in Sangamon county with the progenitors of his 
afterwards famed herd of "Island Grove." Some grades of the 
"Patton" stock are said to have been found in Madison and in some 
other southern counties' even earlier. G. W. Fagg, of Perry county, 
advertised a short -horn bull in the Union Agriculturist in 1841. 
The Prairie Farmer notices the Devons of James McConnell, near 
Springfield, in 1843. A letter of Gov. Lincoln, of Massachusetts, 
to Gov. Reynolds, of Illinois, published in the Union Agriculturist 
for 1841, shows that the former sent some crosses of Ayrshire and 
short-horn cattle to a son in Alton that year, which was, perhaps, 
the first introduction of Ayrshire blood even in a diluted state. 
The Prairie Farmer, in 1844, chronicles the arrival at Chicago of 
an imported short -horn for Bronson Murray, of La Salle county. 
By the time of holding the first State Fair at Springfield, in 1851, 
the short-horn appeared in very respectable numbers, and Devons, 
although not much shown, were said bv the Prairie Farmer to be 
already found in quantity in the northern part of the State. In 
1857 the formation of the Illinois Stock Importing Association, 
and their importations and sales, among other animals, of twenty- 
seven short-horns, increased the interest in breeding. 


The first introduction of blooded stock into Tazewell county, 
together with the history of the progress made in improving the 
stock of the county, would be an interesting article to many. We 
have not, however, been able to gather sufficient data of a reliable 
nature to warrant an article of great lengtli. The first importation 
into the county, and among the very first into the State, was made 
by Col. Charles Oakley. The importation was made in 1840 from 
England, and consisted of horses, cattle, hogs and sheep, of the 
following stock and number: one full-blooded Durham roan bull; 
two roan cows ; one full-blooded stallion of the celebrated Campbell 
stock ; one full-blooded mare of the Bertram stock ; five Berkshire 
pigs, and a number of long-wooled Cotswold sheep. Three years 
later Col. Oakley again brought with him on his return from England 
stock of the following kinds : white Durham cow and calf; a num- 
ber of pigs of the Woburn stock, and the stallion Sampson. The 
latter was not a direct importation of Col. Oakley's, but he was 
brought from New York here. This horse did much in the way 
of improving the farm horses of this section, and even now many 
of the Sampson breed of horses are to be seen traveling the roads. 

Had the people ap])reciated at that early day the value of this 
stock imported by Col. Oakley, for many years past Tazewell 
county might have been, in regard to fine stock, foremost in the 
United States. The people, however, could not see any special 
benefit to be derived from investing in animals costing so much, 
and but little interest was taken in them. The Colonel's public 
duties would not permit him to give his personal ■ attention to his 
stock, and the consequence was that in a few years they were scat- 
tered here and there, and but few persons ever derived any benefit 
from them save from the horses. 

We deem it fitting in this connection to speak personally of Col. 
Charles Oakley, as he not only made the greatest effort ever made in 
an early day to improve the domestic animals of Illinois, but he was 
also prominently identified Avith great works of the State, and an 
honored and respected citizen of Tazewell county. He w'as born in 
AVest Chester county, N. Y., in 1792 ; came to this county with the 
Tremont colony in 1834, and erected the first house in Tremont. 
He was in the war of 1812, and in the Black Hawk war. In 1839, 
during the great internal improvement system, he was appointed 
State Fund Commissioner, and went to Europe to negotiate a loan. 
It was on his return from this trip that he brought the first lot of 


stock. In 1843 he, with Senator Michael Ryan, was by the Gov- 
ernor appointed to negotiate a loan to carry on the building of the 
Illinois and Michigan Canal. They went to Europe in the early 
part of 1843, and returned in November. In 1844 Col. Oakley 
again went to Europe, but came home still unsuccessful in borrow- 
ing funds. Early in the winter of 1844-5 he again proceeded to 
Europe, Ryan remaining at home, and finally succeeded in borrow- 
ing $1,600,000. He came home to be appointed Canal Commis- 
sioner, which position he held at his death. He again went to 
England in company with Charles L. Butler (brother of Ben But- 
ler), to secure funds for the completion of the Indiana and Wabash 
Canal. For this service Butler was paid, after Col. Oakley's death, 
the sum of $25,000, none of which, however, ever found its way to 
the Colonel's family. 

Col. Oakley was president of the first bank ever established at 
Pekin. It was a branch of the Bank of Illinois, and was first 
opened in that city in 1840. He was one of the most popular men 
in Illinois, during his day, and was once looked upon by his party 
as the proper person to succeed Gov. French as the chief executive 
of the State. In the very prime of life, however, he was stricken 
down. He died at his home in Tremont on the 31st of December, 
1848. His widow still survives him, and at present resides at Peo- 
ria. She is about eighty years old, and in very feeble health. 
Oakley Avenue, a prominent thoroughfare in Chicago, perpetuates 
his memory. 

It has cost time, labor and money to introduce thoroughbred stock, 
but the result of bringing imported stock and a scientific knowledge 
of breeding has placed Tazewell in the very front rank of counties 
in Illinois in the raising of fine cattle. 

Among the foremost breeders of blooded stock in the county are : 
John Trout of Elm Grove, who owns Florence, bred by D. E. 
Davis, of Salem, N. J. For pedigree see page 561, Vol. 15 of the 
American Herd Book. He also has Breastplate, bred by J. G. 
Clark, Champaign county. 111.; pedigree number, 18,236; Elfrida, 
red and white, bred by Clark; pedigree number, 11,341; Pearl, 
also bred by the same man; pedigree number, 12,578. Mr. Trout 
also has Elfrida the Seventh, bred by himself; pedigree number, 
28,853, American Herd Book. Thomas Wibray, section 4, Tremont 
township, has Duke of Herndoka; pedigree number, 19,485. Jos. 
Ropp owns Red Duke, bred by J. G. Clark of Champaign county. 


This fine animal was got by Royal Airdrie, pedigree number, 18,236. 
Isaac Miars, of Elm Grove, has four head of short-horns, — one of 
them from AVyburn's herd, of Bloomington, the other three from 
Waltmire's herd, of Tremont. Hon. James Robison has a fine 
herd of short-horns, consisting of nine head from John Gillett's 
herd, Elkhart, Logan county. 111. There are many others in the 
county who are prominently identified with the improvement of the 
cattle stock of the county. William Birkett, section 26, has a fine 
herd of from 50 to 75 head of imported Jerseys and Durhams. He 
runs a large dairy farm, manufacturing with horse-power an aver- 
age of 200 pounds of butter per week. 

We quote the following from a letter published in a recent num- 
ber of the Tazewell Republican, Pekin : 

" I find a very marked improvement in cattle in the neighborhood 
of the breeders of short-horns in the early days of Illinois. The 
average lots of steers in Morgan, Menard, Cass, Sangamon and 
Logan average several hundred weight heavier at the same age than 
they do in counties that more recently introduced short-horns, and, 
besides, the quality in a good high-grade steer will command from 
one to one and one-half cents per pound more than common stock. 
This difference in price, at the low price of corn last winter, would 
buy corn enough to fatten a steer. AVith this difference in size and 
price in favor of the short-horns, it is apparent to every calculat- 
ing farmer that they cannot afford to raise any but the best stock, and 
those well cared for, on our high-priced land. Perhaps no neigh- 
borhood is doing more to improve their cattle at the present time 
than the farmers in the vicinity of Tremont. They have purchased 
and brought to their farms within a few months ten young thorough- 
bred short-horn bulls, and quite a number of heifers also. This 
new introduction of short-horns will, in a few years, greatly im- 
prove the cattle of that vicinity, and there are some lots of cattle 
there now feeding that will weigh nearly two thousand pounds. 

Tremont, April 17, 1879. Jas. W. Robison. 

The improvement in the hog stock of the county is, perhaps, 
more noticeable than that of any other class of domesticated ani- 
mals. Since the arrival of the first settlers with their hogs, bred 
and raised entirely in the timber, and almost altogether upon the 
roots and acorns of the native forests, there has been a most wonder- 
ful advance in securing better stock. For many years at first it 
seems to have made no difference with the farmers in regard to the 



breed of hogs. They reasoned that a hog was a hog, and that one 
was as good as another, and they therefore made no effort to better 
their stock. Several years ago, however, the Poland Chinas, Berk- 
shires and Chester Whites were introduced, and as a result the class 
of hogs bred in Tazewell county are inferior to none. Among the 
many who breed the best grades, is N. M. Saltonstall, who has the 
pure Berkshire. He has about 25 head which are said to be the 
finest lot of hogs in the county. 

In aggregate value the horses of the county are worth more than 
the combined aggregate value of all other domestic animals. Much 
interest is now being taken to improve the farm-horse stock as mtII 
as the roadsters. Among those who are especially interested in this 
branch of stock raising, are E. D. Fuller & Bro., of Elm Grove 
township. They have imported some of the finest horses brought 
to the United States. They have two fine horses which they went 
to France and purchased. The famous horse, Rob Roy, which they 
own, and which has taken the premium at the State fair, is a perfect 
model of a horse. Leon, which they also own, is a fine animal. 
This firm has made two importations, two horses each time. They 
have a fine herd of about 35 head of graded horses and colts. A. J. 
Danforth, of Washington, has a large stable of fine roadsters, some 
of which are among the best and fastest horses in the State. 

The result of these importations, a scientific knowledge of breed- 
ing, the expenditure of vast sums of money and close attention M-ill 
be of as great benefit to the county as any other branch of com- 



THE early settlers of this county, although mainly from the 
Southern or slave States, entertained a deep-seated prejudice 
against the negro, for which it is hard for us to account at the pres- 
ent day. This prejudice, we may remark, was not held altogether 
and only in this county, for by referring to the Revised Statutes of 
this State, approved March 3, 1845, we find the following in chapter 
54, under the head of " Negroes and Mulattoes : " 

Section 8. Any person who shall hereafter bring into this State 
any black or mulatto person, in order to free him or her from slavery, 
or shall directly or indirectly bring into this State, or aid or assist 
any person in bringing any such black and mulatto person to settle 
and reside therein, shall be fined one hundred dollars on conviction 
and indictment, before any justice of the peace in the county where 
such offense shall be committed. 

Section 9. If any slave or servant shall be found at a distance of 
ten miles from the tenement of his or her master, or person with 
whom he or she lives, without a pass or some letter of token whereby 
it may appear that he or she is proceeding by. authority from his or 
her master, employer or overseer, it shall and may be lawful for any 
person to apprehend and carry him or her before a justice of the 
peace, to be by his order punished with stripes, not exceeding thirty- 
five, at his discretion. 

Section 10. If any slave or servant shall presume to come and be 
upon the plantation or at the dwelling of any person whatsoever, 
without leave from his or her owner, not being sent upon lawful 
business, it shall be lawful for the owner of such plantation or dwell- 
ing house to give or order such slave or servant ten lashes on his or 
her bare back. 

Section 12. If any person or persons shall permit or suffer any 


slave or slaves, servant or servants of color, to the number of three 
or more, to assemble in his, her or their outhouse, yard or shed, for 
the purpose of dancing or revelling, either by night or by day, the 
person or persons so offending shall forfeit and pay the sum of 
twenty dollars with cost to any person or persons who will sue for 
and recover the same by action of debt or indictment, in any court 
of record proper to try the same. 

Section 13. It shall be the duty of all coroners, sheriffs, judges 
and justices of the peace, who shall see or know of, or be informed 
of any such assemblage of slaves or servants, immediately to com- 
mit such slaves or servants to the jail of the county, and on view or 
proof thereof to order each and every such slave or servant to be 
whipped not exceeding thirty-nine stripes on his or her bare back. 


Very likely all of our readers have heard of the famous Under- 
ground Railroad, but ver^- few know anything of its system of work. 
Happily the corporation does not now exist, the necessity for the 
enterprise not being apparent at the present time, as the class of 
freight or passengers transported over the line are not now pro- 

The question of slavery has always been a mixed one, from the 
time the first slave was imported into our country until, by the 
emancipation proclamation of Abraham Lincoln, all men were made 
free and equal in the eyes of the law. A strong anti-slavery party 
has long existed in the country. The framers of our constitution 
upon the organization of the Government had to deal with the ques- 
tion of slavery ; the successive administrations from Washington to 
Lincoln had to grapple with it ; various compromises were adopted 
which it was thought would quiet its spirit ; but like Banquo's ghost, 
it would not down at the bidding of any man or party. The death 
of Lovejoy at Alton, in 1837, a martyr to the anti-slavery cause, 
gave an impetus to the agitation of the question which never ceased 
until the final act was consumated which broke in pieces the shackles 
that bound the slave. 

Growing out of the agitation of this question, and the formation 
of a party in sympathy with the slaves, was the organization of the 
so-called Underground Railroad, for the purpose of aiding fugitives 
to escape to a land of freedom. The secrecy of its workings justi- 
fied its name. Notwithstanding the system was an organized one. 





those engaged in it had no signs or passwords by which they might 
be known, save now and then a preconcerted rap at the door when a 
cargo of freight was to be delivered. Each relied npon the honor 
of the other, and, as the work was an extra-hazardous one, few 
cowards ever engaged in it. Pro-slavery men complained bitterly 
of the violation of the law by their abolition neighbors, and perse- 
cuted them as much as they dared : and this was not a little. But 
the friends of the slaves were not to be deterred by persecution. 
" The blood of martyrs is the seed of the church, " and persecution 
onlv made them more determined than ever to carrv out their just 
convictions of right and duty. No class of people ever made better 
neighbors than the Abolitionists, or better conductors on a railroad. 
It is well, perhaps, in this connection, to note how the passengers 
over this road were received in Canada, the northern termination. 
From mere goods and chatties in our liberty-boasting nation they 
were transformed into men and women ; from being hunted with 
fire-arms and blood-hounds, like wild beasts, they Avere recognized 
and respected as good and loyal subjects by the Queen as soon as 
their feet touched British soil. At the same time there stood, with 
open arms. Rev. Hiram Wilson, the true, noble-hearted missionary, 
ready to receive these refugees from " freedom's (?) soil, " and ad- 
minister to their wants. In February, 1841, there came a day of 
jubilee to the doubting ones, when Queen Victoria's proclamation 
was read to them : " That every fugitive from United States slavery 
should be recognized and protected as a British subject the moment 
his or her foot touched the soil of her domain." 

A very singular circumstance in connection with this road was the 
fact that, although people well knew who were engaged in it, and 
where the depot was located, freight could seldom be found, search as 
carefullv as thev miojht. A consignment would be forwarded over 
the line, notice of which would reach the ears of slave hunters, and 
when ready to ])lace their hands on the fugitives, like the Irishman's 
flea, they wouldn't be there. The business of this road for a num- 
ber of years was quite extensive, but to-day all its employes are dis- 
charged, and, strange to relate, none are sorry, but all rejoice in the 
fact. As illustrating the peculiarities of this line we append several 
incidents that occurred in this countv : 


The main depot of the U. G. Road in Elm Grove township was 


at Josiali Matthews', on section 24. Mr. Matthews was an earnest 
anti-slavery man, and helped to gain freedom for many slaves. He 
prepared himself with a covered wagon especially to carry black 
freight from his station on to the next. On one occasion there were 
three negroes to be conveyed from his station to the next, but they 
were so closely watched that some time elapsed before they could 
contrive to take them in safety. At last a happy plan was conceived, 
and one which proved successful. Their faces were well whitened 
with flour, and with a son of Mr. Matthews' went into the timber 
coon-hunting. In this way they managed to throw their suspicious 
neighbors off their guard, and the black freight was safely conducted 

One dav there arrived a box of freio-ht at ]Mr. Matthews', and 
was hurriedly consigned to the cellar. On the freight contained in 
this box there was a reward of $1,500 offered, and the pursuers were 
but half an hour behind. The wagon in which the box containing 
the negro was brought was immediately taken apart and hid under 
the barn. The horses, which had been driven very hard, were 
rubbed off, and thus all indications of a late arrival were covered 
up. The pursuers came up in hot haste, and, suspecting that Mr. 
Matthews' house contained the fugitive, gave the place a very thor- 
ough search, but failed to look into the innocent-looking box in the 
cellar. Thus, by such stratagem, the slave-hunters were foiled and 
the fugitive saved. The house was so closely watched, however, 
that Conductor Matthews had to keep the negro a Meek before he 
could carry him further. This station was watched so closely at 
times that Mr. Matthews came near being caught, in which case, in 
all probability, his life would have been very short. 


Mr. Uriah H. Crosby, of Morton township, was an agent and 
conductor of the U. G. E,. R., and had a station at his house. On 
one occasion there was landed at his station by the conductor just 
south of him, a very weighty couple, — a Methodist minister and 
wife. They had a Bible and hymn book that they might conduct 
religious exercises where they found an opportunity along the way. 
On conducting them northward Mr. Crosby was obliged to furnish 
each of them an entire seat, as either of them were of such size as 
to well fill a seat in his wagon. The next station beyond was at 
Mr, Kern's, nine miles. He arrived there in safety, and his heavy 
cargo was transported on to free soil — Canada. 


The next passenger along the route that stopped at Crosby station 
arrived on election day. A company had passed on northward when 
a young man hastily came up. He had invented a cotton gin, and 
was in haste to overtake the others of the party as they had the 
model of his invention. He was separated from them by fright. 
J. M. Roberts found this young man in the morning hid away in 
his hay-stack, fed him, and sent his son, Junius, with him in haste 
to Mr. Crosby's. On his arrival Conductor Crosby put him in his 
wagon, covered him with a buffalo robe, and drove through Wash- 
ington and delivered him to Mr. Kern, who took him in an open 
buggy to the (Quaker settlement. He overtook his companions. 


One of the saddest accidents that ever occurred on the U. G. 
Road in Tazewell county was the capture of a train by slave hunt- 
ers. Two men, a woman and three children, were traveling together. 
The woman and children could journey together only from Tremont 
toward Crosby station, as they had only one buggy. The negro 
men concluded to walk, but stopped on the way to rest. Waiting 
as long as they dared for the men to come up, Messrs. Roberts 
started on with the women and children, but had not gone far before 
they were stopped by some slave hunters and their load taken from 
them. The mother and her three children, who were seeking their 
liberty, were taken to St. Louis and sold, as the slave hunters could 
realize more by selling them than by returning them to the owner 
and receiving the reward. 

When the two men came up it was thought best to take them on 
bv a different route, the people determining they should not be cap- 
tured. J. M. Roberts arranged to take them ou horseback to Peoria 
lake. Several men accompanied them, riding out as far into the 
water as they could, and by a preconcerted signal parties brought a 
skiff to them, into which the men were taken and conveyed across 
the river and sent on the Farmington route in safety. All other 
routes were too closely watched. 


In those exciting days of the U. G. R. R. old Father Dickey and 
Owen Lovejoy, strong anti-slavery men, made an appointment to 
speak at Washington. On the notice of the meeting being an- 
nounced the pro-slavery men took forcible and armed possession of 



the church to be occupied by these speakers, and determined, at all 
hazards, to prevent the meeting from being held there. 

A prominent man of conservative views on the slavery question 
advised the anti-slavery men not to attempt to hold the meeting as 
they were determined to do, as the mob, he said, were frenzied with 
liquor, and he feared the consequences. So they concluded to go to 
Pleasant Grove church, Groveland, where they addressed one of the 
most enthusiastic anti-slavery meetings ever held in this part of the 
State. Owen Lovejoy was the orator of the day. The mob were 
determined to follow and break up that meeting also, but were de- 
terred by being told that as the anti-slavery men were on their own 
ground they would fight, and doubtless blood would be shed. 


PIONEER life". 

WE shall, in this chapter, give a clear and exact description 
of pioneer life in this county, commencing with the time 
the sturdy settlers first arrived with their scanty stores. They had 
migrated from older States, where the prospects for even a compe- 
tency were very poor, many of them coming from Kentucky, for, it 
is supposed, they found that a good State to emigrate from. Their 
entire stock of furniture, implements and family necessities were 
easily stored in one wagon, and sometimes a cart was their only 

As the first thing after they arrived and found a suitable location, 
they would set about the building of a log cabin, a description of 
which may be interesting to the younger readers, and especially 
their descendants, who may never see a structure of the kind. 
Trees of uniform size were selected and cut into pieces of the de- 
sired length, each end being saddled and notched so as to bring the 
logs as, near together as possible. The cracks were " chinked and 
daubed" to prevent the wind from whistling through. This had to 
be renewed every fall before cold weather set in. The usual height 
was one story of about seven or eight feet. The gables were made 
of logs gradually shortened up to the top. The roof was made by 
laying small logs or stout poles reaching from gable to gable, suit- 
able distances apart, on which were laid the clapboards after the man- 
nner of shingling, showing two feet or more to the weather. The 
clapboards were fastened by laying across them heavy poles called 
" weight poles," reaching from one gable to the other, being kept 
apart and in their place by laying pieces of timber between them 
called " runs." A wide chimney place was cut out of one end of 
the cabin, the chimney standing entirely outside, and built of rived 
sticks, laid up cob-house fashion, and filled with clay, or built of 


stone, often using two or three cords of stone in building one chimney. 
For a window a piece about two feet long was cut out of one of the 
wall logs, and the hole closed, sometimes with glass, but oftener 
with greased paper pasted over it. A doorway was also cut through 
one of the walls, and the door was made of spliced clapboards and 
hung with. wooden hinges. This was opened by pulling a leather 
latch-string which raised a wooden latch inside the door. For se- 
curity at night this latch-string was pulled in, but for friends and 
neighbors, and even strangers, the " latch-string was always hang- 
ing out," as a welcome. 

In the interior, upon one side, is the huge fire-place, large enough 
to contain a back-log as big as the strongest man could carry, and 
holding enough wood to supply an ordinary stove a week ; on either 
side are huge poles and kettles, and over all a mantle on which was 
placed the tallow dip. In one corner stood the larger bed for the 
old folks, under this the trundle-bed for the children ; in another 
corner stood the old-fashioned large spinning wheel, with a smaller 
one by its side ; in another the pine table, around which the family 
gathered to partake of their plain food ; over the door hung the 
ever trustful rifle and powder-horn ; while around the room were 
scattered a few splint-bottomed chairs and three-legged stools ; a 
rude cupboard holding the table ware, which consisted of a few 
cups and saucers and blue-edged plates, standing singly on their 
edges against the back, to make the display of table furniture more 

These simple cabins were inhabited by a kind and true-hearted 
people. They were strangers to mock modesty, and the traveler, 
seeking lodgings for the night or desirous of spending a few days in 
the community, if willing to accept the rude offering, was always 
welcome, although how they were disposed of at night the reader 
may not easily imagine ; for, as described, a single room was made to 
serve the purpose of kitchen, dining-room, sitting-room, bed-room, 
and parlor, and many families consisted of six or eight members. 


For a great many years but few thought it advisable to attempt 
farming in the prairie. To many of them the cultivation of the 
prairies was an untried experiment and it was the prevailing opinion 
that the timber would soon become very scarce, a fear soon proven 
to be without foundation. Another obstacle that was in the way for 





a great many years was that no plows suitable for breaking the 
prairie land could be had. The sod was very much tougher then 
than it was in after years when the stock had pastured the prairies 
and killed out the grass to some extent. It would be astonishing 
to the younger residents to see the immense crops of prairie grass 
that grew upon the fields which are to day in such a high state of 
cultivation. It grew in places six to twelve feet high. It was 
these immense crops of grass that furnished the fuel for the terrible 
fires that swept over the prairies during the fall. Then, again, there 
was so much of the prairie land that was considered too wet to be 
ever suitable for cultivation. Many of the older settlers now liv- 
ing well remember when farms that are now in the highest state of 
cultivation were a vast swamp. There was another drawback in the 
settlement of the prairies, and that was the great labor and cost of 
fencing. But the principal reasons for locating in the timber was 
that many of their cabins were poor, half-finished affairs, and pro- 
tection from the driving storms was absolutely required. The 
timber also sheltered stock until such times as sheds and out 
buildings could be erected. That the time should soon come when 
intelligent, enterprising farmers would see that their interest lay in 
improving prairie farms, and cease clearing fields, when there were 
boundless acres presenting no obstacle to the most perfect cultiva- 
tion, argues nothing in the policy of sheltering for a time in the 
woods. In regard to the pioneers settling along the timber, we 
often hear remarks made as though the selection of such locations 
implied a lack of judgment. Those who are disposed to treat it in 
that manner are asked to consider carefully the above facts, when 
they will conclude such selection argued in their favor. 

Clearing of timber land was attended with much hard labor. 
The underbrush was grubbed up, piled into heaps and burned. The 
large trees were in many cases left standing, and deadened by gird- 
ling. This was done by cutting through the bark into the wood, 
generally through the " sap," all around the trunk. 


Not the least of the hardships of the pioneers was the procuring 
of bread. The first settlers must be supplied at least one year from 
other sources than their own lands. But the first crops, however 
abundant, gave only partial relief, there being no mills to grind the 
grain. Hence the necessity of grinding by hand power, and many 


families were poorly provided with means for doing this. Another 
way was to grate the corn. A grater was made from a piece of tin, 
sometimes taken from an old worn-out tin bucket or other vessel. 
It was thickly perforated, bent into a semi-circular form, and nailed, 
rough side upwards, on a board. The corn was taken in the ear and 
grated before it got dry and hard. Corn, however, was eaten in. 
various ways. 

Soon after the country became more generally settled, enterprising 
men were ready to embark in the milling business. Sites along the 
streams were selected for water-power. A person looking for a mill- 
site would follow up and down the stream for a desired location, and 
when found he would go before the County Commissioners and se- 
cure a writ of ad quod damnum. This would enable the miller to 
have the adjoining land officially examined, and the amount of dam- 
age by making a dam was named. Mills being such a great public 
necessity, they were permitted to be located upon any person's land 
if the miller thought the site desirable. 

A horse-mill was built on the southeast quarter of section 1, Sand 
Prairie township, in 1830-1, by Elisha Perkins. People for many 
miles away came to this mill, but its capacity was small. During 
the Black Hawk war John Essex and others came from the extreme 
northern part of Knox county to this mill to have their grain 
ground. During these perilous times a fort was began at this mill. 
It was intended to enclose it with a heavy palisade so that the set- 
tlers would not be cut oiF from food, and also to jn-otect the people. 
But the fort was never fully completed. The puncheons of which 
it was made remained in position for several years afterward. 

Mrs. Parmelia Brown, widow of Rev. William Brown, the i^ioneer 
preacher, tells us that during the winter of the deep snow they, as 
well as many others, had to pound their corn in a mortar. 


The wild animals infesting this county at the time of its settle- 
ment, were the deer, wolf, bear, wild-cat, fox, otter, raccoon, wood- 
chuck or ground-hog, skunk, mink, weasel, muskrat, opossum, rab- 
bit, and squirrel ; and the principal feathered game were the quail, 
prairie-chicken, and wild turkey. Several of these animals furnished 
meat for the early settlers ; but their principal meat did not consist 
long of game. Pork and poultry were soon raised in abundance. 
The wolf was the most troublesome animal, it being the common 


enemy of the sheep. It was quite difficult to protect the sheep from 
their ravages. Sometimes pigs and calves were also victims of the 
wolf. Their howling in the night would often keep families awake, 
and set all the dogs in the neighborhood to barking. Their yells 
often were terrific. Says one old settler : " Suppose six boys, having 
six dogs tied, whipped them all at the same time, and you would 
hear such music as two wolves would make." To effect the destruc- 
tion of these animals the county authorities offered a bounty for their 
scalps and besides big hunts were inaugurated for their destruction, 
and " wolf hunts " are prominent among the memories of the early 
settlers. Such events were generally turned into a holiday, and 
everybody that could ride a nag or stand the tramp on foot joined in 
the deadly pursuit. A large circuit was generally made by the 
hunters, who then closed in on every side, driving the hungry wolves 
into the center of the corral, where they were despatched. The 
return home with the carcasses was the signal for a general turn-out, 
and these " pleasure parties " are still referred to by old citizens as 
among the pleasantest memories of early life in Tazewell county. 
Many a hungry wolf has been run down on the prairies where now is 
located a town or fine farm residence. This rare old pastime, like 
much of the early hunting and fishing the pioneers indulged in here, 
departed at the appearance of the locomotive. 

Mr. J. Mooberry, his friend, Mr, Hudson, from Ohio, and a 
number of young men of Groveland, started on a wolf hunt one 
day many years ago. The young fellows were careful to take the 
best and fleetest horses, leaving, as they laughingly said, " the plugs 
for the old men." A wolf was soon found and chase given. After 
running a long distance it went through a herd of horses. This 
checked all the dogs save two, Avhich followed it. It ran directly 
toward the two "old men," and plunged into the thick, tall grass of 
a slough ; but soon the dogs came up and jumped upon the fatigued 
animal. Before the dogs killed it, however, the men jumped from 
their horses, muzzled the wolf and secured it alive. Mr. Mooberry 
took it upon his horse in front of himself. Soon the laugh was on 
the " boys," as the old men had captured the game. 

Kezer Hancock, an early settler and quite a noted hunter, was 
out hunting in Groveland township in the year 1839, when he sent 
his very large bull-dog after a panther. He followed it until it 
gave a terrible yawl, when the dog hastily retreated to his master, 
and would not leave him again while in the woods. The wily pan- 


ther kept apace with them, and only about fifteen feet away all 
through the timber. It was doubtless the jiresence of the dog 
that kept the panther at bay and enabled Mr. Hancock to escape. 

Mr. Hancock has killed as many as 23 deer within three weeks' 
time. At one time while out hunting without a dog, he shot a large 
buck deer, causing him to fall. On attempting to rise Mr. Han- 
cock siezed him by the hind leg, and with his hunting knife 
struggled Avith him for about three quarters of an hour, gashing his 
body, until finally, he succeeded in thrusting his knife to the heart. 
Often has Mrs. Hancock chased the wolves from her door-yard to 
save her chickens. Once a wolf caught a big sheep by his tail, and 
pulled him back as he attempted to jump the fence, but Mrs. Han- 
cock frightened the wolf away and saved her sheep. 

Louis White, of Spring Lake, in relating to us a number of inci- 
dents of early times in Tazewell, tells of a scare he received by 
being lost on the prairie, and being surrounded by the pesky 
wolves. While the wolves were not generally dangerous to persons, 
yet they would occasionally attack them, and especially after night. 
Mr. White had been at the carding-mill in Dillonville to have some 
wool carded for home use. He returned by way of Tremont and 
Pekin, and it was well after dark when he passed through Pekiu. 
He had a very trusty pair of horses, and after getting a good start 
on the road, as he often did he tied the lines around his body and 
lay down in the wagon for a nap. He was awakened, after going 
he knew not how far, by the yelping and howling of the wolves 
which were following him. It was pitch dark, and the horses were 
greatly excited. He could not induce them to go as he wished. 
They wanted to go one way and he another. He got out of the 
wagon and found he was off the road, and in reality lost on the 
prairie with packs of ravenous wolves howling on every side. Un- 
fortunately he had no fire-arms to defend himself against their attack. 
He became alarmed at the unpleasant, yes, dangerous, situation he 
was in. Who would not ? Finally he thought he would let his 
horses go where they would and trust to them and Providence for 
his safety. After going a little ways they again stopped, and he 
could not possibly urge them further. Here was a dilemma worse 
than the first, — in the midst of the prairie, pitch dark, with wolves 
all around to eat him, and his trusty animals unwilling to move. 
At last he ventured to get out of his wagon to examine and dis- 
cover, if he could, what prevented his horses from going, and to his 


utmost surprise found that they had stopped at his own door-yard 
gate ! 


During the early settlement of this part of the State, one of the 
prevailing customs of the pioneers was "bee-hunting." Often a 
small company would travel many miles into a wild, unsettled 
country, in search of the sweet-flavored honey of the wild bee. 
Large trees, containing many gallons, and often a barrel, were fre- 
quently found by bee-hunters. The little, busy bees would be 
carefully watched as they flew heavily laden with the richest extract 
of the flowers that were purely native and unknown to the present 
generation. They always took a "bee line" for their homes. This 
was a correct guide to the sturdy hunter, who had studied with care 
the ways of the bee and by their knowledge took advantage of the 
little insect. Once on the trail, good bee-hunters were almost certain 
to capture the rich prize. After the bee tree was discovered it was 
no trouble to get possession of the honey. The tree was felled, and 
the hunters would rush for their booty ere it was lost by running 
out upon the ground. 


We copy a very interesting and graphic article from the " History 
of Washington," by John W. Dougherty, upon the social habits 
and customs of the people of this community. He says : 

" We know but little of the social habits of the people in those 
days," referring to the time the first settlers came to the county. 
" Their appreciation of education is shown in their efforts to estab- 
lish schools, temporary at first, but finally perhianent. Their reli- 
gious zeal is shown by their successful efforts in establishing 
churches, and their Christian liberality by the number and variety of 
them. Nor are we informed in regard to the amusements indulged 
in by the young folks ; but, being young folks, we have no doubt 
they found many ways of robbing Old Time of loneliness. It 
would be unfair to suppose them, especially the ladies, destitute of 
fashonable aspirations, but the means for gaudy display were very 
much circumscribed in those days. The male attire consisted chiefly 
of buckskin, or homespun cloth, — we might add home-woven, the 
loom beiu": far more common in or near their rude huts than the 
piano or organ. They were not, however, destitute of musical 


taste, and many of their vocal performances would compare favor- 
ably with our present choirs. We may safely say they sang with 
the spirit. Most of the ladies, also, wore homespun, which they 
manufactured from wool, flax, cotton, and the bark or lint of the 
nettle, colored with such ingredients as nature provided, without the 
aid of art. A few even adopted buckskin. How many yards of 
the latter article were required for a fashionable dress in those 
times, or in what particular style they were cut and trimmed we 
are not informed, and must leave the ladies to draw their own con- 
clusions. These dresses certainly were durable, and shielded the 
wearer in out-door exercises incident to the planting, attending and 
gathering of crops, in which pursuit the ladies in all new countries 

" Another of the prevailing fashions was that of carrying fire- 
arms, made necessary by the presence in the neighborhood of roving 
bands of Indians, most of whom were ostensibly friendly, but like 
Indians in all times, treacherous and unreliable. These tribes were 
principally Pottawatomies. There were also in the northern part of 
the State several tribes of hostile Indians, ready at any time to 
make a murderous, thieving raid upon the white settlers ; and an 
Indian war at any time was an accepted probability ; and these old 
settlers to-day have vivid recollections of the Black Hawk and other 
Indian wars. And, while target practice was much indulged in as 
an amusement, it was also necessary for a proper self-defense ; the 
settlers finding it necessary at times to carry their guns with them 
when they went to hoe their corn. In some instances their guns 
were stacked in the field and the laborers worked for a certain dis- 
tance around them, and then moved the guns to a certain position 
and again proceeded with their work. 

" These were only a few of the hardships incident to pioneer life, 
which was largely made up of privations, inconveniences and dan- 
gers. They had few labor-saving machines and no reliable markets. 
Even communication by letter with their distant friends and relatives 
was rendered difficult for want of proper mail facilities, and some- 
times for the want of money to pay the postage on the letters sent to 
them, — the postage then being twenty-five cents for a single let- 
ter, many of which remained in the office for weeks on account of 
the inability of the persons addressed to pay the postage." 



The earlv settlers were not entirely without preaching. Says an 
old pioneer on this subject : " The ministers of the Gospel of the 
Savior of the world hunted us up and preached to what few there 
were ; therefore we did not degenerate and turn heathen, as any 
community will where the sound of the gospel is never heard. I 
shall not give their names, though sacred in memory, for they were 
not after the fleece, but after the flock, because they had but little 
to say about science and philosophy, but spoke of purer things." 


Though struggling under the pressure of poverty and privation, 
the early settlers planted among them the school-house at the ear- 
liest practicable period. So important an object as the education of 
their children they did not defer until they could build more comely 
and convenient houses. They were for a time content with such as 
corresponded with their rude dwellings, but soon better buildings and 
accommodations were provided. As may readily be supposed, the 
accommodations of the earliest schools were not good. Sometimes 
school was taught in small log houses erected for the purpose. Stoves 
and such heating apparatus as are now in use were unknown. A 
mud-and-stick chimney in one end of the building, with earthen 
hearth and fire-place wide and deep enough to take in a four-foot 
back-log, and smaller wood to match, served for warming purposes 
in winter and a kind of conservatory in summer. For windows, 
part of a log was cut out in either side, and may be a few lights of 
eight-by-ten glass set in, or just as likely as not the aperture would 
be covered over with greased paper. Writing benches were made of 
wide planks, or likely puncheons, resting on pins or arms, clriven 
into two-inch auger-holes, bored into the logs beneath the windows. 
Seats were made out of puncheons, and flooring of the same material. 
Everything was rude and plain; but many of America's greatest 
men have gone out from just such school-houses to grapple with the 
world and make names for themselves, and have come to be an honor 
to their country. Among these we can name Abraham Lincoln, our 
martyred President, one of the noblest men ever known to the world's 
history. Stephen A. Douglas, one of the greatest statesmen of the 
age, began liis career in Illinois teaching in one of these primitive 

But all these things are changed now. We no longer see the log 


school-house. Their places are filled with handsome frame or brick 
structures, which for elegance and beauty of design, rival those of 
older settled countries ; and in place of the " masters, " who were 
" looked up to " as superior beings, and were consulted on all matters 
of law, physic and religion, there are teachers of liberal culture, in- 
telligent and progressive, many of whom have a broad and compre- 
hensive idea of education, and regard their labor as something more 
than teaching merely in order to make a living — more than a knowl- 
edge of a great number of facts in the universe of mind and matter. 
It means culture, the educating, developing and disciplining of all 
the faculties of the human mind. It is the comprehension of the 
entire being of man ; and the school or teacher who takes charge and 
care of the young should provide the means and methods for carry- 
ing forward the process in all departments of their complex natures, ' 
physical, mental and spiritual. 


The earliest settlers of the county went to St. Louis with what 
little produce they had to sell and the merchants bought all their 
goods in that city. Soon, however, Peoria and Pekin became mar- 
kets, and produce was wagoned to those cities and from there sent 
south on the river. There was at that time no sale for corn, or com- 
paratively none, and wheat would bring only a small price ; so that 
really there was no impetus given to the raising of grain of any sort, 
except for home consumption, until the advent of the railroad. At 
that time improvement began. The great resources of the county 
which had scarcely supplied more than home demand, were then 
turned to supply the wants of thousands. That occasion, the advent 
of railroads, was the commencement of agricultural development. 
It was the commencement of the manufacturing institutions the 
county can now boast of; it was the building of her thriving cities 
and towns, — indeed it was the beginning of progress. 

The people of this county experienced considerable trouble getting 
to Peoria before the construction of the bridge across the Illinois. 
It consumed so much time to cross on the slow-going ferry, especially 
when there was a " big day " at that place, or when the river was 
high. To the settlers who lived on this side of the river the Peoria 
merchants offered inducements by paying their toll across and back 
if they would trade to the amount of one dollar. The pork-buyers 
would also pay the ferriage of those who would bring them pork, 


and besides give them dinner and feed their team. This induced 
many to go there in preference to Pekin. 

In those early days large crops of all kinds of grain could be 
raised, but the prices were exceedingly low. Dressed hogs would 
bring $1.10 per hundred pounds, while wheat would bring 25 cents 
per bushel. At present, when hogs are considered very low, they 
are worth alive ^3.50 per hundred, and wheat 95 cents per bushel. 

C. R. Crandall tells us he sent a load of grain to Chicago to ex- 
change for shingles to cover his first house with. Indeed, many of 
the early settlers hauled their produce to that city. 

" When the first settlers came to the wilderness, " says an old set- 
tler, "they all supposed that their hard struggle would be princi- 
pally over after the first year ; but alas ! we looked for ' easier times 
next year' for about ten years, and learned to bear hardships, priva- 
tion and hard living as good soldiers do. As the facilities for mak- 
ing money were riot great, we lived pretty well satisfied in an atmos- 
phere of good, social, friendly feeling, and thought ourselves as good 
as those we left behind when we emigrated West." 


One of the greatest obstacles, and one which wielded a very 
potent influence in retarding the early settlement of this county, 
was the "chills and fever," or the "ague," or the "Illinois shakes," 
as it was variously styled. This disease was a terror to new comers. 
In the fall of the year everybody was afflicted with it. It was no 
respecter of persons ; everybody shook with it, and it was in every 
person's system. They all looked pale and yellow as though they 
were frostbitten. It was not contagious, but was a kind of miasma 
that floated around in the atmosphere and was absorbed into the 
system. It continued to be absorbed from day to day, and week to 
week, until the whole body corporate became charged with it as 
with electricity, and then the shock came ; and the shock ^v as a 
regular shake, with a fixed beginning and an ending, coming on each 
day, or each alternate day, with a regularity that was surprising. 
After the shake came the fever, and this " last estate was worse than 
the first." It was a burning hot fever and lasted for hours. When 
you had the chill you couldn't get warm, and when you had the 
fever you couldn't get cool. It was exceedingly awkward in this 
respect, indeed it was. It would not stop, either, for any sort of 
contingency. Not even a wedding in the family would stop it. It 


was imperative and tyranincal. When the appointed time came 
around everthing else had to be stopped to attend to its demands. 
It didn't even have any Sundays or holidays. After the fever went 
down you still didn't feel much better. You felt as though you 
had gone through some sort of collision and came out not killed 
but badly demoralized. You felt weak, as though you had run too 
far after something, and then didn't catch it. You felt languid, 
stupid and sore, and was down in the mouth and heel and partially 
raveled out, so to speak. Your back was out of fix and your 
appetite was in a worse condition than your back. Your head ached 
and your eyes had more white in them than usual, and altogether 
you felt poor, disconsolate and sad. You didn't think much of your- 
self, and didn't believe othfer people did either, and you didn't care. 
You didn't think much of suicide, but at the same time you almost 
made up your mind that under certain circumstances it was justifi- 
able. You imagined that even the dogs looked at you with a kind 
of self-complacency. You thought the sun had a kind of sickly 
shine about it. About this time you came to the conclusion that 
you would not accept the whole State of Illinois as a gift, and 
if you had the strength and means, picked up Hannah and the baby 
and your traps, and went back "yander" to Injianny, Ohio, or old 

"And to-day the swallows flitting 

Round my cabin see me sitting 

Moodily within the sunshine, 
Just inside my silent door — 

"Waiting for the "ager," seeming 

Like a man forever dreaming; 

And the sunlight on me streaming 
Throws no shadow on the floor — 

For I am too thin and sallow 

To make shadows on the floor — 
Nary shadow any more! " 

The above is no picture of the imagination. It is simply recount- 
ing what occurred in hundreds of instances. Whole families would 
some time be sick at one time, and not one member scarcely able to 
wait upon another. One widow lady at Pekin informs us she lost 
nine children from this dreaded disease ! 


To witness the various processes of cooking in those days would 
alike surprise and amuse those who have grown n^ since cooking 


stoves and ranges came into use. Kettles were hung over the large 
fire, suspended on trammels which were held by strong poles. The 
long-handled frying-pan was used for cooking meat. It was held on 
the fire by hand ; or, to save time, the handle was laid across the back 
of a chair. This pan was also used for baking short-cake. A better 
article was a cast-iron spider, which was set upon coals on the hearth. 
But the best thing for baking bread was the flat-bottomed bake- 
kettle of greater depth, with closely fitting cast-iron cover, and 
commonly known as " Dutch oven." With coals over and under it 
bread and biscuit would quickly and nicely bake. Turkeys and 
spare-ribs were sometimes roasted before the fire, suspended by a 
string, a dish being placed underneath to catch the drippings. 


The agricultural implements used by the first farmer here would 
in this age of im})r()vement be great curiosities. The plow used 
was called the bar-share plow. The iron point consisted of a bar of 
iron about two feet long, and a broad shear of iron welded to it. At 
the extreme point was a coulter that passed through a beam six or 
seven feet long, to which were attached handles of corresponding 
length. The mold-board was a wooden one split out of winding 
timber, or hewed into a winding shape in order to turn the soil over. 
Sown seed was brushed in by a sapling with a bushy top being 
dragged over the ground. In harvesting the change is most strik- 
ing. Instead of the reapers and mowers of to-day, the sickle and 
cradle were used. The grain was threshed with a flail, or trodden 
out by horses or oxen. 

women's work. 

The men were not called upon to endure alone all the hardships 
and labor of frontier life. The women also had their physical labor 
to perfi)rm, and much of it was quite arduous. Spinning was one 
of the common household duties. This exercise is one which few of 
the present generation of girls have ever enjoyed. The wheel used 
for spinning flax was called the "little wheel," to distinguish it 
from the "big wheel" used for s])inning yarn. These stringed in- 
struments furnished the principal music of the family, and were 
operated by our mothers and grandmothers with great skill, attained 
without pecuniary expense, and with far less practice than is neces- 
sary for the girls of our period to acquire a skillful use of their 
costly and elegant instruments. 


The loom was not less necessary than the wheel. Not every 
house, however, in which spinning was done had a loom ; but there 
were always some in each settlement who, besides doing their own 
weaving, did some for others. Settlers, having succeeded in spite 
of the wolves in raising sheep, commenced the manufacture of 
woolen cloth ; wool was carded and made into rolls by hand-cords, 
and the rolls were spun on the "big wheel." We occasionally find 
now, in the houses of the old settlers, one of these big wheels, some- 
times used for spinning and twisting stocking yarn. They are 
turned with the hand, and with such velocity that it will run itself 
while the nimble worker, by her backward step, draws out and 
twists her thread nearly the whole length of the cabin. A common 
article woven on the loom was linsey, also called linsey-woolsey, the 
chain being linen and the filling woolen. This cloth was used for 
dresses for the girls and mothers. Nearly all the clothes worn by 
the men were also home-made. Rarely was a farmer or his son seen 
in a coat made of any other. If, occasionally, a young man 
appeared in a suit of " boughten " clothes, he was suspected of hav- 
ing gotten it for a particular occasion, which occurs in the life of 
nearly every man. 

Not until the settlers had supplied themselves with the more use- 
ful articles of clothing and with edibles of various kinds, did wheat 
bread become a common article of food. It is true they had it 
earlier, but this was only served on extra occasions, as when visitors 
came, or on Sundays ; and with this luxury they would have a little 
" store coffee." " The little brown jug" found a place in almost every 
home, and was often brought into use. No caller was permitted to 
leave the house without an invitation to partake of its contents. 


The history of pioneer life generally presents the dark side of the 
picture ; but the toils and privations of the early settlers were not a 
series of unmitigated sufferings. No ; for while the fathers and 
mothers toiled hard, they were not averse to a little relaxation, and 
had their seasons of fun and enjoyment. They contrived to do 
something to break the monotony of their daily life and furnish 
them a good, hearty laugh. Among the more general forms of 
amusements were the " quilting-bee," "corn-husking," and the 
"apple-paring," and in timbered sections, " log-rolling" and "house- 
raising." Our young readers will doubtless be interested in a 


description of these forms of amusement, when kibor was made to 
afibrd fun and enjoyment to all participating. The "quilting-bee," 
as its name implies, was when the industrious qualities of the busy, 
little insect that "improves each shining hour" were exemplified in 
the manufacture of quilts for the household. In the afternoon 
ladies for miles around gathered at an appointed place, and while 
their tongues would not cease to play, their hands were as busily 
engaged in making the quilt ; and desire was always manifested to 
get it out as quickly as possible, for then the fun would begin. In 
the evening the gentlemen came, and the hours would then pass 
swiftly by in playing games or dancing. " Corn-huskings " were 
when both sexes united in the work. They usually assembled in a 
large barn, which was arranged for the occasion ; and when each 
gentleman had selected a lady partner the husking began. When a 
lady found a red ear she was entitled to a kiss from every gentleman 
present ; when a gentleman found one he was allowed to kiss every 
lady present. After the corn was all husked a good supper was 
served ; then the " old folks " would leave, and the remainder of the 
evening was spent in the dance and in having a general good time. 
The recreation aiforded to the young people on the annual recurrence 
of these festive occasions was as highly enjoyed, and quite as inno- 
cent, as the amusements of the present boasted age of refinement 
and culture. 



THE brightest pages of the history of this county are those 
which record the acts of love and devotion to the Union of her 
people — the sacrifices made during the dark and trying days of the 
Rebellion. Well may the people of Tazewell county be proud of 
the record thev made both at home and in the field during the war 
traitors inaguratcd against the Union. It reflects honor upon their 
heads, and as future generations look back through history they will 
bless their names for so strenuously ujjholding the best government 
ever instituted by man. 

When, in 1861, the war was forced upon the country, the people 
were quietly pursuing the even tenor of their ways, doing whatever 
their hands found to do — working the mines, making farms or culti- 
vating those already made, erecting homes, founding cities and towns, 
building shops and manufactories — in short, the country was alive 
with industry and hopes for the future. The people were just recov- 
ering from the depression and losses incident to the financial panic 
of 1857. The future looked bright and promising, and the indus- 
trious and patriotic sons and daughters of the North were buoyant 
with hope, looking forward for the perfecting of new plans for the 
insurement of comfort and competence in their declining years. 
They little heeded the mutterings and threatenings being wafted 
from the South. They never dreamed that there was one so base as 
to attempt the destruction of the Union their fathers had purchased 
for them with their life-blood. While thus surrounded with peace 
and tranquility they paid but little attention to the rumored plots 
and plans of those who lived and grew rich from the sweat and toil, 
blood and flesh, of others. 

The war clouds grew darker and still darker, the thunders of 
treason grew louder and louder until April 12, 1861, when the fear- 


fill storm burst upon the country and convulsed a continent with its 
attendant horrors. 

On that day, the rebels, who for weeks had been erecting their 
batteries upon the shore, after demanding of Major Anderson a 
surrender, opened fire upon Fort Sumter. For hours an incessant 
cannonading was continued ; the fort was being injured severely ; 
provisions were almost gone, and Major Anderson was compelled 
to haul down the stars and stripes, — that dear old flag which had 
seldom been lowered to a foreign foe : by rebel hands it was now 
trailed in the dust. How the blood of patriotic men of the North 
boiled when on the following day the news was flashed along 
the telegraph wires that Major Anderson had been forced to surren- 
der! And nowhere was greater indignation manifested than in 
Tazewell county. 


Immediately upon the surrender of Fort Sumter, Abraham Lin- 
coln, America's martyr President, — who but a few short weeks before 
had taken the oath of office as the nation's chief executive, — issued 
a proclamation calling for 75,000 volunteers for three months. The 
last word of that proclamation had scarcely been taken from the elec- 
tric wires before the call was filled, men and money were counted out 
by hundreds and thousands : the people who loved their whole gov- 
ernment could not give enough. Patriotism thrilled and vibrated 
and pulsated through every heart. The farm, the workshop, the 
office, the pulpit, the bar, the bench, the college, the school-house, 
— every calling offered its best men, their lives and fortunes, in de- 
fense of the Government's honor and unity. Bitter words spoken 
in moments of political heat were forgotten and forgiven, and, join- 
ing hands in a common cause, they repeated the oath of America's 
soldier statesman : " By the Great Eternal, the Union must and shall 
be preserved." 

Seventy-five thousand men were not enough to subdue the rebel- 
lion ; nor were ten times that number. The war went on, and call 
followed call, until it began to look as if there would not be men 
enough in all the Free States to crush out and subdue the monstrous 
war traitors had inaugurated. But to every call for either men or 
money there was a willing and ready response. And it is a boast of 
the people that, had the supply of men fallen short, there were 
women brave enough, daring enough, patriotic enough, to have 


offered themselves as sacrifices on their country's altar. Such were 
the impulses, motives and actions of the patriotic men of the North, 
among whom the sons of Tazewell made a conspicuous and praise- 
worthy record. 

The readiness with which the first call was filled, together with 
the embarassments that surrounded President Lincoln in the absence 
of sufficient law to authorize him to meet the unexpected emergency, 
together with an under estimate of the magnitude of the rebellion ; 
and a general belief that the war would not last more than three 
months, checked rather than encouraged the patiotic ardor of the peo- 
ple. But very few of the men, comparatively speaking, who volun- 
teered in response to President Lincoln's call for 75,000 volunteers 
for three months, were accepted. But the time soon came when there 
was a place and a musket for every man. Call followed call in quick 
succession, until the number reached the grand total of 3,339,748. 
Of this vast number Tazewell county furnished about 3,000. 

The tocsin of war was sounded, meetings were held in every town- 
ship, village and city, at which stirring and spirited addresses were 
made, and resolutions adopted admitting of but one interpretation, — 
that of unconditional allegiance and undying devotion to their coun- 
try and their country's flag; that, at whatever cost of blood or 
treasure, the stars and stripes, wherever floating, must be honored, 
and the supremacy of the law of the National Union sustained. 


On the 17th, only two days after the proclamation of Gov. Yates, 
a large meeting of the citizens of Pekin was held at the court-house 
in response to a call of Mayor Leonard. It was a prompt and en- 
thusiastic gathering of all parties and animated by one motive — that 
of proving their loyalty to the Government and their willingness 
to sustain the national authorities in their efibrts to preserve the 

Resolutions strong and full of meaning were offered, spirited 
addresses delivered interspersed with music by the Pekin brass band 
and soul stirring national airs of a martial band. As better show- 
ing the state of the feeling of the people in general we give ex- 
tracts from resolutions that met with unanimous approbation at this 
meeting. J. McDonald, editor of the Tazewell Register, offered a 
lengthy resolution which closed as follows : 

" Resolved, That patriotism prompts a ready and willing resjjonse 


to the President's call for men and means to aid the general Govern- 
ment in the present crisis ; and that the people of Tazewell will not 
prove laggard in following where duty points the way." 

B. S.' Pretty man most eloquently and patriotically addressed the 
meeting, and closed by offering the following resolution : 

" Resolved, That in view of the present threatening aspect of a por- 
tion of our country toward the general Government, it is the duty 
of all men who owe allegiance to the nation, to offer themselves, and 
their lives and their fortunes to the powers that be in support of the 
Union and the laws. 

" Resolved, That we, the citizens of Pekin and vicinity hereby 
tender to the State and nation our united support, and pledge our- 
selves to them in every emergency and at all times, our fortunes and 
our sacred honor." 

S. T>. Puterbaugh made a few telling remarks and offered a resolu- 
tion commending Gov. Yates' proclamation, after which Joshua 
Wagenseller offered the following : 

"Re-solved, That the citizens of Pekin will protect, cherish and 
render the material aid to the families of all volunteers who are not 
able to make suitable provisions for their families, for their support 
during their absence in the service of their country." 

Dr. D. A. Checver offered the following eloquent resolution : 

" Resolved, That, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for 
the rectitude of our intentions, we accept the issue presented by the 
attack upon our flag, and in jjeace or war, in life or death, proclaim 
as our motto, God, Justice and Our Country." 

At the close of the meeting volunteers were called for when a 
large number responded. 

At a meeting held at Tremont, Saturday, April 20, 1861, to con- 
sult upon the perilous condition of the country, great patriotism 
was manifested. Lloyd Shaw presided, and Seth Talbot, jr. acted as 
secretary. Short speeches were made by J. K. Kellogg, Dr. Cole, 
Stephen Stout, E. G. Smith, J. H. Harris, Isaac Stout, H. Shaw 
and W. R. Lackland. 

H. R. Brown offered the following resolution which was unani- 
mously adopted : 

" Resolved, That we keep step to the music of the Union, and 
stand by our Government and the stars and stripes, first, last and 
all the time.'' 

The City Council of Pekin held a special session April 20, 1861, 


and showed their willingness to furnish material aid to the families 
of volunteers. The sum of ^1,000 was appropriated to their bene- 
fit, to be disbursed under the direction of a committee who pledged 
themselves that the families of the volunteers should not suffer for 
the necessaries of life while their protectors were absent. The 
council also appropriated $300 to defray the expenses of transporta- 
tion of volunteers. 

The Union sentiment was strongly expressed by the people of 
Mackinaw. Pursuant to notice a large concourse of people assem- 
bled at the Christian Church, in Mackinaw, Monday, April 22, 1861. 
On motion of W. A. K. Cowdry, William Watson was called to the 
chair, and J. B. Mathews appointed secretary. Strong resolutions 
were passed; among them were some by Dr. J. P. Terrell, which 
plainly and strongly set forth the feelings of the mass as they met 
with unanimous passage. AVe give extracts : 

" Resolved, That Jeff. Davis & Co. are the " biggest devils " among 
ten thousand, and the ones altogether devilish. ^ ^ ^ 

" That our faith is as fixed and abiding as that we repose in God, 
that our cause is just, and that a people battling for life, for liberty, 
and for the sanctity of homes and firesides, must and will triumph. 

" That if this Government, the noblest fabric ever reared for the 
worship of human liberty, must go dowm in a fratricidal conflict, we 
of the North, appealing to history may, before the world, cliarge, 
without fear of contradiction, that the responsibility rests upon our 
Southern brethren. That it is the result of a wanton repudiation 
bv them of the covenants of the constitution, and whether or not 
we shall be able to preserve it as the great heart and only bond of 
union. Mav the God of battles be our shield and strong defense." 

April 25, 1861, the people of Cincinnati assembled at the Wood- 
row school-house. A band from Pekin was present. Samuel Wood- 
row was called to the chair, and W. F. Copes chosen secretary. 
Remarks were made by R. Gibson, J. B. Cohrs, C. A. Roberts, 
Charley Gary, Benjamin Priddy, William Woodrow, Samuel Larri- 
more, John Slack, A. M. Woodrow, William Plawley, S. S. Parlin, 
John S. Sinnet, and others. But one sentiment prevailed, that was 
that they were all in for the Union at all hazards, and determined 
to stand by the administration. 

A large and enthusiastic meeting was held at the Christian church 
in Hittle, April 25, 1861, at which Ellis Dillon presided, Daniel 
Albright, secretary. G. W. Minier delivered a stirring and eloquent 


speech and Mr. Cowdry, of Mackinaw, followed. Capt. Ketchum, 
with a number of volunteers and citizens of Mackinaw, was present. 
A number of volunteers had left for Springfield the previous week. 
The sentiments of the people were expressed in the following pointed 
language : " There is but one feeling here with regard to the present 
perilous condition of our country, and that is, if necessary, that 
every dollar be spent and every life sacrificed rather than have the 
Government fall into the hands of traitors. Past political differ- 
ences are laid aside. Democrats and Republicans stand side by side, 
ready to maintain the dignity of our Government and the honor of 
the glorious old stars and stripes." 

When the boom of the great guns in Charleston harbor went 
rolling across the continent, at this time their echo penetrated every 
loyal heart in this country. They had scarcely ceased belching 
forth their iron missiles, and our national ensign disgraced, ere the 
patriotism of the sons of Tazewell county prompted them to go to 
their country's defense. The call for troops was no sooner made 
than a company was organized at Pekin. Such alacrity in rushing 
to arms was never before witnessed in the world's history. 


Early on the morning of the 22d of April, 1861, the people began 
to assemble at the river landing, at Pekin, to witness the departure 
of the first volunteers. This was a company under command of 
Capt. F. L. Riioads, with C. C. Glass, first lieutenant ; J. A. Sheets, 
second lieutenant; Dietrich Smith, third lieutenant. The company 
numbei'ed over 100, and was assigned to the Eighth regiment, of 
which Capt. lihoads soon became colonel. 

Previous to embarking the company formed a circle, when the 
Rev. Mr. Underwood, in a brief and feeling prayer, invoked the 
blessings of Heaven upon the brave men who were about to go forth 
in defense of the Union. Then, amid cheers and benedictions, 
tears and farewells, the company marched on board the steamer, 
Cambridge, for Peoria, where they took the cars for Springfield. It 
was an impressive scene, and the tear of regret which marked the 
cheek of many was no reproach to their manhood. 


It is impossible for any historian to do full justice to the spirit 
and patriotism of this people in the early days of this gigantic and 


bloody struggle waged by the American people against rebellion, 
and their liberal and continuous contributions to maintain the integ- 
rity of this glorious Union. It is, indeed, a proud record; for from 
among them went out brave soldiers and efficient leaders to aid in 
the grand struggle for the maintenance and perpetuity of the Union. 

"A union of lakes, a union of lands, 

A union that none can sever ; 
A union of hearts, a union of hands — 
The American Union forever." 

When the first companies were being raised, measures were inau- 
gurated and carried out to raise money by subscription for the sup- 
port of the families of volunteers. But there were so many calls for 
men, and the number and needs of these families, whose providers 
had gone to defend the life of the nation, that it became impossible 
for private purses, however willing their holders, to supply all de- 
mands, and the county authorities made frequent appropriations, and 
the aid societies donated largely. Private liberality still continued. 
This money was raised in the midst of the excitement of war, when 
the exigencies of the times demanded it, and the generous people 
never thought to inquire how much they were giving. Aside from 
the sums appropriated by county and city authorities no account was 
ever kept. Had there been, the sum would now seem most fabulous. 


One of the first acts of the ladies of the county, at the outbreak of 
the war, was the making of flags and presenting them to companies 
as they were about to march southward. Many such flags were 
carried over bloody fields by the brave boys from Tazewell County. 
The ladies were fired with patriotic zeal and sent the boys to 
the front with cheering words. 

The ladies of Pekin prepared a flag for the " Pekin Invincibles," 
which was presented to the company at a public meeting held at the 
court-house Saturday, April 27, 1861. Mrs. H. P. Westerman, on 
behalf of the ladies, presented the banner with the following most 
eloquent and encouraging remarks : 

" Captain Montgomery : — You and your company have done well 
thus promptly to respond to your country's call. As you are about 
to march to her defense, we, your sisters and wives, have thought it 
fitting to present to you some kind memento of our love. We 


honor you for your patriotism ; we trust in your valor, and though 
sad to lose you, yet we freely bid you go. As you go take this flag 
of our Union, the work of our hands, which we now entrust to your 
care. May it never trail in the dust. Protect it, defend it, and 
fight for it as you would for your country, your homes and the 
graves of those you hold dear. Liberty and Union, let that be your 
motto, and let its sentiments be deeply engraven on your hearts. 
The Union, we love it, and the more now that it is in peril. 

' Sail on, oh Union strong and great, 

Humanity with all its fears, — 

With all the hopes of future years, 
Is hanging breathless on thy fate. 
Sail on, nor fear to breast the sea. 
Our hearts, our hopes are all with thee ; 
Our hearts, our hopes, our prayers, our tears, 
Our faith triumphant o'er our fears. 
Are all with thee, are all with thee.' 

" Love the Union, and see to it that so far as your actions are 
concerned, none of its stars shall be stricken out. As freemen do 
valiant service in its defense. Be true to yourselves and to us. 
Disappoint not our hopes. Accept this banner : with calm unfalter- 
ing purpose ever bear it aloft." 

James Roberts, on behalf of the company, responded in an appro- 
priate manner, when Ca})t. Montgomery placed the flag in charge of 
Leonard Martin, the standard-bearer, and the company gave three 
hearty cheers for the Union, the flag and the ladies. 


The boys went forth to the field of carnage, and what vivid words 
can the pen employ that will do justice to their heroic valor, to their 
unequaled and unparalleled bravery and endurance. Home and 
home comforts, wives and little ones, fathers, mothers, sisters, broth- 
ers, were all given up for life and danger on the fields of battle — for 
exposure, fatigue, disease and death at the point of the bayonet or 
the cannon's mouth. But while they were thus suffering let us 
not suppose that the mother, and sister, the wife, the children were 
free from the tortures of anxiety, of the loss of dear ones. Yes, 
while the brave boys upon the Southern field suffered indescribably, 
the wife and little ones at home endured suffering beyond the power 
of pen or tongue to describe. Let us picture a home where the 


the husband and the wife and little ones are thus separated. The 
picture of one will only reflect those of hundreds of others. We 
look into the plain but tidy room. A mother is preparing her even- 
ing meal. Upon a chair, and leaning her little arm on the window- 
sill, a little child is kneeling, looking far into the dusky shadows that 
encircle the brow of night. Her dark eyes have a longing, wistful 
look, and on her brow lies one of lifers shadows. At last she 
speaks : 
" Oh ! mamma, papa has been gone so long ; why don't he come ?" 
The mother sighs, and her heart repeats, "so long." But the 
little one must have an answer, and mamma tries to comfort her — 
" Papa has gone to war, dear ; gone to fight for his country, and when 
the war is over he will come back to see mamma and little Bessie." 
"But it seems so long, mamma; when will the war be over?" 
" Mamma cannot tell ,dear ; but we will hope for the best." 
Their frugal meal is now ready, and mother and child sit down 
with heavy hearts, their eyes wandering to the place where papa used 
to sit; but there is no manly form, — only a vacant chair. 

In the mother's heart sad questions icill arise : " Will he return to 
us? or will some swift-winged bullet, sped by a traitor's hand, de- 
stroy the life so dear to us?" 

Oh, why could not all men have been true to a government so 
mild, — to their country, so vast and grand ? AVhy should they cause 
sorrow and death to o'erspread our land, and the voice of wailing to 
go forth from every fireside? In silence the meal is ended, and the 
little one, whose eyes have grown heavy, is taken upon the mother's 
lap, and prepared for rest. Her little prayer is said, and a good- 
night kiss for papa, she falls asleep, and the shadow is chased from 
her brow. But the shadows hover darkly round the mother's heart, 
as she thinks of distant battle-fields ; of wounded and dying men 
whose lives, and those they love more than life, have been given up 
that their country might be saved. And on this September evening 
a terrible battle has closed. For three days they have fought, and 
now the evening shadows unite with clouds of smoke, and our army 
is victorious ; but the ground is strewn with the dead and dying. 
Hark ! here is one who speaks : " Water, water ; won't little Bessie 
bring me water?" But Bessie's soft hands cannot reach him ; kind, 
but rougher and stranger hands give him the cooling drops, and 
with a weary sigh for his home, wife, and little one, his breath is 
gone, and the brave heart beats no more. 


Rumors of a terrible fight reached that quiet home ; then came 
dispatches, making rumors f arts. How long and dark are the hour 
of suspense to the anxious wife and little one. Eagerly the papers 
are watched for every word concerning the division in which was 
the loved one, and now at last comes a list of the killed and wound- 
ed in his regiment ; with fast-beating heart the poor wife takes the 
list of ywoimded first, that she may still have some hope. His name 
is not there. With hushed breath and heart beating faster, she scans 
the list of the killed, until she comes to his name, the paper falls 
from her nerveless hand and she sinks heavily to the floor. Bessie 
bends over her, and the touch of her soft hands and the sound of 
her sweet voice bring- the u-idow back to life that is now so dark. 
But for Bessie's sake she will still be brave, and struggle on alone, 
no, not (done. Bessie is still with her, and their heavenly Father 
will lead them through the darkness. 

This is only one of the many pictures that are drawn upon the 
pages of unwritten history. Have traitors nothing to answer for ? 


The continued need of money to obtain comforts and necessaries 
for the sick and wounded of our army, suggested to the loyal ladies 
of the North many and various devices for the raising of funds. 
Every city, town and village had its fair, festival, picnic, excur- 
sion, concert which netted more or less for the care of hospital 
relief The ladies of Tazewell honored themselves and this county 
by their noble, generous work in behalf of the soldiers. Their 
devotion to the loyal principles of the national Government was 
undying, and its defenders were objects of their deepest sympathy. 
During the dark and trying days of the Rebellion they were ever 
on the alert raising funds, sending food, clothing, delicacies and 
medicines to the soldiers in the hospital and at the front. 

In the noble efforts the ladies made to palliate the sufferings 
of their brothers upon the Southern fields of carnage, they were 
actuated by love of country, devotions to kindred and sympathy 
for those in distress. Though physically incapacitated to share with 
them the toil and perils of battle, yet before its smoke and the echoes 
of its artillery passed away, the offering of their hands would 
relieve their pain, and inspire them with holier ardor for the cause 
they M^ere defending. The number of weary sufferers on the field 
of battle and in the lonely hospital relieved by their bounty, none 
but the Recording Angel can tell. 


Money was raised for pushing forward this work in many ways, 
but underlying all was the willing hearts. Large sums were 
received by donations, but the chief reliance was upon entertain- 
ments and the one great fair which netted a handsome sum. 

The ladies had struggled on doing what they could in a smaller 
way, but it became evident greater exertions would be necessary to 
raise sufficient means to alleviate the sufferings of the soldiers. 
Accordingly, the Soldiers Aid Society of Pekin, issued through their 
Secretary, Mrs. H. P. Westerman, on the 3rd day of Aug., 1864, 
the following call, looking toward a grand county sanitary fair : 

"The continued need of money has suggested to the ladies of the 
Soldier's Aid Society the necessity of getting up something on a 
grander and larger scale than anything heretofore held in our county. 
The winter season will soon be approaching with its inclemency 
which will naturally make it more difficult for us ladies to replenish 
our soldiers aid fund ; therefore what is to be done must be done 
quickly and with might. 

"The need of money for this sacred purpose (that of alleviating 
the sufferings of our languishing heroes in our hospitals,) still con- 
tinue and calls loudly on all noble men and women to assist. Our 
brave men are still wrestling with Southern rebellion, which though 
often caused to fall back is not yet subdued ; and therefore there is 
treble the necessity for redoubling our efforts in their behalf. The 
hospitals made vacant by death, recovery or discharge are speedily 
refilled with new faces which disease and exposure have rendered 
pallid, and emaciated forms shattered by a gun-shot or shell. I tell 
you my friends we must continue to pour down our sanitary supplies 
for the comfort of those bleeding, suffering soldiers of our country, 
whose well-being lies near the heart of all true men and women. 
Who has not some father, brother or loved friend in our army ? Then 
awake and think. What can you do ? Your hands, however tiny, 
can work up some little item which will either do to send to our 
soldier boys or will bring money at our soldier's fair. Come up 
and do something while it is day, for night cometh when no man 
can work. Everything in the shape of the useful, fancy or orna- 
mental, vegetables, meats, machinery, and, in fact, anything that can 
be invented, both natural and artificial, will be heartily received." 

According to the above call a meeting was held at the court-house, 
Aug. 6, 1864, to inaugurate measures for the holding of the Tazewell 


County Sanitary Fair. Henry Riblet was chairman of this meeting, 
and W. W. Clemens, secretary. 

The following named persons were elected officers of the Fair : 

President — Joshua Wagenseller. Vice Presidents — Joshua Saw- 
yer, Tremont ; Maj, R,. N. Cullom, Deer Creek ; William Dixon, 
Sand Prairie ; Joshua Brown, Dillon ; I. B. Hall, Delavan ; Daniel 
Reid, Boynton ; Samuel Woodrow, Cincinnati ; Gordon Nichols, 
Elm Grove ; A. S. Cole, Fond du Lac ; Michael Hittle, Mackinaw ; 
S. R. Crosly, Malone ; Dr. G, W. Minier, Little Mackinaw ; Daniel 
Albright, Hittle ; Jacob Keyser, Spring Lake ; Dr. B. H. Harris, 
Groveland ; Peter Weyhrich, William S. Rankin, Teis Smith, I. E. 
Leonard, Pekin. 

Recording Secretary — B. F. Blossom. Assistant, Lemuel Allen. 

Corresponding Secretary — George H. Harlow. 

Treasurer — George Greigg. 

Executive Committee — Henry P. Westerman, William P. Chain, 
George Tomm, Reuben Bergstresser, George W. Ingalls, David 
Keyes, William Grant, Mrs. H. P. Westerman, Mrs. W. S. Rankin, 
Mrs. G. H. Harlow, Mrs. E. Rhodes, Mrs. T. D. Vincent, Mrs. 
Abram Haas, Mrs. Thomas King, Mrs. Daniel Harlow, Mrs. Samuel 
P. Higgiuson, Mrs. W. Amsbary, Mrs. Robert Briggs, Mrs. Brear- 
ley, Mrs. W. W. Sellers, Mrs. G. W. Athens, Mrs. William P. 

Great eiforts were made to make this a grand affair. Committees 
were appointed to canvass in the surrounding counties. Circulars 
were sent out setting forth the great necessity of raising means for 
the relief of the soldiers in Southern hospitals. A large building 
was erected on Court street, Pekin, which had its various departments 
under able management. The fair lasted three days and proved 
quite remunerative, the proceeds being over $5,000. 

Whenever a great battle or any other emergency made unusual 
demands, appeals were made through the press and never in vain. 
In looking through the files of county papers we find call after call 
made by different societies during those trying times. As the war 
progressed the care of soldier's families became an important part of 
the work of soldier's aid societies. 

Let us examine into one or two of the boxes sent by the Soldier's 
Aid Society of Pekin and see what they contained. We give list of 
articles packed in box Sept. 15, 1863, and sent to the army of the 
Cumberland: Number sheets 2; shirts 17; drawers 17; handker- 


chiefs 45 ; pounds of ground mustard 4 ; green tea 3 ; dried fruit 20 ; 
packages corn starch 8; number bandages 10; books and papers. 

Contents of a box packed and shipped April 13, 1864 — number 
pillows 9 ; pillow cases 12 ; handkerchiefs 79 ; towels 40 ; shirts 24 ; 
rolls butter 1 ; rolls cotton bandages 58 ; sheets 2 ; pairs slippers 5 ; 
number quilts 1 ; dressing gowns 1 ; old shirts 1 ; jar pickles 1 ; 
small sack dried peaches 1 ; bottle catsup 1 ; bundle linen rags 1 ; 
a large lot of magazines and papers. 

Shipped April 23, 1864 — Barrels dried apples 1; dried peaches 
1 ; 4 dozen cans tomatoes ; 1 barrel of eggs ; 

When the boys in blue came home on a furlough they were 
cordially welcomed, and the ladies prepared dinners for them and 
made their stay happy and pleasant. AVhen they returned to the 
tented fields they carried with them grateful recollections of the 
efforts the ladies at home were making for their comfort. 

lee's surrender. — Lincoln's assassination. 

Our armies bravely contended until finally after four long years of 
bloodshed and carnage the news was flashed over the wires that Lee 
had surrendered. This joyful news reached this county Monday, 
April 10, 1865, being within two days of four years from the time 
the batteries were opened on Fort Sumter. On receiving the news 
of the fall of Richmond the people were very jubilant over the suc- 
cess of the Union forces. They assembled in all parts of the county 
and had grand jubilees. At Pekin the people came together at the 
public square and a procession was formed, headed by the band, and 
paraded through the city. The streets were brilliantly illuminated. 
Bonfires, rockets and music were seen and heard on every hand, it 
was indeed a season of rejoicing, and well might it be, for what had 
been endured, what had been suffered ? 

Scarcely had the downfall of the Southern Confederacy been re- 
ceived ere the sad news of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln 
was flashed over the wires. On that beautiful April morning, five 
days after the announcement of Lee's surrender, the people, joyful 
over the near approach of the return of their loved ones from the 
South, the sorrowing news of the President's death was announced. 

Mr. Lincoln was bound to the people of this county with 
stronger cords than simply being a good ruler. He had spent many 
days here ; had many warm personal friends and it was like the loss 
of a brother. Thev felt the loss keenly ; the tolling bells, the sym- 


pathetic dirges, interpreted not merely the grief of a people at the 
loss of a president, but the sorrow of a community at the death of a 
brother, a son, one who was closely akin to all. Meetings were held 
and appropriate resolutions passed. Dwellings, stores, churches and 
public buildings were draped and the flags which had been sent up 
in moments of rejoicing, were taken down, draped, and sent up at 


The war ended aud peace restored, the Union preserved in its in- 
teirritv, the sons of Tazewell who had volunteered their lives in 
defense of their government, and who were spared to see the army 
of the Union victorious, returned to their homes to receive grand 
ovations and tributes of honor from friends and neighbors who had 
eagerly and zealously followed them wherever the fortunes of war 
called. Exchanging their soldiers' uniforms for citizens' dress, most 
of them fell back to their old vocations, — on the farm, at the forge, 
the bench, in the shop, and at whatever else their hands found to do. 
Brave men are honorable alwavs, and no class of citizens are entitled 
to greater respect than the volunteer soldiery of Tazewell county, 
not alone because they were soldiers, but because in their associa- 
tions with their fellow men their walk is upright, and their honesty 
and character without reproach. 

Their country first, {heir glory and their pride, 
Land of their hopes, land where tlieir fathers died ; 
When in the right, they'll keep their honor bright. 
When in the wrong, they'll die to set it right. 

No more fitting tribute to their patriotic valor can be offered the 
brave men who went forth in defense of liberty and union, than a 
full and complete record, so far as it is possible to make it, embracing 
the names, the terms of enlistments, the battles in which they were 
engaged, and all the minutiai of their military lives. It will be a 
wreath of glory encircling every brow — a precious memento to 
hand down to posterity, and one which each of them earned in de- 
fense of their and our common country. There are, no doubt, some 
men who, while they lived in Tazewell county, enlisted in other 
counties and were never credited to this countv. While the names 
of such properly belong here, and we would gladly give them did 
we know them, yet the Adjutant-General's reports, the source of our 



information, gives their names as belonging to other counties. We 
sent out thousands of circulars urging those who thus enlisted, or 
their friends for them, if they were dead or had moved away, to 
send us their name, company and regiment, and those who did so 
will find their name properly recorded. 



abs Absent. 

art Artiller}-. 

col Colonel. 

capt Captiiin. 

corpl ("orporrtl. 

com Commissioned. 

ciiv Cavalry. 

eapd Captured. 

dis Disability. 

d Di.scharged. 

e Knli.sted. 

hos Hospital. 

inf Infantn-. 

kid Killed. 

lieut Lieutenant. 

m.o Mustered Out. 

pris Prisoner. 

pro Promoted. 

regt Regiment. 

res Resigned. 

sergt Sergeant. 

tr Transferred. 

V Veteran. 

wnd Wounded. 


The 7th is claimed to be the first regiment organized in the State, under 
the first call of the President for three months' troops. The 8th also claims 
the same honor. The 7th was mustered in at Camp Yates, April 25, 1861 ; 
was forwarded to Alton and thence to Mound City, where it remained during 
its three months' service. 

It was re-organized and mustered for three years service, July 25, 1861 ; 
moved to Fort Holt, Kentucky, where it went into winter quarters; was with 
the reconnoitering expedition under General Grant, in the rear of ColumVjus, 
Kentucky. On February 3d it embarked for Fort Henry, and on the 12th for 
Fort Donelson, taking part in the siege and investment of that x^lju'e. At 
DoneLson the regiment was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Babcock; loss 
3 killed, including the gallant Captain Mendell of Companj' I, and 19 wounded. 

The 7th was engaged continually April 6th and 7th, at the battle of Shiloh, 
losing 2 officers and 15 men killed, and 79 wounded. 

At the battle of Corinth, October 3 and 4, 1862, the regiment was engaged 
both days entire. Colonel Babcock commanding. Loss at Corinth, 2 officers 
and 6 men killed, and 46 wounded, also 21 prisoners. 

After the battle of Corinth, the 7th was engaged in scouting and guarding 
railroads through Tennessee and Mississippi, taking part in a number of expe- 
ditions and having some .some skirmishes, capturing many prisoners, etc. 

December 22, 1863, the regiment re-enlisted as veterans, and, January 7, 
1864, started to Springfield, Illinois, for veteran furlough. It was mustered out 
July 9, 1865, at Louisville, Kentucky; arrived at Camp Butler, July 12, 1865, 
for final payment and discharge. 

A. J. Babcock, e. July 12,'61, res. Feb. 20,'63. 


Hoffman, Theo., e. Feb. 22,'65, in Co. B., m. o. 

May 2.3, '6.5. 
Di\-ine, M., e. July •i5,'61, in Co. C, v., m. o., 

July 8,'65. 


Second Lieutenants. 
Mart. V. Miller, e. July 2.5,'61, m.o. July 2^,'&i. 
W. W. Judy, e. July 2o,'61, m.o. July 2oV64. 

First Sergeant. 
W. H. Miller, c. July 25,'61, m.o. June 16,'6.5. 

Barnes, L. I)., e. Julv 2.5,'61, v., d. for pro. in 3d 

U..S. col. inf. 
Bunvell, J. A. 

Burwell, A.W., e. Feb. 10,'6-1, m.o. July 9,'65. 
Burwell, W. H., e. Aug. 12,'fi2, kid. Oct. 5,'64. 
Brown, L., e. Sept. 1,'61, tr. to V.R.C. 
Bortlitt, Homer M., e. Oct. 1,'61, v., tr. V.R.C. 
Carr, S. P., e. Aug. 12,'62, died April 26,'64. 
Forbes, A. W., e. Aug. 12, '62, pro. capt. in 3d 

U.S. col. inf. 



Forbes, John B. 
Forbes, John S., e. Aug. 12,'62. 
flardiner, Thos., e. Feb. '64. wnd. 
(ranliner, Hiram, died Dec. l.'dl. 
(Gardiner. .\., v.. m.o. July '.'.'t'lo. 
Ilickev, Edward, v., pro. serj^, wnd. 
Mainline, T. B., v., m.o. Julv '.t.'ti.'). 
Hainline, .S., e. Aug. 12,'(i2, d. June 2,'f,o. 
Hainline, J. F., e. Aug. 12,'02, d. June 2,'65. 
Hainline, O., e. Aug. 12,'r52, d. July 2,'65. 
Hainline, A., e. Feb. 2,'tU, m.o. June 29, '6.5. 
Hainline, E., c. Feb. 12, '64. kid. Feb. 1,'6.'). 
Huston, ('., e. Feb. 18,'t">4, m.o. July ;i,'65. 
Ewing, S. H., e. Feb. IN.'tU, in hos. at m.o. 
Jones, W. R., e. Sept. 15, '61, v., m.o. July '.\'6o, 

Jones, S. H., e. Aug. 12,'62, d. June 2,'62. 
Kampf, \Vm. H., e. Oct. 4,'64, m.o. Julv 9,'6."). 
Kampf, M. R., e. Feb. 2,'W, kid. Oct. 5,'64. 
Kelley, Wm. H., e. Jan. 30,'64, m. o. July 9,'65. 
Keates, \Vm. S. 

Leise, John L., e. Sept. 2S,'64, d. June 2,'a5. 
Lancaster, R., e. Aug. 12, '62, d. July 25, '64. 
Lancaster, J., e. Aug. 1'2,'62, d. June 2,'65. 
Miller, G. L. 

Pangh, H. H., e. Oct. 4,'64, m.o. Julv 9,'65. 
Paugh, Peter, e. Feb. 2,'64, died Jan. '21, '65. 
Robinson, S., e. Sept. 15,'61, v., m.o. Julv9,'C5. 
Roberts, D. C, e. Feb. 2.'64, kid. Oct. 5,'64. 
Roles, J. P., e. Dec. 21, '64, v.. m.o. Julv y,'65. 
Stafford, W. G., e. Sept. l.i,'61, m.o. Nov. l'2,'r>4. 
Sullivan, G., e. Feb. 10,'64, m.o. July 9,'65. 
Smith, Wm., v., kid. Oct. 5,'64. 
Tompkins, J. Q., e. Feb. '2.i,'ti4, m.o. Julv 1,'65. 
Thornton, A. \V., died Nov. •26,'61. 
Verrv, \Vm. E., e. Feb. 2,'64, wnd. 
Watt, T. H., e. Aug. 12,'lVl, d. June 2,'65. 
Watt, S., e. Aug. 12,'64, d. June 2,'6.5. 
Wood, W., e. Julv 25,'61. died Nov. 12,'61. 
Watt, J. W., e. Feb. 2,'64, kid. Oct. 5,'64. 
Allen, L. E., .Sept. 1.5,'61, v., kid. Oct. 5,'64. 
Allen, J. B., e. Oct. 1,'64, pris. 
Barnes, Lor. D., (No. 2) e. Oct. 1,'61, v., m.o. 

Julv 9, '6.5. 
Brooks, F. M., e. Sept. '61, died June .S,'62, serg. 
Brooks, G. (i., e. Feb. 5, '64, m.o. J\ine 22,'65. 
Booher, T. J., e. Oct. 1,'64, m.o. Julv 9,'6.5. 
Burk, J. T., e. Oct. 31, '63, kid. Oct. 5, '64. 

Burk, L. A., c. Feb. 10,'64, m.o. July 9, '65. 
Goft'man, Peter, c. Sejjt. •29,'64, d. June 2,'65. 
Decker, Joel, e. Feb. 5, '64, m.o. Julv 9,'65. 
Decker, D., e. Sept. 1,'63, d. April 2l),'a5. 
Dillon, Aaron, e. Sept. 2S.'r>4, d. June 2,'6.5. 
Friend, H. B., e. Feb. 9,'64, m.o. July 9,'6,5. 
Gardner, J., e. July '25, '61, v., m.o., July 9,'65. 
Roelf.son, A. N., e. Oct. 31, '63, m.o. JulVg.'Go. 
Reed, J. C, e. Feb. 15,'64, m.o. Julv 9,'65. 
Stroud, L. C, e. Mar. 22,'64, kid. Oct. 5,'64. 
Scales, J. W., e. Feb. 2.5,'M, m.o. Julv9,'65. 
Warfield, J. H., e. Sept. 28,'(U, d. June 2,'&5. 
Warfield, P. B., e. Sept. 2,s,'64, d. June 2,'65., M. H., e. Feb. 14, '65, in Co. H, m. o. 
July 9,'65. 


Brooks, George, e. Feb. 5, '64. 

Brooks, William. 

Barnes, William. 

Barnes, Lorenzo. 

Decker, John. 

Friend, Henry. 

Robin.son, George. 

Robinson, William. 

Left, John. 

Hainline, John. 

Galbraith, Michael. 

Thornton, Watson. 

Gillroy, T. 

Beal, Jesse,' e. July •25,'61, d. 

Nolan, John. 


Burk, James. 

Crattv, David. 

Landan, L., e. July 25,'61, died Nov. 6,'61. 

Morman, L. J., e. July 25,'61, v., m.o. July 9,'65. 

Ral.son, John. 

Ralson, A. 

Roberts, D. C, e. April 14,'61. m.o. Mav 11, '65. 

Sparrov.-, J. M., e. Julv 25,'61, died Oct. 24,'61. 

Tomljlin, W. H., e. July 25,'61, m.o. Julv 9,'65. 

Ward. M. T. 

Williamson, Thos. A. 

Turner, John D. 

Garrety, Albert. 


On the 25th daj' of April, 1861, the 8th Infantrj' was first organized for the 
three months' service. Colonel Oglesby commanding. A contest for rank and 
seniority arose between the Seventh and Eight, both being organized on the 
same day. This contest was finally ended by according to Colonel Cook the 
first number (Seven) as the number of his regiment, with the second rank as 
colonel — Colonel Oglesby taking the second number for his regiment, with 
the first rank as colonel. 

During its three months' term of service it was stationed at Cairo, where, 
at the end of said term, it was mustered out, and on July 25, 1861, was re- 
organized for the three years' service. 

The regiment was stationed at Cairo, Illinois, until October, 1861, when it 
was ordered to Birds Point, Missouri, where it was stationed until February 
2, 1862, with the exception of occasional excursions to Cape Girardeau, Norfolk 
Mission and Paducha, Kentucky. 

February 2, 1862, embarked for Tennessee river. On the 5th met the 
enemy near Fort Henry, and drove them. On the 11th was in advance of 
attack on Fort Donelson, under command of Lieutenan-Colonel Rhoads, 
Colonel Oglesby commanding brigade. On the 15th the Eighth met the 
enemy, who were attempting to cut their way out of the fort, and for three 
hours and a half withstood the shock of the enemy, although suffering ter- 
ribly. Its loss was 57 killed, 191 wounded, and 10 missing. 

March 6th, proceeded to Pittsburg Landing, where the Eighth did gallant 
service, being engaged in the hottest of the fight. Towards the close of the 



second day, the regiment was ordered to take a rebel battery, which was 
pouring a destructive fire into our ranks — the battery was charged and taken, 
the gunners being killed at their posts. The regiment lost 26 killed, 95 
wounded, and 11 missing. 

It was engaged in the siege of Corinth, and after the evacuation, moved 
to Jackson, Tennessee, thence to Lagrange. November 28th it pushed as far 
as Water Valley into Mississippi, returning after a very hard march. 

The regiment broke camp at Tallahatchee river, January 4, 1803, and 
marched toward ^lemphis, where it arrived on the 19th of January, and 
camped on the Hernando road. February 22d embarked for Lake Provi- 
dence. April 12th moved to Milliken's Bend; on the 25th started with the 
army, and passing through Richmond, struck the river at Perkins' Land- 
ing, and crossed over on the night of the 30th. May 1, 18H3, commenced 
the fight at Thompson's Hill, Captain Jones severely wounded. On the 12th 
engaged the enemy near Raymond. In this battle the regiment did distin- 
guished service, relieving the center at a most critical moment, and gallantly 
(Iriving the enemy. The regiment lost a l)rave young ofhcer here in Captain 
Frank Leeper, Company A, who fell while leading his men on to victory. 
Participateil in the l)attle of Jackson, May 14th, and on the 10th fought at 
Champion Hill. On the 18th crossed Big Black river, and on the following day 
drove the enemy into his works at Vicksburg. On the 22d engaged in the 
heroic assault on Fort Hill. August 21, 1863, under command of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Josiah Sheets, marched to Monroe, returning September 3d. 

The Eighth remained at Vicksburg until February 3, 1864, when it joined 
in the Meridian campaign under General Sherman. 

The regiment re-enlisted as veterans March 24, 1864, going to Camp But- 
ler, Illinois, for veteran furlough. Was consolidated June 21, 1864. 

Left Vicksburg July 1st, for Jackson, and, returning on the 6th, met the 
enemy tiiree miles from Jackson, and skirmished till dark. On the following 
day had a severe engagement, suffering a loss of 3 killed, 21 wounded, and 2 

From July 29th to September 3d, engaged in the Morganzia expedition; 
moved to ^lemphis, Tennessee, October 18th, where it remained with brief 
intervals till January 1, 1865, when the Eighth left for New Orleans, where 
they arrived on the 4th, and were stationed fifteen miles above the city. 

On March 26th encamped near Spanish Fort and entrenched; engaged in 
approaching the fort until the 30th, losing 1 killed and 3 wounded. Pro- 
ceeded to rear of investments April 3d, and on the 9tli engaged in a charge on 
the enemy's works, ami was the first to plant the flag on the works in her 
vicinity. The Eighth lost in this charge 10 killed, and .■)4 woumled. 

The regiment was mustered out May 4, 186(5, at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 
and arrived at Springfield for final payment and discharge May 13, 1866. 


Frank L. Rhoads, e. April 2.'5,'61, res. Oct. 7,'62. 
.Josiah A. Sheets, e. July i'l.'fil, pro. to bvt. brig. 
gen., res. Feb. 9,'60. 

Samuel Rhoads, e. July 25, '61, res. Dec. 9,'til. 

Sergeant- Ma jo r. 
\Vm. Jones, e. July 2-5,'f)l, v., m.o. May 4, '66. 


Brich, C. N., e. Oct. l,'(>t, m.o. Sept- :!0,'65. 
Rodgers, 1). B., e. Jan. 2.t,'i;.'i, m.o. Jan. 21. '66. 
Woodland, W., e. Jan. 'A5,'65, m.o. Jan. 24, '66. 
Hawley, J. B., e. July 17,'61, d. July 16,'64. 



Jos. E. Harbin, e. July 25,'61, killed at Shiloh, 

April 6, '62. 
B. F. Lawson, e. July 25,'61, d. Mar. 14,'64. 

Benthan, D., e. Julv 25,'61, m.o. Aug. 2",'64. 
Thompson, E. H., c". July 2.->,'61. kid. Feb. 1.=>,'62. 
Maiianville. F. K., e. Mar. S,'64, died of wnd. 

Steward, Isaiah, e. Xov. ?.0,'63. 
Brown, B. W., e. July 2r),'61, m.o. July 30,'64. 
Thompson, J., e. July 2.5,'61, m.o. July 30,'64. 



Joseph M. Hanna, e. April ZQ,'CA, kid. at Fort 

Edwin L. Williams, e. July 2.'j,'61, tenii exp'rd 

July 2<s,'6-l. 
Alexander Coleman, e. July 25,'61, v., hon. dis. 

J. S. Hight, e. Julv 2.5,'61, v., res. Aug. 18, '65. 
W. S. Waters, e. July 2,5,'61, v., m.o. May 4,'G6. 

First Lieutenants. 
R. Brown, e. July 2.5,'61, tenn exp. July 28,'6?' 
Jos. Groves, e. July 2o,'61, v., m.o. May 4, '66. 




Second Lieutenants. 

D. A. Sheets, e. July 25,'61, killed in battle. 
J. D. Handberry, e. July 25,'t)l, res. Aug. 31, '62. 
Ketcham S. Conklin, e. July 25.'61, term ex. 

Matthew Harrington, e. July 25,'61, v., hon. 

dis. June 9, '6.5. 


F. M. Morgan, e. Julv 2.5, '61, kid. Ft. DoneLson. 
W. H. Howell, e. July 25,'61, kid. Ft. Donelson. 


N. Thoma-s, c. July 2,5,'61, d. April 2.S,'62, di.s. 
J. C. Fitzgerald, e. Julv 2r),'fil, kid. Vlck.sburg. 
J. Shilling, e. July 2.5,'61, kid. Ft. Donelson. 
C. \V. Tooker, e. July 25,'61, m.o. July 30,'64. 


A. R. Morgan, e. Julv 25,'61, m.o. Julv o0,'64. 
W. J. Broaden, e. July25,'61, d. Nov. 23,'63, dis. 


Aukev, J., e. Julv 2.5,'61, died Dec. 21, '61. 
Ackerson, J. G., e. Julv 2.5,'61, died Jan. 2fi,'62. 
Brunner, J. G., e. July2.5,'61, d. di.s. July 2'.),'63. 
Burnes, J., e. Julv 2-5, '61, v., died June 4, '65. 
Bensel, J., e. Julv 2o,'61, v., m.o. May •1,'66. 
Bryen, E., e. July 25,'61, d. 
Casev, J., e. Julv 25, '61, m.o. Mav 4, '66. 
Carroll, M., e. jiily ^i.'ei, died April 10,'62. 
Doolittle, I. B., e. July 2.5,'61, v., pro. serg., m. 

o. Mav 4, '66. 
Fumal, J." e. July 25,'61, v., m.o. May 4,'66. 
Grigslev, F. M., e. July 25,'61, v., d. dis. Aug. 

31, '65. 
Hill, J., e. Julv 2.5,'61, m.o. Julv .30,'64. 
Hutchinson, J., e. Julv 25,'61, m.o. July .30,'64. 
Hoffes, N.,e. Julv25,'61. 
Hart, B. F., e. July a5,'61, d. dis. July 14,'62. 
Hartshorn, C. E., e. July 2.5,'61, kid. at Fort 

Hite, J. E., e. July 25,'61, v., m.o. May 4,'66. 
Hite, \Vm.,e. Julv25,'61. 
Hite, T. v., e. July 2,5,'61. 
Hungerford, R. M., e. July 25, '61, d. dis. April 

Hunter, C, e. July 2.5,'61, v., m.o. May 4,'66. 
Hohl, E., e. Julv 25,'61, m.o. July 30,'64. 
Hank.s, W., e. Julv 2.5,'61, m.o. Julv 30,'64. 
Holmes, D., e. July 25,'61, kid. Ft. Donelson. 
Hall, R., e. July 25,'61. 
Lappin, J., e. Julv 2-5, '61, m.o. July 30,'64. 
Lee-sman, C, e. July 25,'61, died Sept. 1,'61. 
Long.sraith, F. M., e. July •25,'61. 
Morris, H., e. Julv 2.5,'61, d. di.s. Sept. 24,'62. 
Mintv, C, e. July 2.5,'61, m.o. July 30,'64. 
Multen, T., e. Julv 2.5,'61, v., m.o. May 4,'66. 
Miller, H., e. Julv25,'61. 
Muloane, J., e. July 2.5,'61, m.o. July .30,'64. 
Miller, F., e. July 25, '61, v., d. dis. May 27, '65, 
McJunkins, A., e, Julv25,'61, v., m.o. May 4, '66. 
McGrath, O., e. July 25,'61, d. dis. Feb. 2.S,'63. 
Murphv, J., e. July 25, '61, kid. Ft. Donelson. 
Mowerv, S., e. July 25,'61. 
Mos,s, J. G., e. July 25,'61, v., m.o. May 4,'66, 

McJunkins, R. H., e. July 25,'61, v., m.o. May 

McDaniel, A., e. July 25,'61, died Dec. 14,'61. 
O'Connor, John, e. July 25, '61. 
Owens, John, e. July 2.5, '61, kid. at Shiloh. 
Powell, John, e. Julv 2.5,'61, d. dis. July 4,'62. 
Platts, E., e. Julv 25,'61, kid. Ft. Donelson. 
Rummell, A., e. July 26.'61, died Dec. 1,'61. 
Reed, John, e. Julv 25, '61, v. 
Rich, S., e. July 25,'61. 
Schenck, Jos., c. July 25,'61, died of wounds 

received at Vicksburg. 

Squibbs, T., e. July 25, '61, died of wounds re- 
ceived at Jackson, 
Staher, Jos., e. July 2.5,'61, m.o. July 30,'64. 
Scott, J. W., 0. Julv 25, '61, pro. sergt. 
Skinner, L., e. Julv 25,'61, died Nov. 16,'61. 
Sweeney, W. H., e. July 25,'61, v., m.o. May 4, '66. 
Taylor, G., e. July 25, '61, m.o. July ;!0,'64. 
Wliotstone, Jos., e. July 25,'61. 
Whitefoot, J. B., e. July 25,'61, m.o. July 30,'64. 
Ward, W. B., e. Julv 25,'61, tr. to gunboat. 
Ward. Alf., e. Julv 2.5,'61, m.o. Julv 30,'64. 
WiLson, J. H., e. Julv2.5,'61, d. di.s." Oct. 24,'61. 
Warner, W. H., e. Ju"lv25,'61, d. dis. Mar. 17,'63. 
Watkins, J. W., e. July 25,'61. 
Walters, W. S., e. Julv 25,'61, v., pro. 1st lieut. 
Walters, T. B., e. July 25,'61, died Sept. 19,'63. 
Zeigler, A., e. July 25,'61, d. dis. Mar. 15,'63. 

Recruits., Lsaac, e. Jan. 6, '64, m.o. May 4, '66. 

Brusboom, Dirk, died July '2S,'61. 

Carr, Benjamin, e. Feb. 13, '64. 

Coplen, W., e. Jan. 4, '64, m.o. May 4, '66. 

Colloway, Washington, m.o. Aug. 13,'65. 

Cohenoiir, Wm., e. Jan. 4, '64, m.O. May 4, '66. 

Duffield, II. C, m.o. June 5, '65. 

Devore, N., e. Fel). 7,'64, died Nov. 26,'64. 

Davis, J. M., died Aug. 29,'65. 

Gilmore, Jas., m.o. May4,'66. 

Hite, W., e. Nov. 16,'61, v., m.o. May4,'66,corpl. 

Hughes, Andrew, m.o. Dec. 30,'6.5. 

Iliggins, Jas., e. Feb. 25, '64, died Dec. 31,'64. 

Hart, David, died Jan. 22,'63. 

McKav, D., e. Fob. 1.5,'64, m.o. May 4,'66. 

Martin, E. S., e. Nov. 15,'61, d. dis. Aug. 15,'62. 

McJunkins, Wm., m.o. Aug. 22,'65. 

Peters, P., e. Fob. l,s,'r>4, m.o. May4,'66. 

Phillips, Louis, died Jan. S,'63. 

Reed, H. B., d. dis. April 1,'63. 

Shearer, Julius, m.o. Aug. 12,'65. 

Shaw, Augustus, m.o. Fob. 16, '66. 

Stewart, Jas., e. Jan. l,'6t, died April 14,'6-i. 

Warmsley, Wm., m.o. Aug. 13,'65. 

Wilson, Haslip. 



Wm. Schlag, e. July 25,'61, m.o. May 4,'66. 

Second Lieutenants. 

Deitrich Smith, e. July 25,'61, res. Sept. 3,'62. 
H. Barkmeyer, e. Aug. 2,'61, v., m.o. May 4, '66. 


Block, J., e. Julv 25,'61, m.o. July 30,'64, sergt. 
Fluth, G., e. July 25,'61, m.o. July 30,'64. 


Ahrens, A., e. Feb. 6,'64, m.o. May 4,'66. 
Hopman, D., o. Aug. 2,'61, kid. Ft. Donelson. 
Hills, J., e. Aug. 19,'61, m.o. July 1S,'64. 
Kalmbuch, R., e. Jan. 5,'64, tr. to hv>-. art. 
Miller, H., e. Aug. 22, '61, d. dis. Oct. 22, '62. 
Potrv, G., e. Aug. 2,'61, m.o. July 30,'64. 
Roolim, T., e. Aug. 2,'61, died April 20,'62, of 

Renstmann, John, e. Aug. 19,'61. 
Lorrin, Otto, e. Jan. 25, '64, m.o. July 4, '66. 
Smith, B., e. Jan. 15,'61, m.o. July 14,'64. 



Cloud, Wm., e. Julv 25,'61, m.o. July 30, '64. 
Cloud, G., e. July 25,'61, died Oct. 17,'61. 
Cloud, George. 

Cloud, B., e. July 25,'61, d. dis. April 7,'63. 
Smith, John O. 





John W. Keithly, e. Mar. 1,'65, m.o. Sept. lf),'C5. 

C. T. Robinson, e. Mar. 1,'65, m.o. Sept. IG.'Go. 

Bryson, James, e. Mar. 1,'65. 
Cliapman, 11. W., e. Mar. ],'65, m.o. July 'Z^,'C>o. 
E;vcle, G. T., c. Mar. 1,'(;5, m. o. June 12,'C5. 
Farrell, J., e. Mar. 1,'65, m.o. Sept. lfi,'C>r>. 
GrifTen, P., o. Mi.r. l.'tj.'i, m.o. Sept. 1(),'65. 
Howartli, T., e. Mar. l.'O.'). abs. siek at m.o. 
Haynes, M., e. Mar. l.'ii.'), m.o. Sept. lO.'G.'). 
Mace, Jos., e. Mar. l.'ti."), m.o. Sept. ll),'0."i. 
Noble, Jame.s, e. Mar. 1,'Ctr,. m.o. Sepi. lf),'()5. 
Noble, Wm. T., e. Mar. l.'tio, m.o. Sept. 10, '05. 
Phillips, Isaae, e. Mar. 1,'05, m.o. Sept. 16,'C5. 



Learks, FToraec, e. Mav I'S.Ttl. 
Carey, Mieliael, e. May liii.'Ol. 
Howard, T., e. June 24, '01, m.o. June 24, '61. 
Hawley, J. B., e. Julv 17, 'til, rl. July 10, '04. 
Haekeii, B., e. Mjy 2'.t,'01, d. July 24,'01. 
Quick, Daviil, e. May 2J,'G1. 


Dennis, J. ('.., e. Mry 2."),'01. 

Ko^ip, Ferdina.u', e. May 2.5, 'Gl. 

Li^atcap, John F., e. May 25,'(;i. 

Leiiiiard, John J., c. May 2.5, '01, v. 

Swariz, E. O., e. May 2.5,'01, drowndcd Feb. 

StewarL, Isai.ih, e. Mav 2.5,'Gl, v. 
WauRho^i, J. W., e. May 25,'Gl. 
\Vauf,:iop, J. L., e. May 2.5,'01, d. Sept. 6,'G2, of 

won. ids. 
Glenus, G., e. Feb. 20,'02, m.o. Feb. iy,'G5. 
,]aequim, \ ., e. May 25 '01, d. May 10,'G2. 
Nariii, E., e. May 25, '01, tr. to KUiiboat. 
Hai.inidud, Win. M., e. May 25,'01, d. dis. Nov. 

Chai.deler, S., e. May 2S,'61, tr. to gunboat. 
Marauville, F. A., c. Mar. 8,'frl. 



First Lieutenant. 
David Harmon, e. Mar. 4,'65, m.o. Dec. 1G,'G5. 

Second Lieutenants. 
Silas Biggerstaff, e. Mar. 4,'65, d. July 15,'05. 
Richard Land, e. Mar. 4,'65, m.o. Dec. IG.'Go. 

Chas. B. John.son, e. Mar. 4, '05, m.o. Dec. 1G,'G5. 
M. Buck, e. Mar. 4,'G5, m.o. Dec. 10, '05. 
Phillip Sutton, e. Mar. 4,'G5, m.o. Dec. 10, '05. 

Thomas Anderson, e. Mar. 4, '05. 

Fulford, James, c. Mar. 4,'G5. 
Gholstan, M. F., e. M<.r. 4,'05, m.o. Dee. 1G,'65. 
Garrison, Alex., e. Mar. 4, '05, m.o. Dec. 1G,'65. 
Nance, J., e. Mar. 4, '65, m.o. Dec. 16,'05, ccrpl. 
Wallace, Mathew, e. Mar. 10,'65. in Co. D., m.o. 

Dec. 10,'65. 
Proaser, Daniel W., e. Mar. 30, '65, in Co. D., 

m.o. Dec. 10, '05. 



First Se)-geant. 

Lorenzo N. Perry, e. Dec. 13,'61, appointed hos- 
pital stevvsird, U.S.A. 

Henry Allen, c. Dec. 21, 'Gl, v., pro. 2d lieut. 


Wm. N. Steers, e. Dee. 25,'Gl. 

Jesse H. Fisher, e. Dec. 5,'Gl, d. dis. Feb. 10,'63. 


Bnrwell, J., e. Dec. 21, '61, d. dis. Oct. 6,'62. 
Giur, D., e. Dee. 1,'01, d. dis. May.30,'62. 
Darnell, V., e. Dec. 1,'61, v., pro. sergt. 
Fleniken, H. C, e. Dec. 31, '61, v., m.o. July 

20, '65. 
Hill, P., e. Doc. 21, '61, wounded in both arms 

at luka, MiS3., d. dis. June 30,'63. 
McKay, J., e. Dec. 12,'61, v., died A])ril 10,'G4. 
Long, W. A., e. Dec. 31, '01, v., m.o. July •i0,'e5. 
McCormiek, J., e. Dee. 1,'61, v., m.o. JuiV 2'J,'G5. 
Sands, T., e. Jan. 17,'62, v., m.o. July 2J,'G5, 

Staples, S., e. Jan. 17,'62, v., m.o. July 20,'65. 
Wood, E. A., e. Dec. 28,'01, v., m.o. July 20,'65. 


Bak?r, Robert E., v., m.o. July 20,'65. 

Berrv, Emanuel, m.o. July 20,'65. 

Daniel!, James F., died Mar. 1(),'62. 

Davis, John \V. 

Dividson, Carneralsy, m.o. July 20,'C5. 

Franklin, W. H., v., "m.o. July 20,'65, coqil. 

Lvons, Wm. B, 

Mathews, M.L., e. Feb. 2,'62. v., m.o. July 20,'65. 

Miller, T. M., m.o. Julv 20, '05. 

SliM'k, .'V'jn-nam, m.o. Julv2y,'65. 

Spay, Isaiah, e. Oct. 4, '04, m.o. July 20,'65. 

Nash, George, m.o. July 27, '05. 


CO>n'ANY E. 

(^owen, J. F., o. Aug. 12, '01, wnd. Chickamau- 

ga, died Mav 22, '64. 
Pollard, J. S., e. Aug. 1'2,'61, wnd. m.o. Sept. 

Pem.ierton, G. W., e. Aug. 12,'61, d. dis. 'CI. 
Rochester, S., e. Aug. 12,'61, wad. m.o. Sept. 

Rankin, Marcellus, e. Aug. 12,'61, wnd. m.o. 

Sept. 20,'C4. 
Trcni, John A., e. Aug. 12, '61, wnd. m.o. Sept. 

20, '64. 




28tli INFANTRY. 

The 2Stli was organized at Camp Butler, in the month of August, 1861. 

The 28th met the enemy for the tirst time at Little Bethel Church, near 
Fort Henry, February 13, 18fi2, when a detachment of sixty men met and 
repulsed a "force of five hundred men. It was next engaged in the battle of 
Pittsl)urg Landing, when it drove General Prentiss, early in the day of April 
6, 1862; was assigned a position in the Peach Orchard, which it held under a 
destructive fire for seven hours, only retiring by order of General Hurlbut. 
During these two blooily days of Pittsburg Landing the regiment fought 
heroically, suffering a loss of 239 killed and wounded. It was engaged in the 
siege of Corinth during the month of May, 1862; also in the siege of Vicks- 
burg from June lltli to .Julv 4th, 1863. 

On the 12th of July, 1863, near Jackson, ]\Iississippi, the 28th was ordered 
to charge across a level field and carry a strong line of the enemy's works, 
mounting twelve guns and manned by two thousand men, and while it was 
not possible to (nipture tlie works, these heroic men swept bravely forward 
under a destructive fire of grape and canister. The enemy appearing on both 
flanks as it reached the ditch, it was compelled to fall back, with more than 
half of the rank and file killed or wounded. Of the 128 men of this regiment 
in line, 73 were killed and wounded, and 16 taken prisoners. 

On the 4th of January, 1864, the regiment, having re-enlisted as veterans, 
was mustered for three years' veteran service. 

The 28th participated in the advance on Spanish Fort, March 27, 1865. 


EdwarfLs, J., e. Aug. l.'Ol, v., m.o. Mar. 15,'Ci6. 
Readfiinger, J., c. Aug. 1,'61, d. Aug. 2G,'o4. 


Blair, Greenbury, e. Aug. 17,'61, v. 

Hisel, Wm., e. Aug. 17, d. dis. 

McGhee, W. T., c. Aug. 17, v., m.o. Mar. 15,'GG. 

William.s, Forener, e. Aug. 17. 

"SVilliams, P. C, e. Jan. 5,'fi4, m.o. Mar. 1.5,'G6. 

Prypr, Alfred S., e. Aug. 27,'61. 


Estes, Wm., e. Aug. 12,'Gl, d. dis. Oct. 19,'f)2. 
Fleming, T. J., e. Aug. 12,'61, m.o. Sept. 18,'64. 

Gardner, Wm. W., e. xVug. 12,'Gl, wnd. died 

Jan. 19,'G:5. 
Hurst, Merritt, c. Aug. 12,'Gl. 
Hunter, J., e. Aug. 12,'Gl, wnd., pro. sergt. 
HuTitor, G. K., e. Aug. 12,'61, m.o. Oct. 10,'&1. 
Miller, S. J., e. Aug. 12,'61, v., wnd., m.o. 

Mar. ir.,'6G. 
Scott, J. K., c. Aug. 12,'Gl, died Oct. G,'fi2, wnd. 
Stockard, G. E., e. Aug. 12,'Gl, died May9,'G2. 
Wooders, Geo., e. Aug. 12,'Gl, died Mound City. 
Dutr, Jas., e. Jlar. G,'G5, m.o. Mar. G.'GG. 
Fleming, Thos. H., e. Mar. 22, '65. 
Jackson, Henry, e. Mar. 22, 'G-'). 
Jarvis, J. W., e. Mar. 22,'G5, m.o. Mar. 13,'66. 
Rvau, Michael, e. Mar. 22,'6.5. 
Sunuiels, Ja.s. S., e. Mar. 18,'65, pro. 2d lieut. 
Bovd, R. M., e. Feb. 28,'65, m.o. May 2:3,'65. 


The 31st was organized at Cairo, Illinois, September 8, 1861, by Colonel 
John A. Logan. 

The regiment was engaged in the battle of Belmont, November 7, 1861, 
and took an active and honorable part in the engagement at Fort Donelson, 
February 13th, 14th and 15th; was engaged in the siege of Corinth, May, 1862. 

During the following year, was occupied in scouting through Mississippi 
and Tennessee, making many long and arduous marches, engaging in many 
brisk skirmishes, in wdiich it showed excellent fighting qualities and great 
powers of endurance. 

On May 2, 1863, defeated the enemy at Thompson's Hill, again on the 
following day, after a hard march without rations, came upon the enemy, after 
crossing Bayou Pirre, defeating and completely routing him. They still fol- 
lowed the retreating "Johnnies" to Jackson, where they had a severe fight 
w^ith them, and were again the victors. 

The 31st participated in the entire siege of Vicksburg, arriving there on 
the inth of Mav; in the charge on Fort Hill lost 2 officers and 8 men killed, 
and 40 wounded ; their liag received 153 shots, the staflf being shot in two 
four times, but with a heroism born only of the truest bravery, they never 
surrendered the flag. 

March 19, 1864, started for Illinois for veteran furlough. Leaving Cairo 



for the field of action on May 3(1, joined Sherman's grand army at Aekworth; 
was with Sherman in the campaign after Hood, and on November 15th, started 
on that world famed "March to the Sea." 

The ;5lst was mustered out July 19, 1S()5, and moved to Springfield, Illi- 
nois, where they received final discharge and pay July 31, 1865. 


Edwin S. McCook, e. Aug. 10, 'CI, pro. Brevet 
Brig. Geu. 

Principal Musicians. 
John J. Fuller, m.o. Julv 19,'65. 
John Turrell, m.o. Sept. '04. 


Isaac Wert, e. Aug. 2.5,'61, v.. m.o. July 19,'G5. 

First IJcntenanl.o. 
John J. Curry, resigned Dee. 26,'f).'?. 
F. W. Siiekney, e. Aug. 15,'61, v., m.o. July 
19, '65. 

(Second Lieutenants. 

Robert A. Bowman, c. Aug. 10,'Gl, res. Mar. 

David West, e. Aug. 15,'r.l, v., m.o. July 19,'65, 


First .Sergeant. 
Alex. H. Sutton, e. Aug. 1.5,'61. 

Edwin D. Lampet, e. Aug. 1.5,'Gl, d. Mav 10,'G2. 
T. C. Murphy, e. Aug. 1.5,'Gl, m.o. Sept."l8,'6-1. 

Jame.s 11. Miller, c. Aug. l.'i.'Gl, died at Andcr- 

.'iouvilU', Grave No. 21.')?. 
Charles Green, e. Aug. 15, 'Gl. 
Charles N. Emiltan, e. Aug. 15,'61, d. dis. Oct. 

31, '61. 
John B. Reynolds, c. Aug. 15, '61, v., m.o. July 

18, '65, sergt. 

Wm. Parker, c. Aug. 15, '61. 

Adams, John, e. Aug. 15, '61, v. 
Burr, IIukIi, e. Aug. 15,'()1, pro. sergt. 
Benson, \Vni., e. Aug. i5,'61. 
Beckwilh, J. E., c. Aug. 15,'61, v., kid. July 

21, '64. 
Blanton, Thos. J., e. Aug. 10,'61. 
Brown, C. W., e. Aug. 15, '(H, died Nov. 16,'G2. 
Diekey, Jacob, e. Aug. 15,'61. 
Drake, Edward, e. Aug. 15, '61. 
Edson, Henry, e. Aug. 15,'Gl. 
Hoffman, Thomas, e. Aug. 15,'61. 
Jones, Henry, e. Aug. 15,'Gl. 
Kelly, John, e. Aug."l5,'61, d. May 1(),'G2. 
Marvin, H., e. .Vug. 15, '61, d. Mar .s,'62, wnd. 
Mathews, J., e. .Vug. 15,'6l, v., m.o. Julv 19,'6.5. 
Miekle, J., e. Aug. 15, '65, v., m.o. Julv i9,'65. 
O'Brien, J., e. Aug. 15,'tn, died Mar. 14, '62. 
Rearden, Ja.s., e. Aug. ]5,'61, died July 2U,'61, 

Roney, Jas., e. Aug. 15,'61, v., m.o. Julv 19,'6.5. 
Shidler, John, c. Aug. 15,'61, kid. July 22,'G4. 
Spillman, J., e. Aug. 15,'61, d. Mav 14, '62, wnd. 
Taylor, W., e. Aug. 15,'61, died Dec. 6,61. 
Vankiper, K., e. Aug. 15,'61, v., m.o. July 19,65. 
Easland, M. J., e. Sept. 10,'61, v., m.o. June 

17, '65. 
Fuller, P. G., e. Sept. 10,61. 
Fuller, P. B., e. Sept. 10,'01, d. Mar. 17,'62. 
Orwin, Thomas P., e. Sept. 10, '61. 
Stevens, C, e. May 15,'62, m.o. May 31,'65. 
Nelson, A., e. Mar. 1,'65, died at Camp Butler. 


Moore, Wm. S., e. Sept. 23,'&i, in Co. B, m.o. 

June 3, '65. 
Wood, J., e. Fel). 14,'65, in Co. B,, m.o. Sept. 

16, '65. 


MeCormack, Thos., e. Oct. 14,'61. 

Abbott, Geo., e. Nov. 1,'61, d. dis. Aug. 18,'62. 

(Calhoun, John, A., e. Oct. 2.5,'61, v., m.o. Sept. 

Smith, Jacob, e. Nov. 17,'6I. 
Straker, P. E., e. Dec. 21,'61. 
Sill, David, e. Dee. 26,'61, wnd. 
Sinus, W. J., e. Dec. 26,'61, died of wud.s. 
Young, Peter, e. Nov. 17, '61. 
CJrittey, Daniel, e. Jan. 16,'62. 

38tli INFANTKY. 


Andrew M. Pollard, e. Aug. 15,'61, m.o. Mar. 
20, '66. 


Beezeley, John F., e. Aug. 16,'61, v., pro. 1st 

lieut. Co. F. 
(;arpentcr, Horace G., e. Aug. 16,'Gl, in Co. F, 

m.o. Mar. 14, '64, wnd. 
Richmond, Frank, e. Aug. 16,'61, in Co. F, m. 

o. Sept. 9, '64. 


Second Licutsnant. 
A. J. Rankins, e. Aug. 1.5,'Gl, r6s. Feb. 8,'G2. 

First Sergeant. 
V. Rector, e. Aug. 2G,'61, d. dis. Aug. 20,'62. 

J. Murphy, e. Aug. 26, '61. 
Geo. H. Daniel, e. Aug. 2G,'61, m.o. Sept. 26,'64. 

Be(iuoath. N., e. Aug. 26, '61, m.o. Sept. 15, '64. 
Howel, John, e. Aug. 26, '61, died May, '64. 
Howel. K., e. Aug. 26, '61, died Jan. 2li,'62. 
Lcoiiard, W., e. Aug. 26, '61, v., m.o. Mar. 20,'66. 
McCutclieon, Ja,s. A., e. Aug. 26,'61, died Dec. 


Whitaker, W. W., e. Aug. 26,'61, d. Nov. 7,'Gl, 

(lis., .sergt. 
Wiseman, J., e. Aug. 26,'61, v., m.o. Mar. 20,'66. 
Patten, W. T., e. Auar. 26,'61, v., m.o. Mar. 20,'66. 
Blizzard, T. T., died Jan. 12,'65, wnds. 
Moore, D. K., d. dis. J\nie 3, '63. 
Harrison, J., e. Jan. 2:5, '61, m.o. Mar. 20,'66. 

Unoj^signcd Recruits. 
Carey, Patrick, e. Mar. 1,'64. 
(Jerrety, Martin, e. Mar. l,'(i-l. 
O'Neil, James, e. Mar. 1,'G-l. 
Swift, John, e. Mar. 1,'6-1. 
BriuH^ James, e. Oct. 19, '64. 
Clark, John, e. Oct. 20,'64. 
Callahan, John, c. Oct. 20,'G4. 
Clark, Charles, e. Oct. 20,'64. 
Doyle, Frank, e. Oct. 20,'6l. 
Greenham, James, e. Oct. 20,'G4. 
Heoffman, George, c. Oct. 19,'64i 
Miller, John, e. Oct. 20,'64. 
Roberts, John, e. Oct. 20, '64. 


^ 44:th INFANTRY. 

This regiment was organized in August, 1861, at Camp Ellsworth, Chioago, 
and left for St. Louis, September 14th, where, at Benton Barracks, it remained 
till the 22d, was armed and left for Jefferson City, where it took quarters in the 
State House. It then went to Sedalia, and was assigned to General Siegel's 
famous division. On October 13th moved to Springfield, Missouri, and No- 
vember 8th moved to Wilson's Creek, but retreated next day toward Rolla, 
where it remained during the winter. 

On February 2, 1862, it moved toward Springfield, from where an exciting 
chase of General Price was kept up till Camp Halleck, Arkansas, was reached, 
where they remained till March 5th, when it became evident that the com- 
bined forces of Van Dorn, Price and McCullough were marching to give l)attle, 
and accordingly on the 6th moved toward Sugar Creek Valley, and the same 
day the rear guard was attacked by the enemy and repulsed. Thus began the 
terrible battle of Pea Eiilge, which resulted so disastrously to the rebels, in 
which this regiment took a prominent part. The 44th followed up the retreat 
of the enemy, taking hundreds of prisoners. May 8th took up line of March 
toward Little Rock, but changed to Cape Girardeau, on Mississijipi, two 
hundred miles distant, and from thence by water to Pittsburg Landing. After 
evacuation of Corinth was attached to General Pope's army, and sent in 
pursuit of the retreating foe. Bad roads prevented, and went into camp at 

The 18th was sent to Cincinnati September 1st, and from there to Coving- 
ton, Kentucky, thence to Louisville, where the command was re-organized 
under Major-General Buell, and started on the memorable cami^aign after 
Bragg, and was in the battle of Perryville under General Sheridan. Went to 
Bowling Green, where General Rosecrans assumed command, and November 
4th started for Nashville; remained till December 26th, and moved against 
the rebels at Murfreesboro. In the bloody battle of Stone river the 18th took 
a prominent part, losing more than half its number in killed and wounded. 
Remained there till June, 186.3, when it marched to meet the enemy; arrived 
at Cowan's Station July 2d, then marched to Stevenson, Alabama, driving the 
rebels. Augfist 21st the movement against Chattanooga began, and took part 
in the bloody conflict September 19th and 20th. It was foremost in the des- 
perate charge upon Mission Ridge, General Sheridan giving it i>raise for having 
placed one of the first flags upon the rebel works. Noveml)er 27th set out for 
a forced march to Knoxville, one hundred and fifty miles distant ; it arrived 
three days after siege had been raised by General Burnside. At Blain's Cross 
Roads, while in camp, the troops were on the point of starvation several 
times, having, for days at a time, nothing but corn in the ear, and but limited 
supply of that. Nothing could more fully prove the patriotism of the men 
than the fact, that here, on the point of starvation, exposed to the most 
inclement weather, (it being so cold that the ink would freeze to the pen as 
the men signed their names,) over three-fourths of the men voluntarily con- 
sented to serve three years more. Marched to Dandridge, Tennessee, and 
was attacked January l'6th and 17th, and after much hard fighting, becoming 
evident that the whole rebel army was advancing, fell back to Knoxville. 
March 4, 1864, the men were furloughed, and started for home, having 
marched over five thousand miles. 

April 14, 1864, the regiment reached Nashville on its way back to the field. 
Moved toward Atlanta, and entered on the 8th of September. Was in many 
battles during this memorable campaign; was sent to Athens, Alabama, but 
fell back to Nashville, followed by the rebels. At Franklin, Tennessee, Gen- 
eral Schofield determined to give battle. The conflict was short and desperate. 
Took part in the battle of Nashville. January 5, 1865, went into camp at 
Huntsville, Alabama. In April ordered to Nashville, where it was thought 
it would be mustered out, but instead were ordered to New Orleans, and July 
16th ordered to Texas, where it remained till September 25th, when it was 
mustered out. 




George Zelle, o. Aug. 14,'(U, res. Mar. 31, 'G2. 
Ahrend Behrend, e. July 1,'Gl, ra.o. Sept. 2r),'6ri. 

First Lieutenants. 
Nicholas Da^^.s, e. Aug. 11, '61, in.o. J\ine2",'62. 
Henry Sehinidtz, e. July l.'Ol, res. Nov. 1S,'(V_'. 
Peter Wevhrich, pro. adj't, died of wnds. Julv 

J. Eberling, e. July 1,'61, v., m.o. Sept. 25,'Go. 

Second Lieutenants. 

Chas. J. Hulblg, e. Aug. 14,'61, m.o. May 23, '62. 
John Fuchs, e. Aug. 1,'61, v., m.o. Sept. 2.5,'65. 

Sergeant Major. 
H. Huhn, e. July 1,'Gl, pro. 2d lieut. Co. K. 

J. Diiget, o. July 1,'61, ilied Jan. 28.'C.3, wnds. 
John C. Frederick, c. July 1,'01, m.o. July 1.'), 
'65, pas pris. 


Daniel C. Orr. e. July 20,'61. 

Jacob Metzler, e. July 20,'01, v. 

John Eger, e. July 20/01, d. dis. Dec. G,'C2. 

Henry Becker, e.Aug. l.'Ol. 

Franz Reuz, e. July l.'fil, v., m.o. Sept. 2.'>,'fi."i. 

Joseph Jackel, e. Julv l.'i!!, d. di.s. Juue 6, '63. 

W. Uecklenwald, e. Julv l.'(U, died Dec. :!l,'il2. 

M. F. Heckman, e. July l.'Ol, died Oct. 20,'G;;. 

Philip Remer. e. July l.'GG, m.o. Sept. 13,'tVl. 
George Lidle, e. Aug. 1,'Gl. 


Angstein, G., e. Julv l.'Gl, kid. Sept. 20,'63. 

Bartels, Frcl., e. July l,'t;i, v. 

Conrad, Henry, e. July l.'Gl, kid. June 27,'64. 

Darchner, Joseph, e. Aug. l.'Gl. 

Ehrmannadraut, Josei)h, e. July 1,'Gl. 

Ehrhard. J., e. July 1,'Gl, died .Tan. f<,'G3, wnd. 

Eisele, \Vm. L., e. July 1,'Gl. 

Eiscner, M., e. Aug. l.'Gl, v., m.o. Sept. 2),'G5. 

Frie, Henry, e. Julv 1,'Gl. 

Fluth, Jacob, e. July 1,'61. 

Guckcr, George, e. Aug. 1,'Gl. 

Greuel, Paul, e. Aug. ],'61. 

Grenetie, H., e. July 1,'Gl, v., kid. May 17,'frl. 

Geit, Henrv, e. Aug. 1,'Gl. 

Haffner, J.^ c. July 1,'Gl, d. di.s. gept. l.S,'G2. 

Helmreieh, P., e. July 1,'61, v.,m.o. Sept.25,'G5. 

Jansen, Henry, e. July 1,'Gl. 

Janscn, W., e. July 1,'Gl. died May.5,'6,5, wnds. 

Jaeggi, John, e. Julv 1,'Gl, d. dis. Dec. 1G,'G2. 

Junker, Henry, c. Aug. l.'Gl, kid. Dec. 31,'62. 

Koch, Charles, c. July 1,'Gl. 

Kirschner, Michael, "e. July 1,'Gl, v., d. Juue 

18,'G5, wnd. 
Kessier, J., e. July 1,'Gl, died Dec. 31, '63, wnds. 
Kopp, Carl, e. July 1,'Gl, died Mar. 11, '61. 
Mielick, R., e. Julv 1,'iil. diei\ Dec. 31, '()2. 
Miller, H., e. July ],'G1, kid. Dec. 31, '62. 
O'Brien, P., e. July 1,'Gl, died Jan. 2.s,'G3, wnd. 
Oschmann, Henry, o. Aug. 1,'61, v., m.o. Sept. 

25, '6.5. 
Rucbenkocnig, John, e. July 1,'Gl, v., d. Mav 

3, '65, wnd. 
Suter. Jacob, e. Julv 1,'61. 
Schwab, F., e. July"l,'61, v., d. May 9,'65, wnd. 
Schai'hinger, John, e. July 1,'Gl, v., kid. Nov. 

30, '64. 
Steinmetz, Fred., e. July 1,'61. 
Sturm, Christian, e. July 1,'61. 
Sehroeder, John, e. July 1,'61, died Mar. 15,'63, 

Schmidt, Andrew, e. July 1,'61. 
Schmidt, F., e. Aug. 1,'Gl, 'I. dis. Dec. 16,'62. 

Meer, W., e. Mar. 25,'64, m.o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Schock, J., e. Jan. 25,'C>4, m.o. Sept. 25,'65. 
Tochugy, Alovis, d. .'^ept. 2.S,'G3, wnd. 
Tohms, L., v., m.o. Sept. '25,'G5, as sergt. 
Tanbert, August. 
I'ukrcig, Otto, d. Dec. 1,'62, wnd. 
Villhaner, John, m.o. Dee. 25,'6o. 
Wchring, M., kid. at Stone River, Dec. 31, 'G2. 
Wagner, Charles. 
Zimmer, Henry, died July 26,'64, wnd. 


AItes.s P., c. Aug. 1,'Gl, d. dis. Fob. 4, '62. 
Ai)penzelU'r, G., e. Aug. 1,'Gl, kid. Doc. 31, '62. 
Becker, M., c. Aug. 1,'Gl, v., m.o. Sept. 2.5,'G5. 
Fluss, 11., c. Aug. 1,'Gl, d. di.s. Dec. G,'G2. 
Friend, Anton W., e. Aug. 1,'61, died May, '64. 
Pohhnauu, W., o. Aug. 1,'61, died Aug. '63. 
S.hmidt, Peter, o. Aug. 1,'61. 
Conrad, B., e. Sept. 22,'64, m.o. June 15,'65. 
Cash. S. II., e. Sept. 27,'(U, m.o. June 15,'65. 
Jackson, W., e. Sept. 27,'G4, m.o. June 15, '65. 
Oldmann, B. 


First Lieutenant. 
M. Keiiiingor, e. Ang. 14,'61, died Aug. 20,'62. 


Alle Bildhoff, e. Aug. 1,'61, m.o. July 15, '65, 

was pris. 
Udo Dirks, e. Aug. 1,'61, d. di.s. April 1,'63. 
Philip Weber, e. Aug. 1,'61. 

Fred. Traeger, e. Sept. 1,'Gl. 
Julius Trueholl", e. Sept. 1,'61. 

Folkers, G., c. July 1, '61, v., m.o. Sept. 2.5,'65. 
Jacobs, C, e. July 1,G1, m.o. Oct. 5,'64. 
Sior, Jacob, c. Sept. 1,'Gl. 
Seatou, Israel J., e. Aug. 1,'61. 
Schawarz, B., e. .Vug. 1,'Gl. 
Stanton, Anton, e. Aug. 1,'Gl. 
Tenzlingor, Michael, e. Sept. l.'Gl. 
Neef. F., e. Jan. 1,'G4, m.o. Sept. 25,'65, v. 
Volpel, Wm., m.o. June 15,'65. 
Neef, J., e. jNIar. 31, '61, m.o. Sept. 25,'G5. 

45tli INFANTRY. 


J. Mahood, e. Aug. 30,'Gl, d. July 12,'G2, wnd. 


Frazer, Alex., c. Aug. 30,'61, died April 21, '62, 

Hardin, W. H., e. Oct. 15,'61, died June 15, '64. 
Kimmins, H., e. Aug. 30,'61, m.o. Sept. 3, '64, 

Patten, R., e. Aug. 30,'61, dropped Aug. 18,'62. 
Smith, J. B., e. Aug. ;i0,'61, tr. -to invalid corps. 


Armstrong, F. M., c. Dec. 30,'63, d. Jan. 25,'65. 
Calvert, J., e. Dec. 30,'63, m.o. July 12,'G5. 
(Jeorge, L., e. Dec. 30,'63, m.o. Julv 3,'65. 
White, J., e. Dec. 30,'63, m.o. July 12,'65. 
Wilder, A. \., c. Dec. 30,'63, died Oct. 7,'64. 



47th i:f^A:NrTRY. 

The 47th regiment was first organized and mustered into the service of 
the United States, at Peoria, on the 16th day of August, 18G1. 

They left Peoria on the 23d day of September, 1861, for Benton Barracks, 
where they received clothing, arms", etc., leaving for the seat of vftxr on the 9th 
day of October, 1861. 

The 47th was engaged at Farmington, Mississippi, on the 9th day of May, 
in which they lost their lieutenant-colonel, Daniel L. Miles, who was killed 
while bravelv leading his men. On the 28th of May the regiment participated 
in an engagement near Corinth ; took part in the battle of Corinth October 3d 
and 4th, where on the 3d fell the brave and honored Colonel W. A. Thrush, 
while heroically leading his command in a charge. Loss in this engagement, 
30 killed and over 100 wounded. 

Thev were with General Grant on his expedition through central Missis- 
sippi, and on the 14th day of May, 1863, participated in the liattle of Jackson, 
Mississippi, which resulted in the capture of that place. Took part in the 
charge on the enemy's works at Vicksburg, May 22d, losing 12 men killed 
and a large number wounded; assisted in the defeat of the enemy at 
Mechanicsville, Mississippi, thirty miles below Vicksburg. 

The regiment was at the battle of Pleasant Hill, Louisiana, April 9, 1864, 
arriving at Vicksburg May 22d, with General Smith's command, after a cam- 
paign of nearly three months, in which they suffered almost unheard of 
fatigue and privations, many men dying from hardships. 

The 47th met and defeated General Marmaduke near Lake Chicat, in 
which engagement they lost 11 killed and a number wounded, among the 
latter was Major IVIiles, who received almost a fatal shot in the neck. 

The original term of service having expired, they were ordered to Spring- 
field, Illinois, where those who did not re-enlist as veterans, were mustered 
out October 11, 1864. 

The veterans and recruits of the regiment numbering 196 men, com- 
manded bv Lieutenants Edward Bouham and Royal Olmstead, accompanied 
General Mouer's expedition up White river to Brownsville, Arkansas, and 
from there into Missouri after the rebel General Price's army, which was then 
raiding the State. 

The 47th as re-organized, was mustered out January 21, 1866, at Selma, 
Alabama, and ordered to Springfield, Illinois, where it received final pay and 

Lieutenant- Colonel. 
Daniel L. Miles, e. Aug. 25'61, killed in battle, 
May "J, '02. 

John B. Miles, e. Aug. 25,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, 'C4. 

Sergeant- Major. 
Jay G. Rupert, d. Aug. 17,'63. 


Charles B. Cramer, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Thomas O. Brown, d. dis. June 11,'64. 


Johnson, J., e. Aug. 16,'Gl. d. dis. July 30,'62. 
Nicholas, P., e Aug. 16,'01, died April 4,'62. 


Benj. F. Biser, e. Aug. 2.'),'61, kid. June 6,'C>1. 
Diego C. Ross, e. Aug. 16,'01, m.o. Oct. 11, '61. 


S. H. Tobia.s, e. Aug. 16,'61, d. dig. Oct. r2,'62. 
George Eikelberuer, e. Aug. 16,'61, d. dis. Sept. 
2, '63. 

Catv C. Wright, e. Aug. 16, '61, m.o. Oct. 11,'64, 
Jos.'B. Bradley, e. Aug. 16, '61, d. dis. Feb. 1,'62. 
I. Kauft'man, e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
S. L. Ewing, e. Aug. 16,'61, kid. Oct. 3,'62. 
Chas. A. Crane, e. Aug. 16.'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Joseph Means, e. Aug. 16,'61. 
Dan'l Roberts, e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
A. M. Crosby, e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Aug. 22,'64. 


J. Wieterhaet, e. Aug. 16,'61, kid. Aug. 16"64. 


Burtan, W., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Bateman, W., e. Aug. 16.'61, died Oct. 22,'62. 
Bliss, James, e. Aug. 16,'61, d. Mar. 11,'63, e. in 

M. M. Brig. 
Bamber, J., e. Aug. 16,'61, v., m.o. Jan. 21, '66. 
Bowers, J., e. Aug. 16,'61, v., m.o. Jan. 21, '66. 
Barnum, T. J., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Culbertson, Wm. E., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 

11, '64. 
Culp, S.. e. Aug. 16,'61. m.o. Oct. 11, '6-1. 
Crosby, H. X., e. Aug. 16.'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Cutler, Charles A., e. Aug. 16, '61. 
Cooper, W. H., c. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Dunley, W. A., e. Aug. 16,61, m.o. Oct. 11,'64. 
Drummond, J. M., e. Aug. 16,'61, died Jan. 




Evans, A., e. Aug. 16, '61, d. dis. Jan. 14, '63. 
Gross, C, e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Holland, J., e. Aug. 16,'61, d. <lis. Jan. 2.?,'63. 
Jones, C, e. Aug. 16, '61, diad June •_"J,'63. 
Jewett. J., e. Aug. 16,'61, v., died Dec. 1,'G4. 
Kingman, C, e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Kraier, J. A., e. Aug. 16. '61, v., m.o. Jan. 21'66. 
Lan.son, R., c. Aug. 16,'61. m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Lockwood, C, c. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Morgan. T., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Minch, J., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, 'tU. 
Powell, T. J., e. Aug. 16,'61, v., pro. 2d lieut. 
Parrell, R., e. Aug. 16,'61, v., m.o. Jan. 21, '66. 
Phillips, J. M., e. Aug. I6,'6x, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Phillip.s, Ed., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11'64, 

Rolcy, J. F., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Roberts, T. C, e. Aug. 16,'61, d. dis. Julv 9,'63. 
Roberts, E. H., e. Aug. 16,'61, d. dis. Nov. 25,'62. 
Seaman, J., e. Aug. 16.'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Smith, D., e. Aug. 16,'61, died Sept. 30.'64. 
Shultz. H., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11,'tVl. 
Shoemaker, J., e. Aug. 16. '61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Sanders, (}. \V., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '61. 
Shoemaker, A., e. Aug. 16. '61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Stiner, J., e. Aug. 16,'tV4, m.o. Oct. 11,'6-J. 
Turrell, A., e. Aug. 16,'(U, kid. Oct. 3,'62. 
Thamer, ('. G., e. Aug. 16,'61. m.o. Oct. 11,'64. 
Thamer, H., c. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, "64. 
Tobias, II. H., o. Aug. 16,'64, m.o. Oct. 11, '64, 

Vunmeier, W. H., e. Aug. 16,'Cl, m.o. Oct. ll'(V4. 
Vanmeter. W. C, e. Aug. 16,'61, kid. Oct. 3,'62. 
Wiley, T. H., e. .Vug. 16,'61, lu.o. Oct. 11, "(Vl. 
Waughop, M. H., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, "tU. 
Whilaker, H., e. A\ig. 16,'61, d. dis. Oct. 12,'62. 
^ Wilson, A. J., e. Aug. 16,'61, d. Feb. l',i,'62. 
Webster, J. L., e. Aug. 16,'61, d. dis. Oct. 24,'62. 
Weaver, J., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, 'W. 
Zinser, G. W., e. Aug. 16."61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Zinser, .Sam. C, e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64, 


Arasbary, A. A., e. Aug. .s,'62, d. Julv 20,'65. 
Avas, J., e. Aug. 4,'62, d. dis. Fel). 24, '63. 
Bo\ighman, J. F., e. .luly 24, '62, d. Julv 20,'65. 
liunn. A., e. Aug. 8. '62, d. .Inlv 2(),'6."). " 
Bunn, B.. e. Aug. .S,'62, died Nov. ]2,'62. 
Fnizier, Geo. W., e. Aug. 7,'62, m.o. Julvl3,'65. 
Hartman, H., e. Aug. il,'62, kid. Mav22,'63. 
Jewett, H., e. Aug. 7, '62, m.o. Julv 2(),'6-'). 
Klingenberg, N., e. Aug. 12.'62, m.o. Julv20,'65. 
Orr, James, e. July 2".t,'62, m.o. Mav 22, '65. 
Royce, C, e. Aug. 13,'62, kid. June, '64. 
Seaman, T. D., e. July 2S,'62, d. July 2(),'6.5. 
Sutton, A. B., e. Jan. S,'64, m.o. Jaii. 21, '66. 
Tliomas, W. E., e. Aug. 12,'62, d. July 20,'65, 

Zaneis, J., e. .Vug. 4,'62, d. July 20,'6.5. 
McBride, D., e. Feb. l.'),'6.j. m.o. Jan. 21. '66. 
Phillips, N., e. Feb. 14, '6.5, m.o. Jan. 21, '66. 


G. Putcrbaugh, c. Aug. 25,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 

First LieutciMJit. 
W. M. Pierce, e. Aug. 25, '61, m.o. Oct. 11, '6^1. 

Secoiul Lieutenant. 
Edgar Lsbell, o. Aug. 25,'61, hon. d. Nov. 6,63. 

Leander King, e. Aug. 16,'6], m.o. Oct. 11,'64. 
J. Putcrbaugh, e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '6-1. 
F. T. Bower, e. Aug. 16,'61, d. dis. Aug. 9, '62. 


Sam. A. Brddbuni, e. Aug. 16, '61, v., m.o. Jan. 
21, '66. 

Wm. H. Florry, e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
J. M. Allison, e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Theo. L. Wagonseller, e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 

11, '(i4. 
J. A. Ilittle, e. Aug. 16, '61, d. dis. Aug. 6, '62. 
A. C. Miller, e. Aug. 16,'61, d. dis. Sept. 20, '62. 
S. R. Drake, e. Aug. 16,'61, d. Oct. 9,'63, wnd. 
Jacob M. Copes, e. Aug. 16,'61, v., pro. ser.-maj. 

Q. C. Bums, e. Aug. 16,'61, d. dis. Aug. 23,'C2. 

Puilph P. Potter, e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11,'64. 

Brown, J., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '&4. 
Betcher, J., e. Aug. 16, '61, m.o. Oct. 11, 'M. 
Bri.son, M., e. Aug. 16.'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Bowman, J. H., e. Aug. 16, '61, v., pro. 1st. lieut. 
Bilker. R., e. Aug. 16,'61. 
Crosley, S. H., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Carman, C. B., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Carroll, James, e. Aug. 16,'61. 
Cary, M., e. Aug. 16,'61. 

Cohenour, W., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Aug. 11,'64. 
Cohcnour, R. M., e. Aug. 16,'61, d. dis. April 

17, '62. 
Cohenour, J., c. Aug. 16,'61, d. dis. 
Coffman, H. H., e. Aug. 16,'61, died Dec. 20, '63. 
Cooper, J. W., e. Aug. 16, '61. 
Davis, II. W., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Davis, B. F., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Darley, \V., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Dare, \V. .S., e. Aug. 16,'61, d. dis. May29,'63. 
Doman, Wm. H., e. Aug. 16,'61, v., m.o. Jan. 

21, '66. 
Drake, T. B., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Ekel, W. T., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11,'64. 
ELson, H., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '(U. 
Fisher, P., e. Aug. 16,'61, d. dis. Julv 24, '62. 
Graves, B., e. Aug. 16,'61, d. dis. April 20,'63. 
Gardner, DeW. C, e. Aug. 16, '61, v. 
Hay, ])., e. .Vug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11,'64. 
Hannagan, J. J., e. Aug. 16, '61. 
Hatch, T. II., e. Aug. 16,'61. v., m.o. Jan. 21, '66. 
Hamrick, J. P., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Harlow, J. B., e. Aug. 16,'61, pro. 2d lieut. 
Hinsey, C. C, e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Hession, P., e. Aug. 16,'61, tr. to M. M. Brag. 
Hill, H. W., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11 '64. 
Ingersoll, G., e. Aug. 16,'61, d. Nov. 2.5,'63, wnd. 
Koozer, J. II., e. Aug. 16, '61, v., m.o. Jan. 21, 

'66, sergt. 
McCarmack, R., e. Aug. 16, '61, m.o. Jan. 21, '66. 
Moore, D., e. Aug. 16, '61, d. dis. Mav 20, '62. 
Murphy, P., e. Aug. 16,'61, died July 22,'G3. 
MiVeagh, J., e. Aug. 16,'61. 
Meckley, C, e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Munroe, J., e. Aug, 16, '61. 
Miller. J. Y., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, 'M. 
Myers, P., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
McClcllcn. J. E., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, 'M. 
O'Brien, H. M., e. 16,'61, died Julv 4,'63. 
O'Brien, J. T., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '(U. 
O'Brien, D., e. Aug. 16,'61, v., tr. to V. R. C. 
Patchin, IL, e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Pettit, L. e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Rose. A., e. Aug. 16,'61, died Sept. 9,'64. 
li<.)binson, M. V., e. .\ug. 16,'61,m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Ruble, J., e. Aug. lt;,'61. 
Ryan, G., o. Aug. 16,'61, pro. capt. 
Shrevc, E., e. Aug. 16,'61, v., m.o. Jan. 21, '66. 
Sherman, J., e. Aug. 16, '61, m.o. Oct. 11, '6-1. 
Smith, II. L.. e. A\ig. 1(),'61, v., d. Sept. iy,'6.5. 
Stewart, T. E., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, "64.] 
Specht, G., e. Aug. 1(),'61, v., m.o. Jan. 21, '66. 
Stuard, L., e. Aug. 16."61, died Dec. 31, '61. 
Thornton, C. W., e. Aug. 16,'61, v., m.o. Jau. 

21. '66. 
Thummel, W. H., c. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11,64. 
VadDoser, G., e. Aug. 16,'61, v., m.o. Jan. 21,'61. 



Vincent, F. E., e. Aug. 16,'61, m.o. Oct. 11,'G4. 
Wood, K., e. Aug. 1G,'01, m.o. J;iu. 21, '06. 
Woodrutr, Theodore, e. Aug. 16, '01. 
Wagenseller, A. E., e. Aug. 10,'64, d. dis. May 

Williamson, Alex. H., e. Aug. 16,'Cl, m.o. Jan. 

21, '60. 
Wakelield, Wm., c. Aug. 1G,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Sergeant, Elijah D., e. Aug. 16,'01, d. dis. Dec. 

McKenzie, W. F., e. Aug. 16"61, died Oct. 19,61. 
Timbiell, B., e. Aug. 1C,'61, died Dec. 1,'61. 
Tice, A., e. Aug. 16,'61, d. dis. Nov. 8,'63. 


Brock, O. P., e. Nov. 4,'61. 
Clay, W. H., e. Jan. 5,'64, m.o. Jan. 21, '60. 
Koozer, Fred., e. Mar. 1.3,'62. 
King, J. M., pro. q.m. sergt. 
Russell, F. M., c. Sept. 20,'Gl, died June 6,'63, 


H. N. Ferguson, e. Aug. 21, '01, m.o. Oct. 11, '04. 

Frisby, I. M., e. Aug. 21, '01, d. dis. Dec. 26,'61. 
Martin, A. L. S., e. Aug. 21, '01, m.o. Oct. 11, '04. 
Marshall, R. A., e. Aug. 21, '01, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Twineham, R. O., e. Aug. 21, '61, v., m.o. Jan. 
21, '66. 


Stilcer, L., e. Sept. 1,'61, v., m.o. Jan. 21, '66. 
Kayser, M., e. Mar. 1,'65, m.o. Jan. 21,'66. 


Ashmore, R. B., e. Sept. 4,'61, died Dec. 26,'61. 
Bane, E., e. Sept, 4,'61, v., nro. Jan. 21,'66. 
Bennett, J., e. Sept. 4, '61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 
Chainey, A., e. Sept. 4,'61, kid. Oct. 3,'62. 
North, S. R., e. Sept. 4,'01, died July 16,'62. 
Poulton, Wm., e. Sept. 4, '61. 
Shompiert, J., e. Sept. 4, '61, m.o. Oct. 11, '04. 
Stormer, J., e. Sept. 4,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '64. 

Beekman, J., v., e. Jan. 2.5,'64, m. o. Jan. 21'00. 
Bennett, A., e. Jan. 21, '04, died April.14,'64. 
Carson, P. N., e. July 30,'02, m.o. July 20,'6.3. 
Camp, T., e. Feb. 1,'64, m.o. Jan. 21, '66. 
Dodson, C, e. July 24, '02, m.o. July 20,'65. 
Dillon, I., e. Jan. 21, '64, died Aug. 3,'64. 
Dane, Joseph, c. Aug. 6, '62. 
Howard, J. F., e. Aug. 4,'62, m.o. July 20,'C5. 
McNutt, L., e. Aug. 0,'02, m.o. July 20,'65. 
McCuUoch, J., e. Aug. 7,'62, m.o. July 20,'05. 
McNutt, J., e. Aug. 0,'62, died Dec. 28, '02. 
Bulon, H., e. Jan. 2.5,'64, m.o. Jan. 21, '66. 
Roberts, W. H., e. Jan. 21,'t>4, m.o. Jan. 21, '66. 
Sweet, L., e. Sept. 1,'62, m.o. July 20, '65. 
Tantlinger, P., e. Julv 30,'62, m.o. July 20,'05. 
Vining, J., e. Aug. 8,'02, d. dis. Mar. 18,'03. 
Ward, P., e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. July 20,'02. 


First Sergeant. 
Henry Hill, e. Mar. 3,'65, m.o. Jan. 21, '06. 


Ankney, F., c. Sept. 17,'61, tr. to V. R. C. 
Boshow, J., e. Sept. 7, "61. 
Bradshaw, J., e. Sept. 12,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '(Vl. 
Brown, T. O., e. Sept. 0,'01, pro. hosp. stew. 
Hoffman, H., e. Sept. 0,'61, m.o. Oct. 11, '04. 
Lowe, A., e. Sept. 18,'01, died Aug. 20,'03. 
Sharp, E., e. Sept. 11,'61, kid. May 22,'63. 

Hornback, D., e. Mar- 3,'65, m.o. Jan. 21, '06. 
Hofer, C, e. Mar. 3,'C.5, m.o. Jan. 21, '00. 
Hanuon, A., e. Mar. 3,'0.''), m.o. Jan. 21, '66. 
ISIaple, Albert, e. Mar. 3,'6.5, m.o. Jan. 21, '66. 
Maple, A., e. Mar. 3,'6.5, m.o. Jan. 21, '66. 
Maple, J., e. Mar. 3,'05, m.o. Jan. 21, '00. 



Beard, J. E., e. Feb. 21, '0.5, m.o. Sept. 9,'65. 
Fairchild, J. G., e. Feb. 18,'65, m.o. Feb. 9,'65. 
Odin, T. M., e. Feb. 1S,'65, m.o. Feb. 9,'65. 
Whitehead, E., e. Feb. 21, '65, m.o. Feb. 9,'05. 
Hall, J. R., e. Feb. 18,'05, m.o. Fel). 9,'65. 
Odin, M. G., e. Feb. 14,'65, m.o. Feb. 9,'65. 
Thurmond, T., e. Mar. 1,'65, m.o. Sept. 9,'65. 




Ellis, Thos., e. Jan. 22, '62. 

Egman, Augustu.s, e. Jan. 7, '62. 

Graham, A. J., e. Dec. 24,'63, v., m.o. Sept. 25, 

'05, sergt. 
Gardner, Wm., c. Jan. 14, '62, v. 
Goffinett, Peter, e. Jan. :;,'62, died at Anderson- 

ville, June 15,'lVt, No. Grave, 2001. 
Lee, J. F., e. Jan. 7,'02, d. dis. Jan. 17,'02. 
Merchant, S. P., e. Jan. 21, '02, m.o. April 1,'05. 
Ruble, B., e. Jan. 7,'02, tr. to V.R.C. 
Ruble, Wm., e. Jan. 14,'02, v., m.o. Sept. 25,'65. 



T. H. Lamplin, e. Mar. 21, '65, m.o. Mar. 20,'66. 

Chas. Perry, e. Mar. 21, '65, m.o. Mar. 20,'66. 


Guthrie, S., e. Mar. 21, '65, m.o. Mar. 20,'66. 
Hickev, D., e. Mar. 21, '65, m.o. Mar. 20,'00. 
Rohm' D. F., e. Mar. 17,'65, m.o. Mar. 16,'66. 


J. W. Ricard, e. Mar. 17,'65, m.o. Jan. 6,'66. 
W. D. Skelly, e. Feb. 2S,'65, m.o. Feb. 27,'66. 

Allison, W. T., e. Feb. 2S,'65, m.o. Feb. 27,'66. 
Green, Hardin, e. Feb. 28,'65. 
Primm, J. J., Feb. 28, '05, m.o. Feb. 27,'06. 
Riehards, S. S., e. Mar. 17, '65. 
Skelly, W., e. Feb. 28,'05, m.o. Feb. 27, '60. 
Tate, N. P., e. Mar. 3,'05, m.o. May 29,'05. 
Tucker, W. D., e. Feb. 28,'05, m.o. Feb. 27,'GG. 
Watson, H. E., c. Feb. 28,'05, m.o. Feb. 27,'06. 
Watson, W., e. Feb. 28,'65, m.o. Mar. C,'66. 


First Lieutenant. 
J. W. Smith, e. April 1,'05, res, Aug. 29,'65. 



Gross, L. K., e. Mar. 25,'05. 

Hall, J., e. Mar. 10,'65, died April 28, '65. 

Robinson, Geo., Mar. 22,'05. 

Wire, T. J., e. Mar. 25,'65, m.o. May 29,'65. 




Was organized at CarroUton, Illinois. At Pittsburg Landing, on April Gth, 
1862, 400 men were formetl into line in time to receive the first assault of the 
enemy, and stood their ground for an hour and a quarter. Upon retiring 
from their position, the regiment was complimented by Gen. Prentiss for its 
gallant stand. Loss 80 killed, w'ounded and missing, and 3 commissioned 
officers. Regiment mustered out Sept. 8th, 18l>>, at Nashville, Tenn. 


Damson, M. T., c. Sept. 30,'G4, m.o. July 20,'G5. 


Adams, A., c. Oct. 10,'(>1, A: (lis. June 27, 'Co. 
Hinson, S., e. Oet. l,'t>l, m.o. July 2U,Go. 

C<>MP,\NY G. 

Bahvin, J., c. .Sept. 'JV.'fit, m.o. Jiilv 2n,'a5. 
Cratcliett, A., e. 0<'t. 1,'G4, m.o. July 2U,'r>ri. 
Crade, J. J., e. Sei>t. 27, '04, m.o. Julv 2(i,'ti.'). 
Crateliett, W. C, e. Sept. 27,'G-l, m.o. Julv20,'G.'). 
Clark, G. F., e. Sept. 27,'G-l, m.o. July 20,'G5. 
Peavine, J., e. iSept. 2iS,'G4, m.o. July 2().'G.'i. 
Rhode.*, J., e. Sept. 27, 'G4, died Murfree.boro. 
Robinette, J. R., e. Sept. 27,'G4, m.o. July 20,G.'). 
Warren, W. S., e. Sept. 27, 'G4, m.o. July 20,'G."). 
Predemore, A. J., o. Mar. 7,'G.'), m.o. Sept. 8,'Go. 
Vanai-sdale, N., e. Sept. 26,'C-}, in Co. G., 58th. 


Adams, E. C, e. Sept. 30, 'G4, m.o. July 20,'G5. 


Griffin, J. E., e. April .">,'G.5, m.o. Sept. 8,'G5. 

Gates, J. W., e. Oct. 5,'G4. 

Hauer, A., Sept. 27,'G4, m.o. May 23,'G5. 

Lewis, H. B., e. Sept. 2S,'G4. 

Simons, D. A., e, Sept. 27, 'G4. 


M. J. Haines, o. Feb. 2,'&4, m.o. Mar. 6,'66. 
COMP.\NY r. 


Ford, S. D., e. Feb. 11, 'G.'), deserted Mar. 20,'G5. 



Brauer, W. H., e. Feb. 1,'G2, deserted at Cov- 
ington, Kv. 

Hiscock, L. W., 6. Feb. 1,'G2, died .Vug. 13,'G4, 

Kellogg, F. A., e. Feb. 1,'C2, v., died April 3,'65. 

Seelye, W. IL, e. Feb. 1,'G2, v., m.o. Mar. G.'GG. 

Smith, J., e. Jan. 23,'G-l, rej. and discharged. 

07tli (Three Months,) INFANTRY. 


Anthony, C. E., e. June 2,'C2. 
Burton, F. M., e. June 2, '62. 

Crane, William, e. June 2, '62. 

jVIishler. Samuel, e. June 2,'G2. 
Rodtjurs, I). A., e. June 4,'G2. 
Riddle, Hamilton, June 4, '02. 
Ri<'e, Daniel, e. June 4,'G2. 
Steele, J. A., e. June 4,'G2. 
Toliias, B. F., e. June 4,'G2. 
(Jadwell, William, e. June 2,'G2. 

08th (Three Months,) INFANTRY. 


Ed. J. J(mcs, e. June 23,'C2, m.o. Sept. 26,'C2. 

First Lieutenant. 
T. L. Masters, e. June 23,'G2, m.o. Sept. 26,'G2. 

Second Lieutenant. 
IT. L. Dunn, e. June 23,'G2, m.o. Sept. 2C,'62. 


L. W. Coplin, e. June 2,'G2. 
L. G. Smith, e. June 2,'G2. 
R. J. Edwards, e. June 2,'62. 


George Jones, e. June 2, '62. 
Lueius Smith, e. June 2,'62. 

Ira Sipes, c. June 2,'G2. 


Barr, F. M., e. June 2, '62. 
Burk, James, e. June 2,'G2. 
Demorest, J. H., e. June 2'ri2. 
Devore, Noah, e. June 2'.t,'G2. 
Hailey, William, e. June 9,'G2. 
Hill, J. G., e. June2,'G2. 
Hinner, Ira, e. June 23, 'G2. 
Loekwood, Henry, e. June 15,'62. 
McNeal, John, e. June 2,'G2. 
MeFarland, Edward, e. June2,'G2. 
Mullen, Owen, c. June 2, '62. 
Owens, E. M., e. June 2,'G2. 
Ogden, I. B., e. June23,'G2. 
Putnam, John, e. June 30,'G2. 
Powers, James, e. June 2,'G2. 
Striker, David, e. June 2,'G2. 
Sams, .Vlexander, e. .June 11, 'G2. 
Strieker, Henry, e. .June 2;»,'G2. 
Turner, G. C, e. June 2'.i,'G2. 
VauBureu, Edwani, e. June 2, '62. 
Vaneil, J. P., e. June 2,'G2. 
Wat.son, John, e. June 22, '62. 
Zimmer, Henry, c. Juno 22,'62. 




The 7ord was organized at Camp Butler in August, '62, and soon became 
part of Gen. Buell's army The 73rd took part in every Ijattle fought by the 
army of the Cumberland, from Oct, 62. until the route of Gen. Hood's army at 

No greater eulogy can be pronounced on the patrotism, bravery, and 
heroic devotion to a sacred principle than that silent language of their dead, 
speaking from the graves of every battle-tield where they poured out their 
life's blood, at Perryville, Murfreesl^oro, Chickamaugo, Missionary Ridge, 
through out mountain gorges of East Tennesee and in a succession of battles 
from Chattanooga to the falls of Atlanta. 

The 73rd had 2 majors and 2 adjutants killed, and nearly every officer of 
the regiment wounded at some time — several, many times; but as to the 
aggregate loss during their service no data is to Ije found. They left the State 
one of the largest, and returned one of the smallest regiments, near two- 
thirds of the organization having wasted away, either by disease, or death on 
the battle field, during their three years' service. 



Harvey Pratt, e. Dec. 1,'6'2, m.o. June 12,'65. 

First Lieutenant. 

Joshua Bailey, e. July 17,'C2, m.o. June 12,'G5. 


Jesse D. Kilpatrick, e. July 23, '62, pris. Sept. 

20, '63. 
A. A. Holmes, c. July 15, '62, m.o. June 12, '6.'). 
Joseph S. Parke, e. July 1-J,'62, m.o. June 12,65. 
David J. Reid, e. July 23,'62, m. o. June 12,'65. 

T. A. Martin, e. Aug. 12,'62, m.o. June 12,'65. 
N. D. Rodgers, e. July 12,'62, m.o. June 12,'65. 


Adams, D. H., e. July 31,'62, kid. Sept. 20,'63. 
Avers, J. M., e. Aug. 8,'62, d. dis. June 1,'63. 
Allen, W. M., e. Julv23,'62, died Dec. 23,'62. 
Baylor, J. D., e. July 19,'62, m.o. June r2,'65. 
Baldwin, A., e. Julv 22, '62, m.o. June 12,'65. 
Buckman, J. H., e. Julo 21, '62, d. dis. May 3,'63. 
Brown, J. A., e. Aug. 11, '62, died Anderson- 

ville, pris. 
Davis, W. E., e. Aug. 11, '62, died at Murfrees- 

boro. Mar. 23, '63. 
Few, P. B., e. July 17,'62, m. o. June 12,'65. 
Tailor, G., e. July 23,'62. m. o. June 12,'65. 
Fruman, M. L., e". July 23, '62, m.o. June 12, '65. 
Frazer, T. J., e. Aug. 8, "62, m. o. June 12, '65. 
Gilcrest, E. W., e. Aug. 11, '62, died at Nash%-ille, 

Dee. 6, '62. 
Gale, C. L., e. July 17,'62, trans. I. C. Aug. 1,'63. 
Glaze, C. M., e. July 22, '62, died at Delavan, 

Jan. 7, '64. 
Gooch, DeWitt R., e. Julv 22,'62, trans, to I. C. 
Goodale, D. S., e. July 22,'62, died at Nashville 

Jan. 8, '63. 
Gensett, J. M. e. July 23,'62, pro. Sei^t. Major. 
Gaskill, C. F., e. Aug. 11, '62, died at Nashville 

Nov. 24,'62. 
Holt, Jesse, e. Aug.7,'62, m. o. June 12, '65, corpl 
Huntlev, J. W., e. July 17,'62, died at Gallatin, 

Hunt, J. A., e. July 17,'62, died at Murfreesboro 

May 27, '63. 
Hanna, F. H., e. July 22,'62, trans, to I. C. 
Hatch, T. C, e. July 19,'62, ra. o. June 12,'65. 
Hilderbrand, Jacob, Aug. 8, '62. died Feb. 1,'63, 


Hamptman, E. A.,e. Julv.31,'62,d.dis.Mar. 1,'63, 
Hill, L., e. Aug. 11, '62, d. dis. .Ian. 6,'63. 
Iscnberg, Joel, e. July 17, '62, died June 27, '64, 

Johnson, R. S., e. July 17,'62, kid Stone river, 

Dec. 31, '62. 
Jacobus, W. A., e. July 31,'62, d. dis. Jan. 15, '63. 
Jacobus, L. K., e. July 31, '62, died Nashville 

dec. '62. 
Kibbj, G. R., e. July 19,'62, m. o. June 27, '65, 

was pris. 
Lawler, D. F., c. Aug. S, 62, m. o. June 12,'65. 
Long, J. H., e. July 23, '62, d. dis. Aug. 7, '62. 
Lamphier, I. L., e. July 21, '62, m. o. June 12, 

'65, corpl. 
Lovno, Reuben, e. Aug. 5, '62, died Nashville 

■ Nov. 30, '62. 
Morris, J. W., e. Aug. 7,'62, died Murfreesboro, 

April 28, '63, 
Monday, J. W., e. July 15,'62, m. o. June 12,'65. 
Mondav, E. R., e. July 15, '62, m. o. June 12, '65. 
McCormlc, M., e. Aug. 11, '62, d. dis. Jan. 10'63. 
Opdyke, Benj., e. July 22, '62, m. o. June 12,'65. 
Patterson, R. H.. e. Julv 19, '62, m.o. June 12, '65. 
Palmer, D. H., e. Julv 22,'62, m. o. June 12,'65. 
Reid, A. J., e. July 19,'62, died Oct. 28,'63,wnds. 
Rvbin.son, R., e. July 19,'62, kid at Stone river 

Dec. 31, '62. 
Richards, C. C, e. Aug. 5,'62, tr. I. C. Aug. 1,'63. 
Randolph, C. F., Aug. 11, '62, m. o. June 12,'65, 

Sherman, A., e. Julv 23,'62, m. o. May 20,'65. 
Ward, W. B., e. Julv 17,'62, ni. o. June 12,'65. 
Wertz, J. C, e. July 22,'62, d. dis. Apr. 23,'63. 


Buckman, Joel, e. Sept. 29,'64, m.o. Junel2,'65. 
Brown, M. e. Fel). 9,'64, trans. 44th Inft., wnd. 
Bailcv, C. M., e. Feb. 13,'64, trans. 44th Inft. 
Drake, N., e. Oct. 4, '64, trans. 14th Inft. 
Kite, W. H., e. Oct. 4,'t54, trans. U. S. V. E. 
Harbinson, G., e. Oct. 4,'64, kid at Franklin, 

Nov. 30, '61. 
Miller, G. A., c. Feb. 18, '64, trans. 44th Inft. 
Newman, B., e. Sept. 29,'64, m. o. June 12,'65. 
Provost, A., e. Sept. 2'J,'6^1, m. o. Mav 21, '65. 
Patten, G. W., e. July 9,'62, d. dis. Feb. 9,'63. 
Spruce, J. H., e. Oct. 6,'64, trans. 44th Inft. 


First Lieutenant. 
G. W. Patten, e. July 15,'62, m. o. June 12,'65. 



85tli INFANTRY. 

The 85th was organized at Peoria in August, '62, by Col. Robert S. Moore, 
and mustered into service August 27, '62. Ordered to Louisville, Ky., Sep- 
tember 6, '62, assigned to Thirty-Sixth Brigaile, Eleventh Division, Third 
Army Corps, Col. D. McCook commanding Brigade, Gen. Sheridan command- 
ing Division, and Gen. Gilbert commanding Corps. The 85th marched in 
pursuit of the enemy under Gen. Bragg, Oct. 1, '62, was engaged in the battle 
of Champion Hill, at Perryville, Kentucky, Oct. 8, and moved with the army 
to Nashville, Tenn., arriving Nov. 7, '62. 

Regiment mustered out June, 5, '65, at Washington, D. C, and arrived at 
Camp Butler, 111, June 11, 65, wliere they received their final discharge. 


Thos. R. RoberUs, e. July 11, '02, res. April 15,'G4. 

First Lieutenant. 
Daniel Havens, e. .July IS.'O^, m. o. May 15, '65. 

J. K. Miller, e. July is,'i>2, died hands enemy, 

Aus. 20, 'W, wounds. 
W. M. Landwitli, e. July 1S,'G2, d.dis. Meh.2G'62. 
Joseph Stout, e. July lis, '(12, ni. o. Juno 5,'65, as 

reg. color br'er. " 

Benj. Ohite, e. July 18,'G2, kid at Perryville, 

Ky., Oct. 8, '62. 
J F. Rodgers, e. July S,'G2, m. o. Suiie 5,'G.j, 1st 

Alonzo McCain, c. July IS, '62, m. o. July22,'G5, 

was pris. 

Alyea, J. W., e. July 18,'e2, m. o. June 17,'65, 

wa.s pris. 
Albin, W. M., e. July 1S,'62, m. o. June 5,'65. 
JJartram, K. W., e. July 18, '62, absent sick at 

ni. o. of regt. 
Boon, C. W., o. July 18,'62, died Chattanooga 

July 14, 'G4, wnds, corpl. 
Bradburn, J. M., e. July is, '62, m. o. June5,'65. 
Bradburn, J. M., Jr., e. July 1S,'G2, m. o. June 

5, '65. 
Bradburn, J. W. e. July IS, '62, died Bowling 

Green, Nov. 1,'62. 
Bortzfield, Jacob e. July 1S,'62, ra. o. June 5, '65. 
Bortztleld, Wm., e. June 21, '62, died Aug. 11, '61, 

Booth, J. VV., c. July 21,'62, died Nov. 27,'63. 
Blizzard, W. D., e. Aug. 5,'62, m. o. Aug. 5, '65. 
Cunley, A., e. Aug. 10,'62, died Nashville, Feb. 

12, '63. 
Charlton, W. P., e. Aug. 10,'62, m. o. May :!0,'65. 
Daniels, J. R., e. Aug. 10,'62, tr. i. c. Feb. 15,'64. 
Howell, Geo., e. Aug. 10,'62, died Nash%illc, 

Apr. 5, '63. 
Howell, H., e. Aug. 10, '62, died Louis\ille in '62. 
Jordan, B. F., e. July 1S,'62, m. o. June 2S,'65, 

wa.s pris. 
Koozer, Danl., c. July 24,'62, died Goldsboro 

Meh. 27, '65, wnds. 
Kratzer, David, e. July 24,'62, died Big Shanty, 

June 29,'64, wnds. 
Layton, W., e. July 29,'62, died Nashville, Dec. 

Mason, H., e. July 30,'62, died Louisville, Dee. 

23, '62. 
Mayes, J. A., e. July 30,'62, abs. sick at m. o. of 

Parks, Jacob, e. July 20, '62, m. o. June 5, '65. 
Pemberton, B., e. July 2'.i,'62, d. dis. Jan. 10,'63. 
Pemberton, W. J.,c. Aug.l0,'62,d.dis.Jan.24,'63. 
Shaw, R., e. July 18,'62, abs. sick at ra.o. of regt. 
Saint, P. e. July 18,'C2, kid Peach T. creek, July 

19, '64. 

Streeter, H. R., e. July 18,'62, abs. atni. o. regt., 

Schniick, W. S., e. Aug. 10,'62, abs. sick at ra.o. 

of regt. 
Trent, Thos., c. Aug. 10,'62, m. o. June 5,'65. 
Vanduseu, J. P., e. July 18,'G2, died Nsishvllle 

Meh. 3, 'Go. 
Wood, J. A., e. Julv 1S,'G2, d. dis. Feb. 10,'63. 
Whit^iker, W. J., July 1S,'62, died Nashville, 

Dec. 20, '62. 
White, M. L., e. July 18,'62, died Nashville Dec. 

13, '62. 




10. Kennedy, c. Aug. 27,'62, died July 19,'64. 
. J. Mason, e. June 16, '62, m. o. June 5,'65. 

First Lieutenants. 

Robt. J. Bowman, e. Aug. 27, '62, res. Oct. 17, '63. 
F. M. McColyou, e. June 1G,'62, abs. sick atm. 
o. regt. 

Second Lieutenants. 
R. M. Tinney, e. Aug. 27,'62, res. Jan. 13,'63. 
E. D. Lampett, e. June 16,'62. res. Oct. 10,'63. 

First Sergeant. 
Wm. Kelly, e. June 16, '62, ra. o. June 5,'65. 


Wm. Johnson, e. June 16, '62, m. o. June 5, '65, 
as 1st i>rivate. 


Fd. Scattergood, e. June 16,'62, m. o. June 5,'65. 

Nathan Kellogg, e. June 16,'62, m. o. June 5, '65. 

Philip Beck, e. June 16, '62, kid Peach T. creek, 

July PJ, '64. 

John Wolf, e. June 16, '62, m. o. Meh. 6, '64. 

Bird, Wm., e. June 16,'G2, m. o. June 5, '65. 
Bcncr, David, e. June 16, ■62, d. dis. Junel9,'63. 
Cleveland, P. P., e. June 1G,'62, died Feb. 4,'63. 
Cregg, David, e. June; l(i,'G2, m. o. June 5, '65. 
Cary, Jas., e. June 16, '62, died Meh. 11, '61, wnds. 
Cheal, J. J. e. June 16, '62, tr. inv. corps Sep.7, '63. 
Clark, J. J., e. June 16, '62, m.o. June 17, '65, pris. 
Coombs, James, e. June 1G,'62, m. o. June5,'65. 
Driver,R.,e.Junel6,'62,died Louisv'eSep.29,'62. 
Dean, Wm., e. June 21,'62,m.o. June5,'65,corpl. 
Deball, L., e. June 21, '62. 
Earp, Wm., e. June 16,'62, died Nov. 30, '64, 

wu<ls, Sergt. 
Franks, Jajues, e. June 16,'62, m. o. June 5,'65. 
Foruer, Jos., e. June 16,'62, kid. Buzzard Roost 

Feb. 2.5, 'frl. 
Fultz, Nicholas, e. June 16,'62. 
Hanks, James, e. June 16,'62, kid. Feb. 9,'63. 
Hinsey, A., e. June 21,'62, abs. sick at m.o. regt. 



McCabe, Jas., e. June 16'6-2, m. o. June 22'65. 
McCabe, Philip, e. June lf),'(V2, m. o. June 5, '65. 
Maloney, J., e. June lC,'62,flie(i Nasnville Jitn.i). 
McQuinn, John, e. June 21, "62, m. o. May 17, 'fi"). 
Pillsbery, Geo., e. June 10, '62, m. o. Juiie .5, '6.5. 
Rily, M.", e. Junel6,'62, kid. Kenesaw Mt., Juno 

27 '64. 
Rvan,'M.! e. June 16,'62. 

Rhoads, M., e. June 16, '62, drowned Oct. 9,'O.S. 
Thompson, Jnc, e. Junel6,'62, m. o. Meh.7,'63. 
Tanger, Beu., e. June 16,'62, m. o. June 5,'G5. 

Vamum, B. F., e. June 16,'62, m.o. June 5,'65, 

Wrigler, M., c. June 16,'62, m. o. June 22, '65, 

was pris. 
Whitaker, Jacob, e. June 21, '62, m. o. June5,'65. 

Bass, John. 
Brickie, Philip. 
Foot, Win. S. 
Turner, Jno, died at Louisville, Ky., Oct.12,'62. 


Was organized at Peoria, Illinois, in 1862. Moved for Louisville. Marched 
from camp Oct. 1, and on the 8th was engaged in the battle of Perryville; 
engaged in the battle of Chicamauga, Sept. 19, 20 and 21. Moved into Look- 
out Valley Oct. 29. In tlie night of Nov. 23, crossed the river on a pontoon 
and camped at the foot of Missionary Ridge Pursued the enemy on the 2Gth 
to Ringgold, and was then ordered to Knoxville, Tenn. Marched as far as 
Little Tennessee River, and returned to Chattanooga Dec. 18, after a most 
severe march. Was engaged at Buzzard's Roost, May 9, 10 and 11; Resaca, 
May 14, 15 ; Rome, 17th, — 6 kille<l, 11 wounded ; Dallas, from May 27 to June 5; 
Kenesaw Mountain, from June 11 to 27,— losing 110 killed and wounded. It 
again engaged the enemy on the banks of the Chattahooche on the 18th July; 
at Peach Tree Creek on the 19th, and near Atlanta, 20 and 22nd. Engaged in 
the siege of Atlanta. Commenced the "march to the sea" Nov. 16. Arrived 
at Savannah Dec. 21. After the surrender of Johnson, marched, via Rich- 
mond, to AVashington Citv, at which place was mustered out of service, June 
6, 1865. Died, killed, and" wounded, 3-46. Marched 3,500 miles; by rail, 2,000. 


Wm. B. Bogardus, e. Aug. 27,'62, died wnds. 

April 18, '65. 
S. L. Zinger, e. Aug. 27,'62, m.o. June 6,'65. 

First Lieutenant. 
Martin Kingman, e. Aug. 27,'62, m.o. June 6,'02. 

Hospital Steioard. 
J. W. Robinson, e. Aug. 13,'62, m.o. June 6,'65. 

First Sergeants. 
Frederick Shearer, e. Aug. 9, '62, trans. Y. R. C. 

April 20, '64. 
Luther S. North, e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6,'65, 


H. H. KcUogg, e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. Dec. 20,'62. 

A. Graham, e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 5;'65. 

M. H. Cloud, e.Aug. 9,'62, m.o. Juue6,'65, wnd. 


C. G. Parker, e. Aug. 9,'02, m.o. June 6,'65, 

J. T. Gibson, e. Aug. 1,'62, m.o. June6,'65, serg. 
W. H. Waughap, e. Aug. 9,'C2, m.o. June 6,'05, 

J. H. Chaffer, e. Aug. 9,'02, m.o. April 4,'G3, 

H. F. Heiple. e. Aug. 14,'C2, m.o. June 13,'65. 
S. Hawkins, e. Aug. 11, '62, trans. V. R. C. Feb. 

2, '6.5. 
J. Roberts, e. Aug. Il,'fi2, m.o. Jan. 0,'65, \rad. 
O. P. Eaton, e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. May 31,'65, wnd. 


F. Gulp, e. Aug. 14,'62, m.o. Feb. 63. 


Brcen, Ed., e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6,'05, wnd. 
BrLketi, D., e. Aug. 9,'62, died of wnds. April 

Brown, Levi, e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June6,'65. 

Bracken, G. D., e. Aug. 14,'62, m.o. Jan. 18,'65, 

Bitter, J. M., e. Aug. 14, '62, died Nor. 19, '62. 
Botham, G. W., e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6,'65. 
Crosby, Ira, c. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6, '65. 
Corbih, il., e. Aug. 11, '62, m.o. June 22,'65, 

Criswell, Wm., 

pris. wnd. 
Cullom, D. W., 

e. Aug. 9,'Gl, m.o. July 22,'65, 

e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6,'65. 
Davis, D., e. Aug. 12,'62, m.o. Oct. 5,'63, ^vnd. 
Duvall, J. W., e. Aug.14,'62, died Sept. 3'63, wnd. 
E\erhart, T. Y., e. Aug. 11, '62, died at Golds- 

boro, N. C, Mar. 24,'64. 
Eggman, J., e. Aug. 11, '62, m.o. June 6, '65, wnd. 
P'arrow, Wm., e. Aug. 13, '62, m.o. June 6, '6-5. 
Ferner, G. W., e. Aug. 12, '62, m.o. June 6, '65, 

corpl., wnd. 
Frock or French, Richard, e. Aug. 27, '62. 
Graves, J. J., e. Aug. 15, '62, trans, to Miss. mar. 

Feb. '63. 
Hodgcson, J. E., e. Aug. 12,'62, kid. at Benton- 

\-ille, N. C, Mar. 19,'65. 
Haiu, D., e. Aug. 11, '62, kid. Dec. 3,'63, sergt. 
Holmes, G. W., e. Aug. 12, '02, died at Chatta- 
nooga July 9,'(>4j wnds. 
Hindbaugh, J. W., e. Aug. 13,'62, m.o. June 6, 

Holland, I. W., e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6,'6.5. 
Kindle, E., e. Aug. 11, '62, m.o. June6,'65. corpl. 
Kevs. J. T., e. Aug. 9,'62, trans, pioneer corps, 

July 25,'t>4. 
Lee, C, e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6,'65. 
Lane, T. B., e. Aug. 8,'62, m.o. June 22,'05, 

■Jameson, J., e. Aug. 9, '62, m.o. June 0,'65, cor. 
Lewis, R., e. Aug. 9,'02, m.o. June G,'65. 
Layton, H. C, e. Aug. 11, '62, m.o. Dec. 20,'62. 
Merchant, Geo., e. Aug. 15,'62, m.o. June 6,'62, 

Milligan, C. B., e. Aug. 9,'C2, m.o. April 13,'63. 
Mericle, R., e. Aug. 9,'62, trans, to P. C, July 

Merrick, I., e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 24,'65, pris. 
McBride, W. G., e. Aug. 14,'62, died NashviUe, 

Feb. 11, '63. 



, m.n. Jiinc fi.'Go. 
kid. Kenesaw Mt., 

McCoy, D., c. AuR. 0,'f.2, m.n. INInr. 'aS. 
Miiwnheimer, C.,0. Aug. ll.'iVi, in.o. .Tunefi,'65. 
Miinroe. Felix, e. Aug. 14,'i>J, died Nashville, 

Av)ril 5,'G."). 
Murphy, P., c. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. Juno 6,'66. 
Oberdurf, J., e. Aug. 14,'62, m.o. June (i,'(i3. 
Parker, W. J., c. Aug. 9,'(V2, m.o. .Tunc (),'fi<j. 
Parker, J. H., c. Aug. 0,'C.2, " ""' 

Parker, C. A., c. Aug. 9,'G2 

July 1,'64. 
Petty, S., e. Aug. 11, '62, m.o. June fi,'f>5. 
Kuble, John, e. Aug. 12,'G2, m.o. June 0,'65, 

Robinson, N., e. Aug. 15,'62, m.o. June f),'65. 
Ruble, Jona., e. Aug. 14,'62, m.o. June G,'6.5. 
Riehanl, Benjamin, e. Aug. 11, '62, kid. Perry- 

ville. Oct. 8,'G2. 
Shoemaker, R., e. Aug. 1.5,'02, m.o. June G,'65. 
Sutton, Phillip, e. Aug. 14,'G2, m.o. June G,'6.5. 
Smith, H. B., e. Aug. 0,'62, m.o. May 15,'G5, 

eorpl., wnd. 
Strawsburgh, (}., c. Aug. 9,'63, tr., Y. R.C. Oct. 

Strawsburgh, e. .\ug. 9,'G2, died Jan. 7, '6?!. 
Scott, H. E., c. Aug. 14, 'C2, m.o. June G,'G2. 
Shreeve, Amos, e. Aug. 8,'G2, kid. Kenesaw 

Mt., Jan. 27,'G4. 
Shcppard, K. 11., e. Aug. 9,'G2, !il)s. at m.o. regt. 
Small, J. W., o. Aug. 9,'62, kid. Kenesaw Mt., 

Spier, J. R., e. Aug. 9,'G2, m.o. Feb. '63. 

Tobias, Israel, e. Aug. 9,'G2, m.o. May29,'6.5. 
Truet, George, c. Aug. 9,'G2, died Nashville, 

Feb. 19, '63. 
Trowbridge, J, e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6,'65, 

Walker, J., e. Aug. 14, '62, m.o. June 6,'G5. 
Wood, E., e. Aug. 9,'G2. m.o. June 6,'G5. 
Westerlield, .Jacob, e. Aug. 9,,G2, m.o. June 24, 

'G.I, eorpl., was pris. 
Whistler, Benj.,e. Aug. 11, 'G.'), m.o. Dec. 20,'62. 
Wilson, J. O., e. Aug. 15, '62, m.o. June G,'G3. 


Burns, E. C, e. Feb. 1,'64, m.o. July 12,'C5, 

Eggman, A., e. Jan., 24,'64, m.o. July 12,'65. 
Eggman, J. J., e. Jan. 2.5,'64. 
Feely, W. S., e. Dec. 2G,'G3, never reported to 

Graves, S. A., e. Feb. 1,'64, m.o. July 12,'6r). 
Gaudy, S. M., e. Aug. 27,'))2, m.o. June 6, '65. 
Minch, S., e. Aug. 27, '62, m.o. June G,'65. 
Riddle, W. H.,e. Sept. 23,'G4, m.o. JuneG,'G5. 
Shurts, J. W., e. Sept. 24, '64, m.o. June6,'()5. 
Smith, Bethel, e. Sept. 2:1, '61, m.o. June 6,'G.5. 
Smith, W. M., e. Sept. 23,'Gt. m.o. May 2;i,'65. 
Triplet, W. H., e. Sept. 2;!,'G4, m.o. June 6,'G5. 
Wilson, S. L., e. Feb. 1,'Gl, tr. V. R.C, Dec. 24, 

Whistler, B. F., .Tan. 26,'G4, m.o. July 12,'6.5. 


Was organized at Bloomington, Illinois, in Aug. '62, and mustered in Aug. 20, 
and five davs later was ordered to Benton Barracks at St. Louis. 

The i)4th, after many fatiguing marches through Missouri and Arkansas, 
met the enemy at Illinois Creek, Arkansas, under Gen. Hindinan, hohling 
him in check for three hours, and being reenforced by Gen. Blunt's Division, 
continued the action until night, when the enemy withdrew. 

The regiment was mustered out July 17th, '65. at New Orleans, and ar- 
rived at Camp Butler Aug. 2, '65. when it received final discharge. 


Lane, Hugh, e. Aug. il,'G2, abs., sick at m.o. of 

McAlister, F., e. Aug. 21, '62, m.o. July 17,'65. 
Smith, I. L., c. Aug. 20,,G2, m.o. July 17,'G5, 

Brinistol, Ira, e. Sept. 2l,'Gl, m.o. Jidy 17,'65. 



J. B. Chaplin, o. Aug. 1(),'62, d. May 1,'G4, dis. 
Isaac Blair, e. Aug. .s,'G2, d. Feb. 24, 'G:',, dis. 
Theodore Miner, e. Aug. 8,'G2, m.o. July 17, '65, 
as sergt., com. 2d Ueut not mustered. 


Buggs, T., e. Aug. 9,'G2, d. June28,'63, dis. 
Parker, E., e. Aug. 15,'G2, d. Feb. 21, '63, dis. 
('(jlville, W., e. Aug. 15,'62, m.o. July 17, '65. 
Durnan J. S., e. Aug. 11, '62, m.o. July 17,'05. 
Hammond, J. W., e. Aug. 15,'62, died New 

Orleans, Sept. 13,'63. 
Hunter, D. L., e. Aug. 15,'62, m.o. July 17,'65. 
Henry, J. W., e. Aug. 15,'62, m.(j. July 17,'65. 
John.son, G. W., e. Aug. 11,'62, m.o. July 17,'65, 

Laton. S., e. Aug. 12,'62, d. Aug; 13,'6-1, dis. 
Livesav, J. T., e. Aug. 15, '62, died at home 

Sept. 9, '63. 
Loonev, A. P., c. Aug. 15,'G2, died at New 

Orleans, Sept. 9,'63. 
Lindsay, J. e. Aug. 17,'62, d. April 16,'63, dis. 

IMitchcll, Bvron L., e. Aug. 7, '62, died New 

Orleans, Aug. 29,'G3. 
Macv, W., e. Aug. 11, '62, m.o. July 12,'65. 
Macv, G. 0.,e. Aug. 11, '62, died Carroltou, La., 

Aug. 30,'63. 
Miller. Peyton, e. Aug. 15,'G2, m.o. July 17,'G5. 
Price, Dehuison, e. Aug. l(i,'62. m.o. July 17, 'G5. 
Rockbold, J. 11., e. Aug. 8,'62, tr. I. C. April 

Railsbaek, B. F., e. Aug. 9,'fi2, d. Jan. 24,'64. 
Railsbock, T. F., e. Aug. 9,'G2, m.o. Juiy 17,'65. 
Sweat, G. W., e. Aug. 19,'62, m.o. July 17, '65. 
Strickland, F., e. Aug. 15,'G2, m.o. July 17,'65. 
Smith, O. M.,e. Aug. 12,'62, m.o. July 17,'G5. 
Shaw, G., e. Aug. 1.5,'G2, d. Dee. 1,'Gl, dis. 
Ward, (ico., e. Aug. 9,'G2, m.o. July 17, 'G5. 
Winn, W. S., e. Aug. 12,'62, died at (Jarroltou, 

La., Aug. 14,'G3. 
Williams, J. H., e. Aug. 12, '62, d. Sept. 14, 'tU, 

Williams, J. A., e. Aug. 12,'G2, d. Jan. 7, 64, dis. 


Hunter, W. II., e. Mar. 12,'64, m.o. May 16,'66, 

Lance, C, e. Sept. 24,'64, m.o. Julyl7,'6.5. 
Hartzell, I., e. Feb. 27,'64, m.o. May 15, 66. 



First Sergeant. 
Wm. B. Connor, e. Aug. 14,'62, m.o. June 11, '64. 




Allbrisht, John, e. Aug. 14,'G2, d. June 11, 'M. 
AllbriKht, Jos., e. Aug. 14, '02, in.o. June 12, '65. 
Conner, J. K., e. Aug. 14, '02, d. Mar. 24,04. 
Conner, J. S., e. Aug. 14, '02, ni.o. June 12,'G.5. 
Dosse, P. H., e. Aug. 15, '02, died Chattanooga, 
Aug. 13,'G4, wnd. 

Hcninger, B. W., c. Aug. 14, '62, m.o. June 12. 

Lyon, L. M., e. Aug. 19,'62, kid. Chattanouga, 

Sept. 19, 'G;!. 
Moore, D. T., e. Aug. lo,'62, died Nashville, 

Dec. 17,'e3. 
Shoemaker, J., e. Aug. 1,'62, d. April 2,'64. 
Coons, D., e. Aug. S,'62, abs. sick at m.o. regt. 


formed a part of First Brigade, Fourteenth Army Corps, in which it remained 
until mustered out. 

On the 25th of Nov. '63, was in the battle of Missionary Ridge, capturing 
a number of prisoners. The regiment moved to Ringgold May 3rd, to prepare 
for the campaign a])out to commence against Atlanta. The regiment partici- 
pated in many skirmishes up to the 5th of June, when they moved in front of 
Kenesaw Mountain, where it was engaged skirmishing almost continously 
until the 3rd of July, when the enemy left the Mountain. On the 20th July 
the 104th crossed Peach Tree Creek, and at 4 p.m. were attacked by the 
enemy, when the regiment distinguished itself for unsurpassed bravery, 
losing in killed and wounded 50 officers and men. 

The campaign, from May 7, when the regiment left Ringgold, to Sep. 6, 
when it left Jonesboro, was very severe, skirmishing almost continually, 
never halting for the night without throwing up w"orks for defence. The loss 
in these engagements being very heavy, in killed and woundeii, and at Peach 
Tree Creek the right of the regiment was almost annihilated, but the brave 
boys never faltered. 

On the 16th of Nov. the 104th started on that famous " march to the sea," 
taking possession of Savannah on the 21st Dec. The regiment had its share of 
the hardships, marches, ect., as also the fine foraging produced by that beauti- 
ful country through which they passed. 

The Regiment was engaged in the battles of Hartsville, Chickamauga, 
Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, Peach Tree Creek, Utoy Creek, 
Jonesboro and Bentonville. They were mustered out June 7th, and on the 
8th left for Chicago where they received their final discharge. 


John Wadlegh, e. Aug. 12,'G2, res. July 30,'6.3. 
Willard Proctor, e. Aug. 12, '02, m.o. June 6, '65. 

First Lieutenant. 
Jas M. Wright, e. Aug. 12,'G2, m.o. June 6,'05. 

Second Lieutenant. 
C. E. Webber, e. Aug. 12,'62, res. Fel). 9,'G3. 
First Sergeants. 

W. C. Hempstead, e. Aug. 12,'G2, pro. chaplain. 
L. G. Stout, e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6s'63. 

A. S. Smith, c. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6,'65. 
A. Moffatt, e. Aug. 9,'G2, m.o. June 6, '65. 


Ethridge Chapman, e. Aug. 9, 62, kid. Chicka- 
mauga, Sept. 20,'63. 

C. L. Bangs, e. Aug. 9, '62, m.o. June 6,'G5. 

Timothy Powel, e. Aug. 9,'G2, missing at Chick- 
amauga, sergt. 

N. II. Cooper, e. Aug. 9, '62, d. Jan. 8, '63, dis. 

A. A. Vermilvea, e. Aug. 11, '62. 

R. P. Hoge, e. Aug. 9,'02, d. May 29,'63. 

Wm. Cady, e. Aug. 9, '62, m.o. June 6, '65. 

C. L. Lymonds, e. Aug. 9, '62, died Tompkins- 
ville, Nov. 21, '62. 


Andrews, B., e. Aug. 11,'62, tr. to I. C. June 30, 

Allen, David, e. Aug. 14,'62, d. Aug. 17,'63. 
Burns, F. W., e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6,'65. 
Baker, S., e. Aug. 9,'G2, d. Jan. 20,'63, dis. 
Blackburn, O. C, e. Aug. 9,'62, d. July29,'63, 

Bane, Jacob, e. Aug. 11, '62, d. April 23,'64, dis. 
Bailey, John, e. Aug. 12, '02, m.o. June G,'65. 
Bailv, A. J., e. Aug. 12, '62, m.o. June 6, '65. 
Beagle, D., e. Aug. 13,'62. 
Bane, Henry, e. Aug. 20, '62, rejected. 
Cooper, Jolin, e. Aug. 9, '62, m.o. June 6, '65. 
Collins, A., e. Aug. !t,'02, d. Nov. 7,'G3, dis. 
Coyne, J., e. Aug. 11, '62, abs., sick at m.o. regt. 
('ailahan. A., e. Aug. 9,'(i2, m.o. June 6, '65. 
Davis, E. M., e. Aug. 11, '62, m.o. June 6,'05. 
Douglas, H. C, e. Aug. 12, '02, kid. at Mission 

Kidge, Nov. 25, '63. 
Everet, Richard, e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6,'65. 
Ellenbocker, Nicliolas, e. Aug. 9,'62, died at 

Gallatin, June 19,'G3. 
Erie, John, e. Aug. 13,'62, died Cowen, Tcnn., 

Aug. 24, '63. 
Foster, Samuel, e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6,'65. 
Frink,W. E.,e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June0,'05, corpl., P., e. Aug. 9,'02, m.o. June 0,'65. 
Lamb, C, e. Aug. 9,'G2, m.o. June 0,'05, sergt. 
Larkin John, e. Aug. 9,'62, d. Nov. 16,'03, dis. 
l^arkin, Wm., e. Aug. 13, '02. m.o. June G,'6.5. 
Miillin, I. B., e. Aug. 9,'02, d. June 1G,G3, dis. 
Marlev, J., e. Aug. 9, '02, d. April 22, '04, dis. 
McDonald, W. M., e. Aug. 9, '62, d. June 23, '63, 

Mahan, Thos., e. Aug. 9,'62. 
Miller, Christian, e. Aug. 9,'62, died Bowling 

Green, Nov. 16,'62. 
Mallory, E. T., e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6, '65. 



Moore, John, e. Aug. 9,'62, died at LouiSA'illc, 

Nov. ll,'t;2. 
IMoFaddoii, F. D.,e. Aug. 9,'r.2, m.o. JuneC,'f)5. 
Malone, S. B., e. Aug. 0,'62. 
Marsh, T. H., e. Aug. 11, '62, missing at Chicka- 

Mallory, M., c. Aug. 12,'C)2, d. May lG,'r)2, di.s. 
Mackev, A. \V., e. Aug. 18, '1)2. 
Mullins, N. H., e. Aug. '.),'(;2, d. Mar. 10,'o4, dis. 
Newton, A. A., e. Aug. U,'()2, died Cincinnati, 

Dec 23. '(;2. 
Obennan, .1. H. e. Aug. 9,'62, died Loui.s\ille, 

Sept. 21, T.;?. 
Powell J. ("., e. Aug. 9,'G2, d. Dee. 30,'t)2. 
Pouts, Andrew, e. Aug. 9.'62, m.o. .June 6,'G.'>. 
Purviance, M., c. Aug. 12, '62, m.o. ,lune 6,'f),5. 
Quinn, A. C, e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6,'G5, 

Quinlin, J., e. Aug. 12,'62, d. Jan. 30,'63, dis. 
llohinson, O. L., e. Aug. 9, '62, m.o. June 6. '6.5. 
Kobbins, D. C, e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6, '65. 
Rico, Charlos, e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June G,'65. 
Read, S., e. Aug. 9,'62. 

Shoemaker, N., e. Aug. 9, '62. 

Sowman, H. J., e. Aug. 11, '62, m.o. June 6,'65. 

Smith, J., e. Aug. 12,'62. 

Snyder C'ornelius, e. Aug. 11, '62, m.o. July 16, 

'6."i, was pris. 
Smock, A., e. Aug. 9,'62, d. June 15,'65, dis. 
Purviance, Walker, e. Aug. 12,'62, tr. to I.C. 

June 21, 64. 
Traver, John, e. Aug. 9,'62, died Columbus, O., 

Dec. 26, '62. 
Tliompson, J., e. Aug. 6,'G2, d. Dec. 18,'62, dis. 
Taylor, R. W., e. Aug. 9,'62. 
Traver, H. V., e. Aug. 9,'62, died Dec. 10,'62, 

Trask, D. L., e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6,'65. 
Traver, J. J., e. Aug. 9, '62, m.o. June 6, '65. 
Winans, B., e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 6, '62. 
Whitman, Lewis, e. Aug. 9,'G2, died Anderson- 

ville prison, Jan. 7, '64. 
Williams, J. K., e. Aug. 9,'62, d. Jan. 7,'63. 
Winans, Louis, e. Aug. 9,'G2, m.o. June 6,'6r). 
Lewis, George, m.o. June 6, '65. 

108tli INFANTKY 

"Was organized at Camp Peoria, and mustered into the service of the United 
States, Auf?. 28tli, 1862. The lirst cotnpany was recruited at Pekin, by Charles 
Turner. Oct. Gth, the refi;'t. left Covington, Ky. arriving on the 8th. On the 
17th, marched into the interior of the State, following the retreating enemy. 
They passed through Falmouth, Cynthiana, Paris and Lexington to Nicholas- 
ville, where they went into camp Nov. 1st, and remained until the 14th, when 
they started for Louisville, arrived on the 19th, and left the 21st for Memphis, 
Tenn., where it went into camp near the city on the 26th. On the 20th of Dec. 
they went on hoard the "City of Alton," and proceeded with the expedition, 
under Gen. W. T. Sherman against Vicksburg. They ])roceeded down the 
river to the mouth of the Yazoo, and up that river to Johnson's Landing, near 
Chickasaw Blutt". On the 2i)th they moved upon the enemy, who was found 
strongly fortified upon the bluffs. It was here the 108th first met the enemy. 

They withdrew from the attack on Vicksl)urg Jan. 1st and returned down 
the Yazoo river and up the White river, antl through a cut-off into the 
Arkansas, to Arkansas Post, where on the 11th they bore an active part in 
that most brilliant and successful engagement. There was 13 wounded. On 
the 17th of Jan., 1863, they moved down stream to Young's Point, La., where 
they went into camp the 24th. 

The long confinement on the transports, and want of pure air and sani- 
tary conveniences during this expedition, cost the regiment more lives than 
all other causes during its term of service. One officer, Philo. W. Hill, 1st 
Lieut. Co. A. and 134 i^rivates died during the months of February and 
March, '64. 

Charles Turner, e. Aug. 2«.'62, jiro. col. March 
13,'63, pro. Brevet Brig. Geu. Mar. 26,'65, m. 
o. Aug. 5, '65. 

Lieutenant Colonel. 
W. R. Lackland, e. Aug. 2S,'62, m. o. Aug. 5,'65. 

Hospital Steward. 
3. R. Riblet, m. o. Aug. 5,'65. 



John W. Plummer, e. Aug. 28,'62, m.o. Aug.5'65. 

First Lieutenant.^. 

Philo W. Hill, e. Aug 28,'62, died San. 2C,,'m. 
A. C. Beals, e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. Aug. 5,'65. 

Second Lieutenants. 
J. S. Boucher, e. Aug. 14,'62, died July 22,'65. 
J. W. Nonis, e. Aug. 14,'62,m.o. Aug.5,'65,scrgt. 


P. J. McQueen, e. Aug. 14,'62, died Arkansas P. 

Jan. 3, '63. 
J. B. Hicks, e. Aug, 14,'62, died Nov. 25,'62. 
Martin Broyhill, e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. Aug.5,'65. 


L. F. Puffer, e. Aug. 14, '62, d. .Tnly28,'65. 
Harrv Allen, e. Aug.l4,'G2,died Cairo Jan.26,'63. 
Thos. F. McClure, e..\ng. 14,'62, died Jan.26"63. 
R. W. Davidson, e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. Aug. 5, 

'65, private. 
F. A. West, e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. Aug. 5,'65,sergt. 
Elmore Brem, e. Aug. 14, '62, died June 25, '63. 


Ashburn, Jesse, e. Aug. 14,'62, died Young's Pt. 
Fe)). 22,'G3. 

Ashburn, J. W., e. Atig, 14, '62, died Mar. 25,'63. 

Amsburv, Horace, e. Aug. 14, '62, died Lexing- 
ton Nov. 4, '62. 

Beale, L. E., e. Aug. 14, '62, died Tazewell co., 
■Jan. 1,'64. 



Better, Asa, e. Aug. 14,'G2, abs. sick at m. o. of 

regt.. corpl. 
Bright, Jacob, e. Aug. 14,'62, died Nov. 5,'Gl, 

pris. war. 
Blazicr, W. S., c. Aug. 14,'G2, died at St. Louis 

Feb. 22, '63. 
Burns, C. L., e. Aug. 14, 'G2, died Young's Pt., 

Marcli 2, '03. 
Broyhill, F. M., c. Aug. 14,'G2, m. o. Aug. .5,'05, 

Cooper, Isaac, e. Aug. 14, 'G2. 
Cheshier, Wm., e. Aug. 14,'G2, died Millilien's 

B., Mavl»,'G3. 
Cornelius. G. IL, Aug. 14,'62. 
Cale, John, e. Au^. 14,'G2, tr. V.R.C., Dec. 2G,'63. 
Cornelius, J. H., e. Aug. 14, '02, d. May 2G,'G.i. 
Davies, McLind, e. Aug. 14, '02, m. o. Aug. .'j.'O.'). 
Davies, Aaron, e. Aug. 14, '02, tr. I. C. Sep. 1,'()3. 
Dressier, Jos., e. Aug. 14 '02, died Feb. l.'),"(')3. 
Davidson, M. X., e. Aug. 1 1,'02, m. o. Aug. r),'i)'^. 
Davidson, Columbus, e. Aug. 14, '02, m. o. Aug. 

5,'6.'i, corpl. 
Edworthy, J. B., c. Aug. 14, '02, died Jan. 10,'G3. 
Edworthy, J. W., e. Aug. 14, '02, m. o. Aug. .5,'G'i. 
Farmer, \V. C, e. Aug. 14, 'G2, abs. .sick at m. o. 

of regt. 
Folk, Samuel, Aug. 14,'G2, died St. Louis, Feb. 

10, '03. 
Groundt, G., e. Aug. 14, '02, m. o. Aug. 5,'0."). 
Hendcrshot, John, e. Aug.l4,'G2,diod Jan.lG,'G3. 
Henderson, Robert, c. Aug. 14, '02, died Young's 

Pt., March G,'63. 
Hodson, W. R., e. Aug. 14, '02, d. Dec. 20,'G2. 
joUy, Daniel, e. Aug. 14, 'G2, abs. sick at ni. o. 

of regt. 
King, Thomas, e. Aug. 14, '02, died Memphis 

May 24, '04. 
Kramer, John, e. Aug. 14, '02, died Mempliis 

Nov. S,'G3. 
McQueen, C. F., e. Aug. 4, '02, died Nov. 7, '02. 
Mansion, l)a%'id, e. Aug. 14, '02, died Nov.'27,'02. 
McPeak, Leonard, e. Aug. 14, 'G2, died at La- 
Nelson, John, e. Aug. 14,'62, abs. wnd. atm. o. 

of regt. 
Nelson, Samuel, e. Aug. 14, '02. 
Oelschlegel, II, e. Aug. 14,'02, died June 11, '03. 
Ogden, Geo., e. Aug. 24, '03. 
Pile, Calviu, e. Aug. 14, 'G2, died St. Louis May 

Russell, J. M., e. Aug. 14, 'G2, m. o. Aug. 5,'G.5. 
Rockhold, John, e. Aug. 14, '()2, m. o. Aug. 5,'G.'i. 
Rockhold, W. H., e. Aug. 14, '02, died Memphis 

Feb. 27, '03. 
Rockard, A. S., e. Aug. 14, '02, tr. to V. R. C. 
Sands, Israel, e. Aug. 14, '02, tr. to V. R. C. 
Speck, John, e. Aug. 14,'G2, died Lagrange Oct. 

28, '03. 
Shorts, Thos., e.Aug.l4,'62,m.o.Aug','i,'6.5,corpl. 
Sheperd, Peter, e.Aug,14,'02,descr(ed Oct.l5,'0;!. 
Sparrow, S. B., e. Aug. 14, '02, died Feb. G,'0,3. 
Sherman, Jf)hn, e. Aug. 14, '02, m. o. Aug.."),'G.j. 
Smith, John, e. Aug, 14,'02, died Oct. 30,'62. 
Shiviler, Frank, Aug. 14, '62. 
Stout, S. F., e. Aug. 14, '02, d. June 8, '0.5. 
Tuttle, J., e. Aug. 14, '72, m. o. Aug. ."),'6.5, music. 
Vincent, Frank., e. Aug. 14, 'G2, m. o. Aug.5,G5. 
Vetitras, Louis, e. Aug. 14, '02, tr. to N. R. C. 
Williamson, T. H., c. Aug. 14,'G2, d. Dee. 26,'C2, 

"West, H. F., c. Aug. 14,'62, died Young's Pt. 

Fb]). 10, '03. 
Williams, W. H., e. Aug. 14,'G2, died St. Louis, 

April 10, '03. 
Williamson, M. B., e. Aug. 14,'C2, tr. to V. R. C. 

Sept. 1,'G3. 
William.sou, C, e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. Aug. 5,'05. 
Whittaker, Albert,e.Aug.l4,'G2,died Mar.21,'G3. 
Worick, Charles, c. Aug. 14, '02, r.i. o. Aug. 5, '65. 
William.sou, T. A., c. Aug. 5,'02, m.O. Vug.5,'05. 
Warner, DeWittC, e. Aug. 5,'02, m.o.Ang.5,'65. 
Wilson, Silas, e. Aug. 5,'G2, died Benton Bks 

uly 31,'63. 

Warner, IIir'm,e.Aug.5,'02,m.o.Aug.5,'G5,corx)l. 

Zul)er, Elijah, e. Aug. 5,'0.5. 

Zimmerman, The., c. Aug. 5,'62, m. o. Aug.5,'65. 


Anderson, W. R., c. Feb. 27,'65, died July 26,'65. 
Garrett, Henry. 

Patten, W. H.", e. Oct 10,'G4, m. o. Oct. 9,'G5. 
Pettv, James, e. Sept. •2H,'CA, died April 25,'G5. 
Petty, W. B., e. Sept. 2S,'64, abs. wnd. atm. o. 

of regt. 
Spavdding, Wm., m. o. Aug. 5, '65, as sergt. 
Short, PaUerson, e. Sept. 2(),'&i, m. o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Stout, Isar.e, e. Sept. 28,'G-l, m. o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Slaughter, S. E., e. Sept. 2.s,'64, m. o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Sturglss, Geo., e. Sept. 22, '04, m. o. Aug. -5, '65. 
Shoi-i, John, died at Young's Pt., La., Jan.2G,'63. 
Wa.s'iiburn, Edw., e. Oct. 4, '04, m. o. Aug.5,'65. 
Whitaker, DeWitt C.,died at Ark.Post,Jan.9,'03. 
Worthinsiton, E., died Millikeu's Bend, March 

10, '03. 
Warner, Emery, e. Sept. 28,0^1, died Mar. 31,'63. 



Richard B. Howell, e.Aug.28,'62, res.Mar.25, '63. 
Wilbur F. Henry, e. Aug. 28, '02, m. o. Aug.5,'65. 

First LicvteinmlK. 

Garrett G. Ruhaak, e. Aug.28,'62, res.Nov.13,'62. 
William Franks, e. Aug. 13,'62, m. o. Aug.5,'6.5. 

Second Llmteiiant. 

John J. Kellogg, e. Aug. 8, '02, m. o. Aug. 5,'65' 
as sergt., wnd. 

S. J. Bumstead, e. Aug. 9,'02, pro. As.s. Surgeon 

131st 111. Inf. 
Benj. Swayze, c. Aug. 0,'02, ra. o. Aug. 5,'65, 

com. 2d. lieut, not mustered. 
Edward J. Davis, e. Aug.l3,'G2, d. dis. Mar.20,62. 

John Ledterman, e. Aug. 11, '62, sergt., pro. 2d 

Lieut. 01st. U. S- col. troops. 
Harlan Gridley, e. Aug. 8, '02, abs. at m. o. of 

regt., reduced to ranks. 
Reuben W. Heyers, e. Aug. 8, '02, m. o. July 12, 

'05, pris. 
Stephen ]?. Sallee, e. Aug. 9,'02, d. dis. Jalv0,'63. 
J. W. Timhrell,e.Aug.ll,'02,drowncdSep.ll,'64. 
1\[. B. William,?, e. Aug. 0,'02 m. o. Aug. 5,'0.5. 
Evereit Young, e. Aug. 11, '02, died Jan. 22, '03. 
I. R. Brown, e. Aug. 11, '02, d. dis. April 7,'63. 


Samuel Rankin, e. Aug. 9, '02, died Pekin Jan. 

19, '03. 
J. G. Stauffer, e. Aug. 22,'62, d. dis. Feb. 19,'63. 

W. T. :Masters, e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. Aug. 5, '65. 

Brown, E. L., e. Aug. 9,'62, died May 18,'63. 
Bowers, P. O., e. Aug. 11, '62, died Young's Pt. 

July 10,'63. 
Bowers, S. K. or R., e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. Aug. 

5, '65, corjil. 
Bloom, Wm., e. Aug. 15,'02,m.o. Aug.5,'65, corpl. 
Barnes, II. V., e. Aug. 22, '02, m. o. Aug. 5, '05. 
Champion, Thos., e. Aug. 11, '02, abs. at m. o. of 

Cockrell, Joseph, e. Aug.11,'62, m.o. Aug.5,'65. 
Collins, Gr^•ill, e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. Aug. 5, '65. 
Campman, Saml., e. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. July 2, 

'65, pris. 
Coggins, H. L., e. Aug. 14,'62, m. o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Clark, Leauder, e. Aug. 15, '62, died Jan. 16, '63, 




Fish, Leander, e. Aug. 22,'62,m.o. Auk.5,'65. 
Goodwin, J. A., e. Aug. 11, '62, died Feb. 1,'63. 
Goodwin, \V. P., e. Aug. 11, '62, died at Mem- 
phis, Jan. 17, '03. 
Holsopple, Jacob, e. Aug. 11, '02, m.o.Aug.ri,'f>ri. 
Holsopplc, Edw., e. Aug. 11. '02, died Mar. 31, '03. 
Heihuan, \Vm., e. Aug. 11, '02, ra. o. Aug. .3,'0.5. 
Hcilinan. Geo., e. Aug. 11, '02, died Pekiu Aug. 

30, '03. 
Howell, J. R., e. Aug. 22,'62, d. dis. Feb. 9,'63. 
Hubbard, John, e. Aug. 12,'62, m. o. Aug. .i,"65. 
Iwg, Saiiil., e. Aug. 11, "02, m.o. Aug. 5, '0.5. 
Jones, John, e. Aug. 11, '62, died rebel pris. Oct. 

Jones, J. C, e. Aug. 11, '62, died Memphis May 

Kohler, Henry, c. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. Aug. 5, '6.5. 
Kress, Christo'phcr, e. Aug. 9,'62, died Young's 

Pt. Feb. 14, '63. 
Kress, John, e. Aug. 9,'62, died Young's Pt. Feb. 

4, '0.3. 
Lederman, H.,e. Aug.ll,'02, kid. Tusselo. Miss., 

July 14, '64. 
McBride, Thos., e. Aug. 9, '62, m. o. Aug. 5,'0.5 

McGinnis, G. W., Aug. 21, '62, m. o. Aug. 5,'6.5. 
Musselman, Louis B., e. Aug. 8, '62, m. o. Aug. 

.5, '65. sergt. 
Ncavar, Juo., e. Aug. 15,'62, died Jan. 21, '63. 
Neavar, Jacob, e. Aug.l3,'02,m.o.Aug.3,'65,pris. 
Perkin, I.saac, e. Aug. 13, '02. 
Potter, Thos., e. Aug. 13,'62, tr. I.C. Sept. 1,'03. 
Perdue, W. F., e. Aug. 22,'02, m. o. Aug. 5,'05. 
Raush, John, e. Aug. S,'02, died May 16,'63. 
Raush, .Saml., e. Aug. 8,'02, died Jan. 25,'6.3. 
Rich, \V. H., e. Aug. 11, '62. died May ",'63. 
Riush, G. A., e. Aug. 11, '62, died Miir. 12,'63. 
Riblet, J. R., e. Aug. 9,'62, i>ro. hospital steward. 
Stewart, T. B.. e. Aug. 8,'62, died Keokuk Jan. 

7, '63. 
Stewart, D. M., e. Aug. 15,'62, died Young's Pt., 

Feb. 1.'63. 
Sanders, Henrv, e. Aug.9,'62. 
Sallee, J. J., e." Aug. 11, '02, d. dis. March 8,'63. 
Stetler, Isaac, e. Aug. 11, '02, m. o. Aug. .5,'65. 
Sipe, W. H., e. Aug. 13,'02, m.o. Aug. 5,'65, sergt. 
Strickfadden, Wm., e. Aug. 15,'62, m.o. Aug. 5, 

'05, corjil. 
Shclton, Jos., e. Aug. 15, '62, died Memphis, 

Aug. 4, 63. 
Sloat, C. T., e. Aug. 15, '62, m. o. Aug. 5, '6.5. 
Tobey, H. S., c. Aug. 12,'02. d. dis. Aug. 13,'6.3. 
Tew, Vitruvius, c. Aug. 22, tr. Aug. 1,'63. 
Turner, J. G., e. Aug. 2. '02, died March 25,'03. 
Wcstcrnian, C. S., e. Aug. 12,'n2, m. o. .\ug.5,'05. 
Wehrle, F. W. c. Aug. 12,'02, tr. to I.C. Sept.l,'(i3. 
Wilcox, Levi, c. Aug. 11. '02. 
Webb, J. W., e. Aug. 12,'02, m.o. Aug. 5,'65,sergt. 

Bengal, Adam. 
Charles, J. H. 
Castle, J. H. 
Colburn, Wm., e. Sept. 17,'64, diedin Alabama, 

March 25, '65. 
Cottrell, Geo., Sept. 20,'64, m. o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Daman, J. W., m. o. Aug. 5,'05. 
Daman, J. H. m. o. Aug. 5, '65. 
Draper, J. W., e. Oct. 4,'frl, m. o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Dunnigan, Alpheus. 

Hoff, Bornett, e. Oct. 1,'64, m. o. Aug. 5,'65 
Kellogg, H. C. 
McGrew, H. J. tr. toV.R.C. 
McQualitj-. Robt., e. Aug. 1,'M, m. o. Aug. 5, '65 
Trumbull, J. H. 

Wicks, Michael, e. Sept. 20,'64, m. o. Aug. 5,'65 
Watson, Wm.,kld at Guntown,Mis.s,June 10,'04. 



Cook, Wm., e. Sept. 24,'64, m. o. Aug. 5, '63 
McFadin. Wm., e. Sept. 24, '64, m. o. Aug. 5, '65. 


Morganstein,Lewis,e.Sept.20,'64, m.o.Aug.5,'65. 
Ross, John, e. Sepl. 27,'64, m. o. Aug. 5,'6.5, 
Helsh, John. 
McGrath, Wm., e. Sept. 24,'64, m. o. Aug. 5,'65. 


Buchanan, J. 11., e. Aug. .35,'62. 
Bullock, Thos., e. Aug. 15,'62. pro. reg. O. M. 
Brtines, John, e. .\ug. 11. '62. 
Hailman, D. E. V., e. Aug. 15, '62. 
Piffin, Sept. 10, '02, d. Nov. 7, '63. 

Bellair, Peter, e. Sept. 24, '64, m. o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Lombard, Augu.stus, .Sept. 24, '04, m.o. Aug,5,'65. 
McGin, John, e. Sept. 20, '04. m. o. Aug. .5, '65. 
Wood, James, e. Sept. 20. '64, m. o. Aug. 5.'65. 



Graves, I. H., Sept. 23,'64, m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Honner, Landon. 

Metz, F.. e. Sept. 20, '64, m.o. Aug. 5, '6.5. 
Souday, E., e. Sept. 20,'64. m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 


Brtily, .S. P., c. .Sept. 27,'61, m.o. Aug. .5,'0,5. 
Grubb, C. D., e. Sept. 27,'64, m.o. Aug. 5,'6.5. 
Gaston, Cha.s., e. Sept. 27,'64, m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Penfield, H. W., e. Sept. 28,'64, m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 


Privates., J., c. Aug. 15,'62, m.o. Aug. 5,'65., Wm., e. Aug. 15,'62, m.o. Aug. .5,'65, 

Brown, R. E., e. Aug. 15,'62, died Feb. 12,'63. 
Brown. John, e. Aug. ]5,'02. 
Cadwell, W. R., e. Aug. 15,'02, m.o. Aug. 5,'6o. 
Larimorc, J., e. Aug. 14, '62, m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Lewis, B., e. Aug. 15, '62, m.o. Aug. 5, '6.5. 
Hartly, J. J., e. Aug. 1.5,'62, m.o. Aug. 5,'65, 

Mitchell, L., e. Aug. 15,'62, died Andersonville. 
Mooberry, S. R., e. Aug. 15, '62, m.o. Aug. 5, '65. 
Mooberry, Wm., e. Aug. 15,'62, died St. Louis. 
Reeder, (;. B., e. Aug. 15, '62, m.o. Aug. 5,65. 
Sharp, A. T., e. Aug. 15,'62, m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 
.Simms, A. S., e. Aug. 15,'62, died Young's Pt. 
Uable, (;. W., e. Aug. 15,'62, m.o. Aug. 5, '05. 
Watts, Bobt., e. Aug. 15, '02, m.o. Aug. 5,'6.5. 

Garbcr, Noah, e. Oct. 1,'04. m.o. Aug. 5, '65. 
Kinsinger, J., e. Oct. 5,'0-}, m.o. Oct. 4, '65. 
Smith, Christian, e. Oct. 1,'64, m.o. Aug. 5,'6,5. 
Twiggs, J. L., e. Oct. 1,'64, m.o. Aug. 5, '.55. corpl. 
Wilber, E., e. Sept. 28,'64, m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Lahargonette, P., e. Mar. 1,'6.5. 


Second Lieutenants. 

Michael Glasheen, m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 


Simon P. Hite, e. Aug. 12,'62, d. Feb. 6, '65, dis. 


J. B. Kelley, e. Aug. 12,'62. 
James M. Erwin, e. Aug. 12,'62, kid Ft. Spanish, 
Mar. 28, '65. 


Burues, Hugh, e. Aug. 12,'62, d. Nov. 6,'(>1. 
Laiiig, I. B., c. Aug. 12,'62. 
McManis, P., e. Aug. 12,'62. 



Rvan, Thos., e. Ans. 12, '02, m.o. AiiR. 5.'Gr). 
Sliav, Michael, e. Aur. 12,'(;2, dii'd Julv 10,'(i:!. 
Shouj), Fraiikliu, c. Aug. 12, '02, tr. to V. K. (-!., 

Sept. 1S.'64. 
Spoek, Win., e. Aug. 12,62, abs., sick at m.o. of 

Teift, H. M., c. Aug. 12, '62, died Young's Pt., 

Feb. 11, '63. 


Anno, A. N., c. Sept. 27,'64, m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Avery, A. M., e. Sept. 27,'64, abs., sick at m.o. 

of regt. 
Botztield, Benj., e. Sept. 24,'64, m.o. Aug. 5/65. 
Fisher, J. A., e. Sep. 23,'64, d. May 5,'65. 


Droyers, Dennis, e. Aug. 14, '62. d. Aj)ril 20, '04. 
Ennis, John, e. Aug. 11, '62. 
Hamilton, Daniel, e. Aug. 15,'62. 
Young, Peter, e. Sept. 18,'62. 

Recruits. \ 

Baker, John S., e. Sept. 23,'64, m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Bloom, Samuel, e. Sept. 23, '04, m.o. Aug. 5, '65. 
Kipcha, Jona., e. Sept. 20,'64, m.o. Aug. 5, '65. 
Wertz or Metz, Levi, e. Sept. 20, '64, m.o. Aug. 
5, '65. 


Second Lieutenants. 

Philander E. Davis, e. Aug. 28, '62, d. Mar. 28, '63. 
J. M. Bruchher, e. Aug. 14, '62, m.o. Aug. 5, '65. 

First Sergeant. 
Henry C. Kellogg, e. Aug. 9,'G2, died April 24, 



Amos Seeley, e. Aug. 5,'62. m.o. Julv 27,'05. 
David Stimmel, e. Aug. 5,'62, died Jan. 20,'63. 


Alphius Donigan, e. Aug. 13, '62, died Young's 

Pt., Feb. 8,'63. 
J. H. Trumbull, e. Aug. 15,'62, tr. to I. C, Jan. 

20, '64. 
H. T. McGrew, e. Aug. 12, '62, tr. to. V. R. C. 


John Sunderland, e. Aug. 12"C2, d. Jan. 14,'63, 
reason, family affliction. 


Cornelius, Levi, e. Aug. 14,'62, m.o. Aug. 5, '62. 

Cornelius, Henry, e. Aug. 14, '62. 

Castle, J. H., e. Aug, 13, '62, died St. Louis, Jan. 

Charles, J. H., e. Aug. 15,'62, d. May 5,'63, dis. 
Carett, H. E., e. Aug. 14,'62. m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Enslow, Worthington, e. Aug. 14, '62, died at 

Miliken's Beud, Mar. 10,'63. 

Eads, Henry, e. Aug. 12,62, died at St. Louis 

Jan. 30, '63. 
Fliagle, Robt., e. Aug. 14,'02, m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Flennakin, G., e. Aug. 24, '62, m.o. Aug, 5,'65. 
Heenan, M., e. Aug. 28, '62. m.o. Aug. 5, '65. 
Kahili, John, e. Aug. 22,'G2. 
O'Larv, Arthur, e. Aug. 2S,'62, died in Ander- 

Ronville pris., Sept. 2<S,'04, No: grave 10,042. 
Olslagle, Chas., e. Aug. 14, '62, m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Pavno, A., e. Aug. 14, '62, m.o. Aug. 5,65. 
Poinfrctt, M. E., e. Aug. 14,'62, d. Sept. 24,'64, 

Rose, Hilburt, e. Aug. 28,'62, died at Y'oung's 

Pt., Jan. 24,'03. 
Spaulding, William, e. Aug. 14,'62, m.o. Aug. 

5,'(;5, as sergt. 
Stout, T. F.. e. Aug. 14,'62, m.o. July 22,'65, as 

Sniflin, John, e. Aug. 14,'62, kid. at Guntown, 

Miss., Jan. 10,'64. 
Stout, William, e. Aug. 2S,'62. 
Taylor, V. W., e. Aug. 28,'62, d. Dec. 24,'63, dis. 
Turner, G. R., e. Aug. 12,'62, d. Jan. 6,'62, dis. 
Whitaker, S. M., e. Aug. 44,'62, m.o. Aug. 5,'65, 

Winn, F. M., e. Aug. 14,'62, abs., sick, supposed 

Walker, S. W., e. Aug. 11, '62. 
Young, Homer, e. Aug. 11,'62, m.o. July 27, '65, 
as 1st sergt. 


Bowers, D. C, e. Dec. 24.'63, d. Jan. 25,'65, dis. 
Davis, A. E., e. Sept. 28,'64, m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Navin, Edward, e. Oct. 3,'64, m.o. Oct. 2,'65. 
Robertson Jas., e. Sept. 29,'04, m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Scott, John F., e. Sept. 28,'64, m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Weeks, A. F., e. Sept. 28,'64, m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Wilcox, John, Sept. 23,'64, m.o. Aug. 5,'65. 
Welsh, John, Sept. 24,'63. 

Unassigned Recruits. 

Berrv, Emanual, e. Oct. 3, '04. 

Buckstone, P., e. Feb. 16,'65, m.o. Feb. 14,'66. 

Carroll, John, e. Sept. 20,'64. 

Campbell, M. A., e. Sept. 27,'64, m.o. Julyl,'65. 

Charles, John, e. Sept. 24. '64. 

Chamberlain, G. G., e. Oct. 3, 64. 

Oral, James, e. Oct. 1,'04. 

Davidson, Conoralzv, e. Oct. 3, '64. 

Duffv, John, e. Sept. 22,'64. 

Dav, John, e. Sept. 22,'64. 

Gilljert, William, e. Sept. 22,'64. 

Hoffage, Burnett, e. 

Kellv, James F., e. Sept. 27,'64. 

Miller, Thos., e. Oct. 3,'64. 

McKnight, Edward, e. Sept. 22,'64. 

Nash, (ieorge, e. Oct. 3, '64. 

Reese, William, e. Sept. 23, '64. 

Sherman, Frank, c. Sept. 20,'64. 

Stack, Abraham, e. Oct. 3, '64. 

Smith, William B., e. Sept. 22,'64. 

Willis, Henry R., e. Sept. 2S,'64. 

Willson, David, c. Sept. 23,'64. 

Wagoner, Cornelius, e. Oct. 3,'64. 

Weils, John, e. Sept. 22,'04. 

Yf)ung, George, Sept. 23, '64. 

115tli INFANTRY, 

Left Camp Butler Oct. 4th, 1862, for Kentucky. After visitinfr Falmouth, 
Cynthiana, Paris, Lexiufiton, Richmond, Danville and Louisville, Feb. 1st, '63, 
proceeded to Nashville, Tenn. March 1st moved to Franklin. By reason of 
exposure on marches and scouting expeditions during the severe winter of '62 
and '63, it lost about 200 men. In March it engaged VanDorn, and drove him 
across Duck river. Sept. 19 engaged the enemy on the field of Chickamauga, 
Participated in all the engagements around Chattanooga and Mission Ridge. 
It lost in the fall campaign of '63, 235 men and 10 officers. It led the charge on 
Tunnel Hill, Ga., May 7th, May 15th and 16th engaged in battle of Resaca, 



Ga. Lost during the Atlanta campaign 100 men. Returned to Tennessee with 
Gen. Thomas, and was active in the destruction of Bragg's old veteran army 
under Gen. Hood. It received final discharge at Camp Butler, June 23d, '65. 

C03IP.1IO: H. 


Henry Pratt, e. Sept. 1.3,'r.2, res. April 16,T>3. 
John Keardun, e. Sept. 13,'63, m. o. Junell,'65. 

First Lieutenant. 
Silas Parker, e. Sept. 13,'f)2, res. Mareh 1l','63. 
Jos. J. Slaugtiter, e. Aug. 9,'C2, m. o. June 11, '65. 

Second Lieutenant. 
S. K. Hatfield, c. Aug. 8,'<r_>, m. o. June 11, '05. 

First Sergeants. 

P. H. Herrott, e, Aug. 11, '02, m.o. June 11, '(5.5. 
David Poter, e. Aug. 11, '02, d. Dee. 14,'63, for 
pro. as 1st lleut. 15th U. S. C. T. 

Jame.s T. McDowell, e. Aug. 9,'62, kid. Dalton, 

Ga., Feb. 25, 'W. 
Theodore Van Hayne, e. Aug. 11, '02, ni.o. June 

11, '65. 


■William Fleming, e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 11, 

'05. private. 
Burnhani Vinpent,e.Aug.ll,'62, m.o.May 20,'65. 
Rosewell WiUox, e. Aug. 12, '02, sergt., d. for 

pro. as Isl lieut. 44th U.S.C.T. 
Henry R. Gale, e. Aug. 11, '62, m.o. June 11, '05, 

Da\-id A. Johnson, e..\ug.ll,'02,m.o. Junell.'05. 
Wm.Gleason,e.Aug.l3,'(i2,m.o. Juneir05,sergt. 
Percival Place, e. Aug. 9,'62, d. dis. May 14, '02. 


Elias O. Jones, e. Aug. 14,'62, d. dis. Dec. 24, '02. 
Wm. T. Bacon, e. Aug. 9, '62, died Franklin, 
Tenn., April 14, '63. 


Reulien Weller, e. Aug. 13,'62, d.dis. Mar.3,'C3. 


Arnold, G. H., e. Aug. 9,'62, died Lexington, 

March 7, '63. 
Akin, James, c. Aug. 13,'62, d. dis. Sept. 11, '03. 
Albright, Wm., e. Aug. 19,'02, d. dis. Dec. 15,'03. 
Albro, J. H., e. Aug. 9, '02, m. o. June 11, '05. 
Bird, P. II., e. Aug. 9,'62,tr. toeng. c. .Vug.24,'i>4. 
Briggs, E. M., c. Aug. 11, '62, tr. to V.R.C. May 

Branson, Caleb, o. Aug. 13,'62, m.o. Mav 20,'65. 
Brighton, I. N., e. Aug. 12,'62, died Niishville, 

May 31, '04, wnds. 
C'reager, Chri.s., c. Aug. 14, '62, m. o. June 11, '05. 
Carrol, J. J., e. Aug, 13,'62, died .A.ndersonville 

pris. April 25,'64, No. of grave 600. 
Fisher, J. L., e. Aug.l9,'62.ra.o.June n.'65,cori>I. 
(Joodale, Simon, e. Aug. i:!,'62, d.dis. April :{,'{i3. 
Hiscox, Edwin, JulyU2,'02. m.o. June 11. '0.". 
John.son, Ja.s., e. Julv 9, '62, died at Nashville, 

Tenn., March 9, '03. 
Johnson, Ijcwis, e. July 9,'62, m.o. June 11, '65. 
Jones, W. T., e. July 9, '62, died at TuUahoma, 

Tenn. Aug. 2:5, '6.3. 
Jones, J. Y.. e. July 9,'62, kid. at Danville, Kv., 

Feb. 9, '63. 
Keller, G. J., e. July 11, '02, m. o. June 11, '0.5. 
Lamm, S. L.,e.July il,'62,m.o.June ll,'65,corpl. 
Lea.ser, Geo. N., e. July 12, '02, abs. sick at m. o. 
Mell, Geo., e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. June 11, '("15. 
Myers, F. H..e. Aug. 9,'62, kid. Chickamauga, 

Sept. 26, '63. 
Olson. Swan, e. Aug. 11, '62, m.o. June 11, '65, 

was pris. 

Patterson, L. m., e. Aug. 9,'62, m. o. .Tune 11, '65. 
Patten, Z. C, e. Aug. 9,'02, corpL, d. April 5,'65, 

to accept 2d lieut. in 149th N. Y. Infantry. 
Plackett. J. !^.,e. Aug. 9,'62, m.o. June 11, '6.5. 
Poling, Philip, e. Aug. 13, '62. m.o. June 11, '65. 
Robin.son, E. E., e. Aug. 9, '02, wnd. and missing 

at Chicaniauga, Sept. 30, '03. 
Ritchie, Jacob, e. Aug. 11, '02, d. dis. Dec. 1.3,'62. 
Riithl)un, Elias, e. Aug. 11, '62, m. o. June 1,'6.5. 
Sunderland, Samuel, e. Aug. 11, '62, m.o. June 

11, '05, wnd. 
Thomi>son, L. D., e. Aug. 9.'62, died March, '63. 
Popping, Albert, e. Aug. 14,'62, tr. to eng. c. 

Van Nest, II. D., e. Aug. 9,'62. d. dis. Mav6,'63. 
Waldron, John, e.Aug. 9,'62, wnd. and mi.s,sing 

at Chickamauga, Sept. 20, '03. 
Will. John, e. Aug. 11. '02, m. o. June 11, '05. 
Work. Wm., e. Aug. 9,'02. corpl., accidenUlly 

kid. at (ireenwood Mills, (ia., Julv 29, '64. 
Work, Edw., e. Aug. 9,'02, d. dis. April 3,'e3. 
Wat.son, J. W., e. Aug. 13,'02, m. o. June 11, '65. 
Watson, T. J., e. Aug. 13,'62, d. Oct. 7,'64, wnds. 
White, J. P., e. Aug. 14,'62, corpl., died at Chat- 
tanooga. Oct. 30, '63, wnds. 
Zumwalt, Wm., e. Aug. 9,'62, died at Richmond, 

Ky., Jan. 10, '63. 


Brighton, J. v., e. Dec. 1,'63, m. o. Dec. 16,'65, 

Lamm, J. W., e. Sept. 30,'64, m. o. June 11, '65. 
Plackett, A. K., e. Feb. 13,'64, m. o. Dec. 16,'6.5. 
Zumwalt, John, e. April 3, '63, dis. 


Lieutenant Colonel. 

Jona. Merriam, e. Sept. 19, '62, m. o. Aug. 5,'65. 


First Lieutenant. 

Benjamin R. Hieronymus, e. Aug. 7,'62, m.o. 
Aug. 5, '65. 


Dempsey, Da\'id, e. Aug. 7, '62, m.o. June 22, '65. 
Hieronymus, T. H., e. Aug. 7. '02, m.o. Aug.5,'G5. 
Mason, Trueman, e. Aug.7,'02, m.o. June 22,'65. 
McTerniii, John, e. .\ug. 7, '02, d. dis. Mar.19,'63. 
Philip Buchcr, e. '02, in n7th Inf.. co. B., died 

at Memphis, Tenn., of chronic diarrheii, 


139tli INFA]>fTRY. 

First Assistant Surgeon. 
.Vllen M. Pierce, e. June 1,'64, m. o. Oct. 28,'6'1. 


Dietrich C. Smith, e. June 1,'64, m.o. Oct.28,'64. 

First Lieutenant. 
Elijah W.Dickin.son.e. June 1, '64, m.o.Oct.2.S, '64. 

Second Lieutenant. 
Benj. F. Burnett, e. June 1,'64, m.o. Oct. 28.'&1. 

Edward A. Hall, e. May 1,'64, m.o. Oct. •28,'64. 
Henry A, Tomm, e. May 10,'&4, m.o. Gct.28,'64. 



Wm. Morchcafl, o. Mav 14, '&l, m.o. Oct. 2S,'(J4. 
Wm. H. Mars, c. May 4, '64, m.o. Oct. 2S,'G4. 


Charles Tuesburv, e. May4,'fi4. m.o. Oct. 2S,'64. 
Henrv ■WaReiiscliur, e. May 2,'f>4, m.o.Oct.'J.s,'tU. 
Frank Kilpatrick, e. Mav 1,'G4, in.o. Oct. i!8,'64. 
Wm. H. Laing, e. May 4,'(>4, m.o. Oct. 28,'64. 

Wm. H. Clauser, e. May 2.5,'64, m.o. Oct. 2.s,'Cil. 

Lemuel Role, e. May 14,'64, m.o. Oct. 2S,'64. 


Arae.s, John, e. May 4,'f>4, m.o. Oct. 28,'64. 
Angler, Dwight, e. Mav4,'r)4, m.o. Oct. 2S,'f]4. 
Allen, Jesse, e. Mav 14,'64, m.o. Oct. 28,'(>4. 
Bartlev, Wm., e. May 4,'C4, died Ang. 22, '&4. 
Burkv, John, e. May4,'64, m.o. Oct. 28,'G4. 
Cufaude, Hugh, e. May 17,'64, m.o. Oct. 28,'64. 
Coal, Wm. A., e. May 2.5, '64, m.o. Oct. 28, '64. 
Casev. Wm. C, e. Mav26,'64, m.o. Oct. 28,'64. 
Ehlen, Hermon, e. May 2.5,'64, m.o. Oct. 28,'64. 
Hall, George, e. May 12,'64, m.o. Oct. 28,'64. 
Hiffen, Albert, e. May 5,'64, m.o. Oct. 28,'fi4. 
Hampton, Augustus, e.May 7,'04,m.o.Oct.2.s,'64. 
Hooten. John, e. Mav 14,'&4, m.o. Oet. 28, '64. 
Koch, Henrv L., e. May 7,'64, m.o. Oct. 28,'64. 
Kruze, Johii, e. mav 2,'64, m.o. Oct. 28,'64. 
Kepler, Jos., e. Mav 2.5,'64, m. o. Oct. 2S,'64. 
Mowery, Daniel, e. May .5,'64, m.o. Oct. 28,'64. 
McGrew, Nathaniel, e.Mav.5,'64, m.o. Oct.28,'t'>4. 
Mark, Wm. W., e. May I.'IU, m.o. Oct. 28,'64. 
Merithew, Fred., e. Mav 14, '64, m.o. Oct. 28,'W. 
McCov, Wm. M., May 19,'64, m.o. Oct. 2S,'61. 
Parr, Daniel, e. Mav 9,'64, m.o. Oct. 15,'64. 
PleiflFer, John, e. May 14,'64, m.o. Oct. 28,'64. 

Rosentreter, F. L., e. Mav7,'61, m.o. Get. 2R,'64. 
Kobbins, C. L., e. Mav .5,'64, m.o. Oct. 28,'tVt. 
Shaw, Henrv, e. May n,'M. m.o. Oct. 28,'tU. 
Sipes, Ira, e. Mav .5,'fVJ, m.o. Oc't. 28,'64. 
Speaker, Camp, e. May .5,'64, m.o. Oct. 28,'64. 
Stewart, Henrv, e. May 4, '04, m.o. Oct. 28,'fi4. 
Sting, Henrv, e. Mav 14,'61, m. o. Oct. 28,'64. 
T(eTinigs, Henrv, e. Mav 23,'C4, m.o. Oct. 28,'64. 
Van Buren, Edward, May .5,'64, m.o. Ocf28,'54. 
Watts, Edward, e. Mav 4,'64, m.o. Oct. 27,'64. 
Watson, John, e. Mav 5,'64, m.o. Oct. 28,'64. 
Winslow, Chas. A., e. Mav20,'64, m.o. Oct.28,'64. 
York, Henry, e. May 2, '64, m.o. Oct. 28,'C4. 


Baldwin, Henry N.,e. Mry 12,'64,m.o. Oct.2S,'64. 
Hanson, Abel, e. May 24,'64, m.o. Oct. 28,'64. 

145tli INFANTRY. 


James Flanniken, e. May2,'64, m.o. Sept. 23,'64. 

Henry Wasborn, e. May 2'64, m.o. Sept. 2.3,'64. 

e. May 2, '64, pro. hos. steward. 

Burk, BartlettJ., 
Burk, John L., e. 
Bates, Wm. H., e 
Hannig, John, e. 
Mason, John G., 
R(rlof.son, Wm. .1 
Sparrow, Yock, e 
Thomas, Henrv, 
Trout, Alex. W. 

May 2,'64, m.o. Sept. 23,'04. 
. Mav 2,'64, m.o. Sept. 23,'64. 

Mav 2,'64, m.o. Sept. 2.3,'64. 
e. Mav 2,'64. m.o. Sept. 23,'64. 
., e. May 2,'64, m.o. Sept. 2.3,'64. 

Mav 2','64, m.o. Sept. 23, '64. 
e. Mav 2,'r>4, m.o Sept. 23,'64. 

e May- 2,"64, m. o. Sept. 23,'64 

146tli INFANTRY 

Was organized at Camp Butler Sept, ISth, 1864, for one year. Companies B 
and C were ordered to Arighton, III, Companies D and H toQuincy, and Com- 
pany F to Jacksonville, and were a.ssigned to duty guarding drafted men and 
substitutes. The remaining companies were assigned to similar duty at Camp 
Butler. July 5th, 1865, it was mustered out of service. 


Geo. W. Baker, e. Sept. 19,'64, m.o. July 8,'6.5. 

First Sergeant. 
James Bliss, e. Sept. 12,'64, d. June 14,'65. 

Laing, Thomas, e. Sept. 3,'64, m.o. July 8,'6o. 


E. L. Williams, e. Sept. 21, '6-4, m.o. July8,'6.5 

Lewis G. Smith, e. Sept. 17,'()4, m.o. July S,'6.5. 


J. M. Carmichael, e. Sept. 17, '64, m.o. July 8,'6.5 
C. W. Tooker, e. Sept. 17.'64, m.o. July 8,'6.i. 
W. E. ("niton, e. Sept. 17. '64. m.o. July 8,'6.3. 
Wm. (Jolgau, e. Sept. 17,'64, m^o. July 8,'6.5. 


Chas. W. Lee, e. Sept. 17, '64, m.o. July S.'O.'S. ^ 
. C. W. Seiwell. e. Sept. 17,'64, m.o. July 8,'65. 


Andrew Kirk, e. Sept. 17,'64, m.o, July 8,'65. 

Athens, Geo. W., e. Sept. 17,'64, m.o. July 8,'6.5. 
Butts, ,Ias. P., e. Sept. 17,'C>4, m.o. July 8,'6.5. 
Cook, Wm., e. Sept. 17,'64, m.o. July S,'6.'). 
Cavin, Thos. E., e. Sept. 17, '(U, m.o. July 8,'6o. 
Doll, F. A., e. Sept. 17,'64, m.o. July 8,'6.5. 
Evans, Tavlor, e. .Sept. 17, 'tU, m.o. July 8,'6.5. 
Fitzpatrick, H., e. Sept. 17,'64, m.o. July 8, '6.5. 
Fellows, Hart, e. Sept. 17,'64, m.o. July 8,'65. 
Hatcher, H. C, e. Sept. 17.'64, m.o. July 8, '6.5. 
Jordon, John, e. Sept. 17, '(U, m.o. July 8,'6.). 
Kubbacher, P., e. Sept. 17,'64, m.o. July8,'0.5. 
Lohnes, John, e. Sept. 17, '64, m.o. July 8,'65. 
Lvle, John H., e. Sept. 17,'6S, m.o. July 8,'6o. 
Lockwood, J. I*:., e. Sept. 17,'f>4, m.o. July 8,'65. 
Lotz, L. C, e. Sept. 17, 'W, pro. hos. steward. 
Levans, John, e. Sept. 17, '64. 
McCnlloch. C. H., e. Sept. 13.'64, m.o. July 8,'65. 
Madden, M. H., e. Sept. 17,'64, m.o. July 8,'65. 
Popkins, John, e. Sept. 17,'64, m.o. July8,'65. 
Quiglev, Thos., e. Sept. 17, '64. 
Raus, Jacob, e. Sept. 17,'64, m.o. July 8,'65. 
Rapp, Jacob, e. Sept. 17,'74, m.o. July S,'6o. 
Schoolev, P. H., e. Sept. 17,'64, m.o. July 8,'6.-), 
Summers, J., e. Sept. 16,'64, m.o. July 8,'65. 
Shannon, E., e. Sept. 17,'(V1, m.o. July 8,'65. 
Spillman, Fred, c. Sept. 17,'&1, m.o. July 8, 65. 
Sandu.-^kv J. C, e. Sept. 17.'64, d. May2^'6o, 
Smith, E. P., e. Sept. 17,'64, m.o. July 8,'6o. 
Trost, Peter, e. Sept. 17, '64, m.o. July 8, '6.3. 
Troger, H., e, Sept. 17,'64, m.o. July 8,'6.3. 
Voglesang, F., e. Sept. 17,'64, m.o. July 8,'fo. 
Vories, Wm. L., e. Sept. 17, '64, m.o. July 8, bo. 
Waldick, Wm., e. Sept. 17,'64, d. June 5,'6o. 



148tli INFANTRY 

"Was organized at Camp Butler Feb. 21st, 1865, for the term of one year. Feb. 
22d proceeded to Nashville, Tenn. Mach 1st moved to Tullahoma. ' June 18th 
five companies were ordered to Deckerd, one company was stationed at Mc- 
Minnville, and the other four companies were engaged' in guarding the Nash- 
ville and Chattanooga Railroad fromLombardy to Anderson Station. Arrived 
at Springfield Sept. 9th, 1865, where it received its final discharge. 


Beuj. F. Burnett, e. Feb. 10,'65, m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 

First Sergeant. 
Abel. B. IJarron, e. Feb. 8,'G5, m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 


Constantine Aberle, e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 5, 

Geo. W. Jones, e. Feb. 8, '65. m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 
M. R. Barron, e. Feb. 8,'6o, m.o. Sei)t. 5,'65. 
J. F. Haines, e. Feb. S,'65, m.o. June 19, '65. 


Wm. Booth, e. Feb. S,'C5. m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 

C. W. Clark, e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 5,'6.5. 
H. A. Miller, e. Feb. 8, '65, m.o. Sept. 5,'G5. 
Wm. A. Barker, e. Feb. 8,'&'>, m.o. Sept. 5,'05. 

D, Griflfey, e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Aug. 25,'6.5. 


John F. Black, e. Feb. 8,'66, m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 
M. M. Leach, e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 


Henry Bloom, e. Feb. 8, '65, m.o. Sept. 5, '65. 


Aplegate, E., e. Feb. 8,'6.5, m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 
Bahrens, J. H., e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 
Blair, W. S., e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 5.'66. 

Bloom, J. W., e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 

Bolinder, Wm.. e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 

Bradv, Peter, e. Fel). 8, '65. 

Bequeath, N., e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 

Barkmier Henrv, e. Feb. 8,'65. 

Conley, David, "e. Feb. 8,'6.5, m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 

Dcvinney, W. R., e. Feb. 8,65, m.o. Sept. 5,'63. 

DeLacy, J. A., e. Feb. 8,'65. m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 

Dwyer. Wm. E., e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 5.'65. 

Hdvn. Jacob H., e. Feb. 8, '65, m.o. Sept. 5,'55. 

Fi.sher, Jerome, e. Feb. .s,'65. m.o. Sept. 5, '65. 

Gallin, Edward, e. Feb. 8. '65, m.o. Sept. 6, '65. 

(iriescr, Albert, e. Feb. is, '65, m.o. Sept. 5. '65. 

Garrett Henry, e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 5,'6e. 

Ghuse, Samuel, e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 6,'65. 

Hayes, John, e. Feb. 8,'65. 

Hafdv, W., e. Feb. 8,'6.5, m.o. Sept. 5,'G5. 

Hall. Lewis, e. Feb. 9,'65. 

Kuhn, Luppe, e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. June 19,'65. 

Koozer, Tho.s.. e. Feb. 8,'65, died Mar. 29,'65. 

Kcefer, David, e. Feb. 8, '65, m.o. .Sept. 6,'65. 

Mc(Jrew, N. C, e. Feb. 8'65, m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 

Musselman, Wm. H., e. Feb. 8, '65, m.o. Aug. 

2.5, '65. 
Miller, Francis, e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 
Percey, John, e. Feb. 8, '65, m.o. Sept. 5, '6.5. 
Steinman, P., e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 5, '65. 
Sipes, Ira, e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 
Williams, W. H., e. Feb. 8, '65, m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 
Walker, R. C, e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 5,'64. 
Wovtsbenjer, K., e. Feb. 8, '65, m.o. Sept. 5,'65. 
Wyatt, Wm. T., e. Feb. 8.'65, m.o. Sept. 5,'S5. 
Garritt, John, e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 5,'66. 


Was organized at Camp Butler, 111., by Col. Ferdinand D. Stephenson, and was 
mustered in Feb. 18th, 1865, for one year. Feb. 20th it moved to Nashville, 
Tenn., and thence to Tullahoma. The regiment arrived at Camp Butler Sept. 
9th, 1865, where it received final payment and discharge. 

Ferdinand D. Stephenson, e. Feb. 18.'66, m.o. 
Sept. 11, '65 


Wm. S. Slocumb, e. Feb. 18,'65,m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 


Anderson, Rice, e. Feb. 11, '65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Creekmur, Jno. R.,e.Fed.ll,'65,m.o. Sept.11,'65. 
Dnzev, Mark W., e. Feb. 11, '^5, m.o. Sept. 11, 'Rd. 
Helm, Wiley R.. e. Feb. 11, 'tV), m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Meador. Joel J., e. Feb. 11, '(>5, m.o. Sept, 11, '65. 
Pennington, E., e. Feb. 11, "65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Phelps, Ran.som, e. Feb. 11. '65, died Mar. 2,'65. 
Scott, Joseph D., e. Feb. 11, '65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 


James. M. Hunter, e. Feb.18,'65, m.o.Sept.11,'65. 


G. W. Cox, e. Feb.9,'65, j>ro. principal musician. 
Stephen Ml:Kenzie, e. Feb. 9, "65. 

Allen Parlier, e. Feb. 9,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, "6.5. 
Charles Dunn, e. Feb. 9, '65, m.o. Sept. 11'65. 

Crews, Jas. R.. e. Fel). 9,'(i.5, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Campbell, D. F., e. Feb. 9,'65, m.o. Sept. 11. '65. 
Elliston. B., e. Feb. 9, '65, m.o. Sept. 11. '65. 
GilbrciUh, Jas., e. Feb. 9,'65, d. dis. July 29, '66. 
Gray, Saml., e. Feb. 9, '65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Gray, Geo. W., e. Feb. 11, '65, m.o. .Sept. 11, '65. 
Hart, Elias, e. Feb. 9,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
McKinzie, F. M., e. Fel). 9,'65, m.o Sept. 11, '65. 
Morris, Cha.s., e. Feb. 9, '65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
McClure, John. e. Feb. 9,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Quillnian, .1. W., e. Feb. 9,'65, m.o Sept. H,'65. 
Robinson, C^alvin, e. Feb. 9,'65. 
Smith, S. R., e. Feb. 9,'65, m.o. .Sept. ll,'r>5. 
Smith, W. J., e. Feb. 9, '65. m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Woodrow, Wm. C.,e. Feb. 15,'65, m.o, Sept.11,65. 


* Captain. 

Wm. Morehead, e. Feb. 18, '65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65; 

First Lieutenant. 
C M. Kingman, e. Feb. 18,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65 



Second Lieutenant. 
Frank Richmond, e. Feb. 1S,'65, m.o.Sept.11,'65. 


Jas. R. Ogden, e. Feb. 9,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, '6.5. 
Homer P. Albright,e.Feb.lO,'65,m.o.Sept.ll,'65, 


John R. Whi.sler, e. Feb. 13,'6.5, m.o. Sept. 11,'65. 
Wm. H. Fleming, e. Feb. 9,'a5, m.o. Sept.11,'65. 
Edw. Patrick, e. Feb. 4,'6.i, m.o. Sep. 11, '65. 
Jno. H. Warfield, e. Feb. 7, '6.5, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Saml. Shreves, e. Feb. 10,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 


Edward K. Lee, e. Feb. 10,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 


Atkinson, Albert, e. Feb. 7, '65, died June 27, '65. 
Bosier, Jos., e. Feb. 10,'65. m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Bowles, Jos., e. Feb. 7, '65, d. dis. July 30,'65. 
Burk, John L., e. Jan. 2.3,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Baker, Geo. W., e. Feb. 7,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Cappilo Jos., e. Jan. 28,'65, m.o. Sept. 21, '66. 
Enslow, H. S., e. Feb. 10,'6.5, m.o. Sept, 11, '65. 
Evans, Clias. A., e. Feb. 7. '65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Fleming, A. J., e. Feb. 9,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Galbreth, Wm., e. Feb. 9,'65, 
Garrison, J., e. Feb. 10.'65, m.o. July 14,'65. 
Hoops, David A., e. Feb. 7,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Henning, Martin, e. Jan. 31, '65, m.o. Sept. 11. '65. 
Johnson, Jno. W.. e. Feb. 7, '65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Kinzey, R. A., e. Feb. 13, '65, m.o. Aug. 22, '65, 
Kinman, Taylor, e. Feb. 8, '65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Laing, Wm. H., e. Feb. 8, '65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Leech, Wm., e. Feb. 10,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, '55, 
Lee, Jeremiah, e. Feb. 10, '65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Lamason, Wm. I).,e.Feb. 13, '65, died Aug.25,'65. 
Melford, Geo. W., e. Feb. 4, '6.5. 
Morris, Hiram D., e. Feb. 8. '65. 
McCance, G. W., e. Feb. 2,'65. m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Meriweather, J.H. e. Feb. 11,'65, m.oSept.ll"65. 
Meriweather, F. F., e. Feb. 4, '65. 
Martin, Chas., e. Feb. 10, '65. m.o. Sept, 11, '65. 
Osborne, Jno. E., e. Feb. 11, '65, m.o. Aug. 25,'65. 
Richards, Wm. e. Feb. 3, '65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Reid, Jno. R., e. Feb. 7,'65, m.o. Sept. 11,'65. 
Ramsey, Henry, e. Feb. 10, '65. 
Sann, Jacob, e". Jan. 27,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Shreve, Wilton, e. Feb. 11, '65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Shay, Martin, e. Feb. 10, '65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Sullivan. Benj. F.,e. Jan. 30,'65, m.o. Sept.11,'56. 
Santer. Jno., e. Jan. 23,'65, m.o. Julv 27, '65. 
Thompson, W. T., e. Feb. 8,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Taylor, Jas. N., e. Feb. 7,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Vanmeter, H. R., e. Feb. 10,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Wilt, David. J', e. Feb. 7,'65, m.o, Sept. 11,'65. 


Chas. Wagoner, e. Feb. 10,'65, m.o. Sept. 11,'65. 


Cutcomb, Willis, e. Feb. 10,'65, d. Mar. 4,'a5. 
Gilmore, J. H., c. Feb. 16,'65, m.o. Sept. 11, '6.5. 
Lunn, Elijah, e. Feb. 16, '65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 
Mondy, Jos., e. Feb. 16, '65, m.o. Sept. 11, '65. 


First lAeutenanis. 
Thos, L. Orendorff, e. Feb. 18,'65,res. Aug.14,'65, 
Hamilton Sutton, e. Sept. 5, '65, m.o. Sept.11,'65. 

Blankinship, Jno., e. Feb. 16, died Mar. 10, '65. 

154tli INFANTRY. 


Alfred Jenkins, e. Feb. 11, '65, m.o. Sept. 12,'65. 

Joseph Crocker, e. Feb. 11, '65, m.o. Sept. 18,'65. 


Neal, James, e. Feb. 22, '65, m.o. Sept. 18,'65. 

Phillips, James, e. Feb. 14, '65. 

Swan, Alonzo, e. Feb. 22,'65, m.o. May 23,'65. 


Fayette Baker, e. Feb. 15,'65, m.o. Sept, 18,'65. 

Brookins, S., e. Feb. 16,'65, m.o. July 4,'65. 
Brown, Richard, e. Feb. 15, '65. 
Clark, Henrv R., e. Feb, 15, '65, pro. 1st lieut. 
Cornelius, Henry, e. Feb. 18, '65, pro. 2d lieut. 
Dixon, Abrahams., e. Feb. 15,'65. 
McCormick, C, e. Feb. 18,'65, m.o. June 19,'55. 


Duff, John W., e. Feb. 21,'65, died April 3,'65. 

155tli INFANTRY 

Was organized at Camp Butler Feb. 28th, 1865, for one year. March 2d it pro- 
ceeded via Louisville and Nashville, to TuUahoma, Tenn. June loth it was 
divided into detachments of 20 to 30 men each, and assigned to guard duty on 
the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroads from Nashville to Duck river, a dis- 
tance of fifty miles. Sept. 4th it was mustered out, and moved to Camp But- 
ler, 111., wliere it received final pay and discharge. 



Clarkson, V., e. Peb. 23, '65, m.o. Sept. 4, '65. 
Camp, Isaac, e. Feb. 22. '65, m. o. Sept. 4, '65. 
Maines, Jas., e. Feb. 16, '65, pro. 1st Lieut. 
Smith, John H., e. Feb. 18,'65, m.o. Sept. 4.'65. 
Spaglc, Asa R., e. Feb. 20,'65, m.o. Sept. 4, '65. 


Cazey, Joseph T., e. Feb. 24,'65, m.o. Sept. 4,'65. 


First Sergeant. 
Henry Lervin, e. Feb. 21, '65, m.o. July 10,'65. 

Corder. Elijah, c. Feb. 16,'65, m.o. Sept. 4,'a5. 
Edwards, Wm. R., e. Feb. 24,'65, m.o. Sept.4,'65.., Charles, e, Feb. 21, '65, m.o. Sept. 4,'65. 
Gable, Augustus, e. Feb. 24,'65, m.o. Sept.4,'65. 
Hiple, Fred. W., e. Feb. 21,'6.5, m.o. Sept.4,'65 
Hadlev, Lamar W.,e. Feb. 21,'65, m.o. Sept.4,'65. 
Kapp,"Johu H., e. Feb. 22,'65, m.o. Sept. 4,'65. 



Minch, Henry, e. Feb. 21,'6.5, m.o. Sept. 4,'65. 
Minch, Geo., e. Feb. 21, '65, m.o. Sept. 4, '65. 
Middleton, ('. C, e. Feb. Zi.'C^'i, m.o. .Sept. 4,'65. 
Tobias, Wesley, e. Feb. 21, '65, m.o. Sept. 4. '65. 
Tompliiin, Oliver, e. Feb. 21, '65, m.o. Sept. 4, '65. 
Wilson, Merritt, e. Feb. 24, '65, m.o. Sept. 4, '65. 
Walker, J. B., e. Feb. 21, '65, died Mar. 1'J,'65. 
Ziuzer, Israel, e. Feb. 21, '65, m.o. Sept. 4,'65. 

156th INFANTRY. 

Corporals. * 

.John Lvneb, e. Feb. 15, '65, m.o. Sept. 20, '65. 
Wm. A. Hill, e. e. Feb. 15,'65, m.o. Aug. 24,'65. 

Hill, Martin, e. Feb. 15,'65. 
Hill, .John, e. Feb. 15,'65. 
Miller, Jaeob A., e. Feb. 15,'65. 
Most, Henry, e. Feb. 15,'C5. 


"Was organized at Camp Butler Aug., 1861. Sept. 25th moved to St. Louis, Mo. 
October 1st to Jetferson City, thence to Warsaw, arriving Oct. 11th, and on the 
23d marched to Springfield, Mo. Feb. 13th it fought the first engagement, and 
won the first victory of Curtis' campaign. Feb. 14, '62, occupied Springfield, 
Mo.; loth came up with Price's retreating army, capturing some prisoners; 
18th, partici])ated in a charge, routing the enemy, at Sugar Creek, Ark. ; 20th 
marched to Cross Hollows; INIarch 5th fell back to Pea Ridge; was engaged on 
the 7th and lost 10 killed and 40 wounded; 19th moved to Keetsville; April 
10th arrived at Forsyth ; 29th moved to West Plains; May 1st started for Bates- 
ville; 14th moved to Little Red River. June 4th fell back to Fairview; on the 
7th Capt. Sparks with 66 men was surrounded liy 200 of the enemy, he cut his 
wav out, losing 4 wounded and 4 prisoners; June 11th to Jacksonport; July 
5th to Helena, and moved to IMemphis in the spring of 1863. They took part 
in the battles of Port Gibson, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, and siege 
of Vicksl)urg; also Vermillionville, and Carrion Crow Bayou; 
participated in battles of Tupelo, Okolona and Guntown. Aug. 21st it took 
part in repulsing Gen. Forrest's attack on Memphis. Took part in the battles 
of Lawrencel)urg, Spring Hill, Campbellsville and Franklin. In May moved 
to St. Louis, thence to St. Paul, Minn. July 4th started on an Indian expedi- 
tion. Returned to Springfield, 111., Oct. 13th, 1865, and was mustered out of 
service. • 



Joseph S. Maus, e. Sept. 2.5,61, res. July 8,'G2. 
John B. Baker, e. Aug. i:!,'61, m.o. Sept. 5, '64. 

Fimt Lieutenants. 

J. B. Ketchum, e. Sept. 21,'61, res. Mar. 18,'62. 

Samuel L. Shellenberger, e. Aug. 13, '61, pro. 

capt. Co. F. as consolidated, pro. maj. 

Second Lieutenants. 

Michael Fisher, e. Sept. 21, '61, res. Dec. 26,'61. 
f'has. C. Wortli, e. Aug. 1:;,'61, res. Feb. 2.S,'63. 
H. W. Bachman, e. Aug. lo,'61, m.o. Sept. 6, '64. 


M. W. Skinner, e. Aug. i:!,'61, d. May 2,'62, dis. 
S. Start'ord. e. Aug. l;!,'61, d. Oct. 16,'62, dis. 
J. D. Welch, e. Aug. 13, '51, m.o. Sept. .5,'64. 


Peter .Sneider, e. Aug. 13,'01, d. Aug. 13,'62, di.s. 
James Burton, c. Aug. 13,'61, v. d. June 7, '65, 

Philip Mutter, e. Aug. 13,'61, m.o. Sept. 5,'64. 


Frank Smith, e. Aug. 13,'61, died at Memphis, 
June 30, '64, wiids. 


Charles Habberfield, e. Aug. 13, '01, died Pekiu 
while on parole. 

Karl Shaflfnit, e. Aug. 14,'61, d. Oct. 17,'G2, dis. 


Adams, J. R., e. Aug. 13,'61, v., m.o. Oct. 10,65. 

Adams, David, e. Aug. 13, '61, m.o. Sept. 5, '64, 

Bachman, August, e. Aug. 13,'61, d. July 1,'62, 

Banner, Patrick, e. Aug. 13,'61, tr. to V. R. C. 

April 15,'64. 
Blair, Austin, e. Aug. 13,'61, died at Mackinaw, 

Dec. 5, '61. 
Basquin, Barnard, e. Aug. 13,'61, died Lafay- 
ette, Tenn., Aug. 10, '63. 
Bowen, P., e. Aug. i3,'61, m.o. Nov. 5,'64. 
Clayton, Wra., e. Aug. 13, '61, m.o. Nov. 5,'G4. 
CiV-ssle, J., e. Aug. 13, '61, m.o. Nov. 5,'6-l, corpl. 
Campbell, C, e. Aug. 13,'61, d. June 24,'02, dis. 
Davis, .\lex., e. Aug. 13,'61, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Dennis, (ieorge, e. Aug. 13,'61, m.o. Sept. 5,'64, 

Druckliouse, Lewis, e. Aug. 13,'61, tr. to V. R. 

C. Ajiril 16,'04. 
Dyer, S. J., e. Aug. 13,'Gl, d. for pro. in 7 La. 

A. D. 
Flanniker, .\. W., e. Aug. 13,'61, v., m.o. Oct. 

1(),'65, sergt. 
Fessler, D., e. Aug. 13,'Gl, m.o. Sept. 5,'64. 
I'lannikcr, J., e. Aug. 13, '61, d. April 30, '62, dis. 
Gaither, W. G., e. Aug. 13,'61, v., m.o. Oct. 10, 

Hood, David B., e. Aug. 13,'61, died St. Louis, 

Dec. 4, '61. 
Hobbs, John, e. Aug. 13,'61, v., m.o. June 5, '65, 
Judy, S., e. Aug. 13,'61, v., m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Kock, Wm., e. Aug. 13,'61, v., m'o. Oct, 10,'65. 
Linek, Henrv, e. Aug. 13,'61, died in hos. April 




Loutz, W., c. Aug. 13,61, m.o. Sept. 5,'65, sergt. 
Monro, J. YL, e. Aug. 13, '61. 
Mullen, O., e. Aug, 13,'61, d. May 23,'62, dis. 
Mltchel, Julius, e. Aug. 13,'61, v., m.o. Oct. 10, 

'65, sergt. 
McConkie, J. A., e. Aug. 13,'61, left sick at 

Warsaw, Mo., Oct. 13, '61. 
Potter, P. G., e. Aug. 1.3,'61, v., d. June 7,'65, 

Pence, John, e. Aug. 13,'61, m.o. Sept. 5,'64. 
Parks, Baniard, e. Aug. 13,'61, v., m.o. Oct. 10, 

'65, corpl. 
Robinson, I. N., e. Aug. 13,'61, m.o. Sept. 5,64. 
Richmond, A., e. Aug. 13,'61, v. d. Dec. 19,'62, 

Smith, John, e. Aug. 13,'61, v., died Lafayette, 

Tenn., July 31, '63. 
Sunderland, W. E., e. Aug. 13, '61, v., d. June 

7,'65, dis. 
Snyder, S. S., e. Aug. 13,'61, v. pro. sergt. and 

1st lieut. 
Stuckhard, Henry, e. Aug. 13,'61, v. 
Sunderman, George, e. Aug. 13, '64, died at 

Young's Pt., La.. June 24,'63. 
Sutton, N. W., e. Aug. 13,'61, died at Lagrange, 

Tenn., Sept. 9, '63. 
Tenny, James, e. Aug. 13,61, v. 
Walters, John, e. Aug. 13, '61, m.o. Sept. 5, '64. 
Walters, W. J., e. Aug. 13,'61, v., m.o. Oct. 10, 

'65, corpl. 
Worst, W., e. Aug. 13,'61, m.o. Sept. 5,'64, corpl. 
Leach, N., e. Aug. 13,'61, m.o. Sept. 5,'&4. 
Puterbaugh, S. G., e. Aug. 13,61, m.o. Sept. 6, 

'64, sergt. 
Wills, N., e. Aug. 13,'61, v., m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Simpson, E., e. Aug. 13,'61, m.o. Sept. 5,'64. 
Probasco, J. H., e. Aug. 13,'61, d. June 16,'62, 

Webber, J. B., e. Aug. 13,61, died at Memphis, 

Julv 18,'64. 
Erlicher, Fredrick, e. Aug. 13,'61, kid. at Pea 

Ridge, Mar. 7, '62. 
Sparks, Thomas, e. Aug. 13,'61. 
JVilliamson, Joseph, e. Aug. 13,'61, d. Feb. IS, 

'63, dis. 
Walten, W., e. Aug. 13,'61, v., m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 

Barr, F. M., e. Feb. 4,'64, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Churchwell, W., e. Nov. 2,'63, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Eyger, N., e. Dec. 24, '63, m.o. June. 5,65, pris. 
Graham, H. D., e. Feb. 1,'&4. 
Miller, T., e. Jan. 13,'64, m.o. Oct. 10,'65, sergt. 
Powers, James, e. Jan. 29, '64. 
Putnam, John, e. Jan. 29,'64, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Shaft'er, Jacob, e. Dec. 17, '63. 
Sunken, George, e. Jan. 4,'64, died at Eastport, 

Miss, May 16,65. 
Taylor, V. W., e. Oct. 23,'63, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
White John, e. Nov. 5,'63, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Wagoner, Christian, abs., sick at m.o. of regt. 

3(1 CAVALRY, (Consolidated Regiment.) 

Samuel Shellenbergher, e. Aug. 13,'61, m.o. 
Oct. 10, '65, as capt. 


Allensworth, G. M., e. Sept. 27,'64, m.o. May 

23, '65. 
Barton, J. F., e. Sept. 27,'64, m.o. May 23,'65. 
Campbell, C, e. Oct. 8, '64, m.o. Oct. 10, '65. 
Ewing, Charles, e. Oct. 4,'64. 
Gray, Siliis, e. Oct. 4,'64, m.o. Oct. 10,'66. 
Maiiker, L. L., e. Oct. s,'64, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Patterson, Geo., e. Oct. 16,'64, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Parmerlee, C. L., e. Sept. 27,'64, m.o. May 23,'65. 
Samples, J. W., e. Oct. 7,'64, m.o. May 23,'65. 

Search, J. W., e. Sept. 27,'&4, m.o. May 23/65. 
Watson, Wm., e. Sept. 27, '64, m.o. May 23,'65. 


Glenn, J. W., e. Feb. 18,'65, m.o. May 10,'65. 



Joseph B. Wilts, e. Mar. 1,'65, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Joseph M. or W. Travis, e. Mar. 1,'65, m.o. Oct. 
10, '65. 


Bear, Wm. e. Mar. 1,'65, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Hibbetts, C. W., e. Mar. 1,'65, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Hibbard, A. B., e. Mar. 1,'65, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Maddux, W. M., e. Feb. 28,'65, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Masser, J. M., e. Mar. 1,'65, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Thorp, D. W., e. Mar. 1,'65, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 


Franklin Whitmer, e. Mar. 16, '65, m.o. Oct. 10, 


Samuel Strobe, e. Mar. 16,'65, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 


Lyons, J., e. Feb. 4,'65, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 
Moore, John, e. Mar. 7, '65. 


S. D. Stewart, e. Feb. 18,'65, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 


Collins, Lewis, e. Jlar. 7, '65. 

Evans, Samuel, e. Mar. 10,'62, m.o. Oct. 10,'65. 

Unassigned Recruits. 

Leech, Robert, e. Oct. 8,'64, died Camp Butler, 

111., Nov. 2Q;(A. 
Smith, J. F., e. Oct. 8,'64, m.o. May 21, '65. 
Tu.ssillian, S. R., e. Feb. 24,'65, m.o. June 3,'65. 

4tli CAVALRY. 


Pickernell, W., e. Sept. 11, '6i, died Mar. 1,'62. 


Orr, Thos., e. Sept. 5,'61, m.o. Nov. 3.'64. 
Woodberrv, H., c. Sept. 5,'61, m.o. Nov. 3, '64. 
Tuesburg.'H., e. Oct. 26,'61, kid. July 1,'62. 


First Sergeant. 
C. H. Cooper, e. Sept. 5,'61, d. June 19,'62, dis. 

Go. N. Leoni, e. Sept. 6,'61, pro. 2d lieut. 
Ilngh. A. Work, e. Sept. 2,'61, m.o. Nov. 3,'64. 

Jeremiah B. Cook, e. Sept. 21, '61, d. for pro. 
L. P. Harwood, e. Sept. 26,61, died May 8,'62. 

Allen, Chas. L., o. Sept. 2,'61, m.o. Nov. 3,'64. 
Becroft, John, e. Sept. 1,'61, m.o. Nov. 3,'64. 
Brausau, C. P., e. Sept. 6,'61, m.o. Nov. 3,'64. 
Blancbard, W. F., c. Sept. 6,'61, died, Feb. 9,'62. 



Cheever, A. B., e. Sept. 7,'61, m.o. Nov. 3,'64. 

Cook, Henry C, e. Sept. ",'01, d. June 3, '62. ' 

Cook, Howard, e. Oct. l.'Ol, d. for pro. 

Eiekhardt, A., e. Sept. 16,61, d. June 19,'C2, dis. 

Fen, John, e. Oct. 1,'61, v. 

Gififord, C. S., e. Sept. 2,'01, m.o. Nov. 3,'G4. 

Holt, T. B., e. Sept. 9,'61, v. 

Lang, Thos., e. Sept. 8,'Cl, v. 

McMackin, Wm. H., e. Sept. 17,'Gl, m.o. Nov. 

3, '04. 
Scullv, Michael, e. Sept. 2.'),'6, d. for di.s. 
Slaughter, J., e. Sept. 1.S,'64, died Sept. 12,'62. 
Varnev, VV. S., e. Sept. 9. 61, d. May, 'ti2, wnd. 
Mhipp", A. P., e. Sept. 6,61, died Feb. 10,'62. 
Blair, W. S., e. Oct. 21, '61. 
Beals, Jacob, e. Nov. 21, '61. 
Durham, Lorenzo, e. Nov. 16,'61, d. for pro. 
O'Neil, John, e. Oct. 1,'61, v. 
Underbill. A. H., e. Oct. 1,'61. 
Youtz, Jacob, e. Oct. 1,'61. 
Elder, Leonard, e. Sept. 23,'61, v. 

5tli CAVALRY. 


Bell, Ellis, e. April 7,'G5, m.o. Oct. 27, '65. 
Burt, Alonzo, e. April 7, '65, m.o. Oct. 27, '65. 
Curtis, v., e. Ai)ril 7, '65, m.o. Oct. 27, '65. 
Collins, C, e. April 7, '65, m.o. Oct. 27,'67. 
Cunningham, Berry, e. Mar. 23, '65. 
Lane, Larkin, e. April 7. '65, m.o. Oct. 27, '65. 
Wilkinson, J. H., e. Jan. 4. '61, m.o. Oct. 27, '65 


Ward, Alfred, e. Feb. 22,'65, in Co. B., m.o. 

Nov. 5, '65. 
Hile, Samuel S., e. Mar. 1,'64, in Co. C, m.o. 

Nov. 5, '65. 
Morrell, P. W., e. Mar. 10.'65, in Co. F., m.o. 

Nov. 5, '65. 
Weaver, Wm. W., e. Mar. 10,'65, in Co. F., m.o. 

Nov. 5, '65. 
Duke, James H., e. Feb. 22,'65, in Co. H., m.o. 

Nov. 5,'65. 
Rutherford, E., e. Feb. 9,'65, in Co. H., m.o. 

N6v. 5. '65. 
EUedge, N. D., e. Mar. 15,'65, in Co. I., m.o. 

Nov. 5, '05. 
Spence, Theodore, e. Mar. 15,'65, in Co. I., died 

April ,5, '65. 
Speers, Wm. H., e. Jan. 27,'65, in. Co. I,, died 

June 24, '65. 
Martin O. S., e. Mar. 10,'65, in Co. L., m.o, Nov. 

Green, H. P.. e. Mar. 23,'65. 
White, James. A., e. Feb. 22,'64. 


Davis, Jacob, e. Co. F., Feb. 28, '65, m.o. Nov. 
4, '65. 



Isaac York, e. Aug. 20, '61. 


Colbert, Wm., e, Aug. 20,'Gl. m.o. Oct. 15,'04. 
Campbell, J., e. Aug. 20,'61, m.o. Oct. 1,'6.1. 
Morehead, A. J., e. in Co. L., Mar. 7,'65, m.o. 

Nov. 4, '65. 
Moore, G. G., e. Co. L., Mar. 2,'65, m.o. Nov. 4, 


Unassigncd liccruiis. 
Black, Charles, e. Oct. 11, '04. 
Brenner, Henry, e. Oct. 11, '64. 
Casey, Mitchell", e. Oct. 7, '64. 
Cook, John, e. Mar. 3,'65. 
Decker, Wm., e. Mar. 3, '65. 
Farlar, James, e. Sept. 28, '64. 
Wagner, John, e. Oct. 7, '64. 



Jordan, E. M., e. Mar. 20,'G4, m.o. June 21, '65. 
Whitmore, J., e. Sept. 20,'G4, m.o. June 21, '65. 
Whitmore, C, e. Sei)t. 20, '64, m.o. Jan. 21, '65. 
Bowes, Geo., e. Oct. 3,'01, Co. F., d. for wnds. 



Keoler, C. M., e. Mar. 3,'65, Co.A.,m.o.Oct.31,'65. 
McCulloch, Wm., e. Mar. 3,'65, Co. A., m.o. Oct. 

31 ,'05. 
Taylor. II. R., e. Mar. 3,'G5,Co.A.,m.o.Oct.31,'65. 
Hill, Thos., e. Feb. 2,S,'05, Co. C, m.o. Oct.31,'6.5. 
Dueneiiing, H., e. Sept. 10,'61, Co. D., v., m.o. 

Oct. 31, '65. 
Lightsey, J. II., e. Feb. 20,'65, Co. L., m.o. Oct. 

31, '65. 

Unassigned Pecruiis. 
Gritfm, G. W., e. :March 3, '65. 
Hamlin, Edward, c. March 3,'65. 

10th CAVALRY. 

Crafton. Sam'!., e. Jan. 3,'C4, in Co. L. 
Chambers, Noah, e. Sept. 28,'G4, in Co. L. 
Hencle, J., e. Sept. 29,'04, in Co. L. 

11th CAVALRY. 

Company " F," of this regiment, was recruited at Pekin in the fall and win- 
ter of 1861, and reported to the regiment, at Peoria, with ninety-eight men, 
and three commissioned officers. The regiment left for the field, 22d of Feb., 
1865, and participated in the battle of Shiloh. After the evacuation of Corinth, 
the regiment was assigned by detachments to service l)etween that place and 
Memphis. Nov. 19th Co. "F" reported to the regiment at Jack.son, Miss.; was 
engaged at Lexington, Dec. 18th, 18C2, when 46 of their number, with the 
colonel, fell into the hands of the enemy. The regiment remained in West 
Tennessee till September, 186:5, doing gooVl work among the guerrillas. After 
this they operated in the country between the Big Black and Pearl rivers, 
and on the Yazoo, rendering that' country untenable for the Johnnies. The 
regiment veteranized in December, 1864. They participated in Sherman's 
grand march through Mississippi. During the summer of 1864, they were in 



many skermishes and raids. November and December were with General 
Osborne in the raid against the Mississippi Central Railroad, reached Vicks- 
burg on Dec. 5th; moved to Memphis in January, 1865; joined in Grierson's 
raid; was engaged at Egypt Station; after this raided in Arkansas and 
Louisiana, and done guard duty on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad. It 
was mustered out at Memphis, Tenn., Sept. 30th, and arrived at Peoria, Oct. 
12th, 1865. 

Lieutenant Colonel. 
Aquilla J. Da\-is, e. Dec. 20,'61, m.o. Sept. 30/65. 

Dennis S. Shepherd, e. Get. 8,'61, res. May 29,'65. 


John Kraft, e. Sept. 27,'61, d. Oct. 14,'G2. 


Burkhardt, M., e. Oct. 29,'61, m.o. Dec. 20,'Cl. 
Cook, F., e. Nov. 13,'61, v., m.o. Sept. 30,'65. 
Dehwert, Wm., e. Sept. 25,'Gl, v.,m.o.Sept.30,'C5. 
Geis, Geo., e. Nov. 26,'01, d. dis. Jan. 27,'64. 
Graf, Jacob, e. Dec. 16,'61, v., m.o. Sept. 30,'65. 
Hossert, John, e. Oct. 29,'61. 
Krenser, Albert, e. Dec. 16,'61, died July29,'G4. 
Kuhn, Gregor, e. Nov. IS.'Ol, kid. Aug. 25,'62. 
Metz, John. e. Nov. 19,'61, m.o. Dec. 20,'64. 
Ringle, Chris., e. Dec. 16,'(U, v., m.o. Sept.SO.'Gf). 
Schaumburg, F.,e. Oct. 3,'(51, v., m.o. Sept.20,'G.5. 


Bauler, Matthias, e. Jan. 21, '62, v. 
Bailev, Ira M., e. Feb. 25,'G5, m.o. Sept. 30,'G5. 
Gaengel, John, e. Dec. 18,'Gl, m.o. Dec. 20,'64. 
Laspe, Fred., e. Dec. 9,'63, died Oct. 22,'G4. 
Nievar, Adam, e. Feb. 2:5, '64, m.o. Sept. .30, '65. 
Litlar, Jacob, e. Dec. 16,'63. m.o. Sept. 30,'G5. 
Legesser, Samuel, e. Dec. 14, '63, died Nov.23,'64. 
Watson, Jas., e. Feb. 25,'65, m.o. Sept. 20,'G5. 
Thomas, Henry, e. Feb. 4, '65, in Co. B. 


John Mickil, e. Nov. 14.'61, v. 

Samuel Miller, e. Nov. 17,'Gl, v. m.o. Sept. 30,'65. 

Wm. McColgan, e. Nov. 14,'61, d. dis. May 8,'G2. 

Edds, David C, e. Nov. 26,'Gl, v. m.o. Sept.20,'65. 
Graham, H. D., e. Nov. 14,'61, d. dLs. May S,'62. 
Hanger, J. W., e. Dee. 3. '61. 
Kemper, Wm., e. Nov. 20, '61. 
Leary, James, e. Dec. 4,'Gl, v., died Aug. 29,'G5. 
Learv, John, e. Dec. 4,'Gl, v., m.o. Sept. 20, '65. 
Sommers, Juo., e. Nov. 15,'61, d. dis. July 10,'62. 
Wood, John, e. Nov. 14,'Gl, d. dis. May 20,'G2. 


Parker, J. R., e. Sept. 28,'G4, m.o. June 9,'65. 
Brontage, John, e. Feb. 22,'62. 
Gregory, Benj., e. Sept. 2«,'64, m.o. June9,"65. 
Graham, Fred., e. Jan. 4,'62, kid. at Shiloh 

April 6, '62. 
Hover, Fred., e. Feb. 11, '64, m.o. Sept. 30,'65. 
McClung, Jas., e. Sept. 28,'64, m.o. July22.'G5, 

was pris. of war. 
Dehalderman, Simon, e. Nov. 27, 'Gl, in Co. D. 
Wilmoth, L., e. Oct. G,'64, in Co. D. 


Wm. M. Olmsted, e. Dec. 23,'61, res. April 18,'G2. 
Bernard Wagner, e. Dec. 20,'61, m.o. Sept. 30, '65. 

First Lieutenants. 
Richard Burns, e. Dec. 20,'61, kid. In battle of 

Shiloh, April G, '62. 
David M. Cummings, res. April 11, '63. 
John Backus, e. Dec. 31, '61, res. May 11, '65. 
Chas. T. Mans, e. Nov. 5,'61, m.o. Sept. 30,'G5. 

Second Lieutenant. 
David Blair, e. Dec. 4,'61, m.o. Sept. 30,'G5. 

Samuel Dusenberry, e. Sept. 21, '61 
Andrew McBride, e. Sept. 16, '61, v., m.o. Sept. 
30, '65. 

Chas. Jacob, e. Sept. 30,'61, v., m.o. Sept. .30,'65. 
Wm. Hanlin, e. Sept. 25,'61, d. dis. July,'G2. 
Richard Flinn, e. Sept. 21, 'Gl, v. m.o. Sept.30,'G5. 
Frank H. Dare, e. Sept. 29, '61, v. m.o Sept. 30,'G.5. 
Walter McDonald, e. Oct. 4,'Gl, m.o. Dec. 20,'64. 


JasperSmJth, e. Oct. 3,'Gl, v.,m.o. Sept. 30,'65. 


Blanchard, W. S., e. Sept. 16,'Gl. 
Bridgewater, Henry B., e. Sept. 23, '61, died Feb. 

Brooks, Joseph, e. Oct. 16,'Gl, v., m.o. Sept30,'65, 
Bennett, Richard, e. Oct. 3, '61, died May 1, '62. 
Bover, Joua., e. Oct. 20,'61, v., m.o. Sept. 30,'6.5. 
Cla'rk, Henrv, e. Sept. 16,'61, v., m.o. Sept. 30,'G5. 
Cohenour, Wm., e. Sept, 21, '61, d. for dis. 
Curran, Patrick, e. Dec. 15, '61. 
Davis, Joshua, e. Oct. 11,'Gl, v.,diedFebl3,'64. 
Goft; Alex., e. Sept. 30,'61. died May 25,'G2. 
Gibbons, Thos., e. Oct. 3,'61, v., m.o. Sept. 30,'65. 
Havs, Jacob, e. Sept. 27, '61, v., m.o. Sept 30, '65. 
Harman, D. H., e. Sept. 23,'61, d. Oct., '62. 
Hammond, Lemuel B., e. Nov. 11,'Gl. 
Hudson, Nathl.,e. Dec. 15,'Gl,v.,m.o.Sept.30,'G5. 
Kriell, John, e. Dec. 17,'61, v., m.o Sept. 30, '65. 
Kemp, John, e. Sept. 23, '61, died. 
Little, John, e. Nov. 2y,'Gl, d. for dis. 
Long, John, e. Sopt, 23,'61. 
McGinnis, John, e. Oct. 5,'61, d. Dec. 20,'G4. 
Mulvahill, Albt., e. Sept. 1G,'61, m.o. Dec. 28,'64. 
Mulvahill, Geo., e. Sept. 24, '61, d. Dec. 20,'frl. 
Murphv, Alex., e. Sept.2y,'Gl, v.,m.o.Sept.30,'G5. 
McKassen, R. J., e. Sept. 19,'61, v. 
Merrvtield, M., e. Sept. 21, '61, died Feb. 28,'62. 
Miller, Geo., e. Oct. 16,'61, v., m,o. Sept. 30,'65. 
Myers, J. C, e. Nov. IG.'Gl, died Sept. 30,'62. 
Nelson, Daniel, e. Sept. 17,'Gl, d. Dec. 20,'G4. 
Pickerell, Saml., e. Sept. 23,'61, died May 3,'62. 
Rvans, Moses, e. Sept. 23, 'Gl. 
Rvan, Dennis, e. Nov. 13, '(;i, v., rft.o. Sept.20,'G5. 
Stiles, David, e. Sept. 24, 'Gl, v., m.o. Sept. 30,'G5. 
Scott, J. M., e. Oct. 21, '61, v., m.o. Sept. 30,'65. 
Slawbaw, Jno., e. Dec. 17,'Gl, v.,m.o. Sept.30,'65. 
Thorpe, M. G.,e. Sept. 24, 'Gl, v., m.o. Sept. 30,'65. 
Town. L. A., e. Dec. 4,'Gl. 
Winner, Jos., e. Dec. G,'61, v., m.o. Sept. 30,'65. 

Cunningham. Charles, e. Mrrch 1,S,'63. 
Davis, J. W., e. Dec. 9,'63, m.o. Sept. 30,'65. 
Happenev, Pat., e. Jan. 4.'64, m.o. Sept. 30,'65. 
Happenev, Elwd., e. Jan. 4, '(^, m.o. Sept.30,'65. 
Ilabbertield, F., e. Nov.l3,'Gl,v.,m.o.Sept.30,'G5. 
Heaney, Frank, e. Dec.26,'61,v.,m.o. Sept.30,'65. 
Henderson, Fred., e. Dec. 25,'61. 



Jones, J. L.,e. Feb. 25, '65. 

Johnson, Win. T., e. Dec. 6,'61, v. 

Lock, M. M., e. Jan. ;n,'a'i, m. o. Sept. 30,'C).S. 

Mundcr, Ellis ('., e. Mar. 81, '04, m.o. Sept.:W,'G.'). 

McFarlaiul, Kdw., e. Oct. :i,'W, m.o. Sept.:)0,'(i5. 

Noi'\'elle, Thos., e. Jan. 31, '65, m.o. Sept. 30,'G5. 

O'Riley, Jas., e. Sept. 23,'(;i, died Oct. 10,'W, v. 

Pollard, Richard, e. Jan. 1,'G4, m.o. Sept.:50,'65. 

Pero, Alex., e. Oct. o,'('A, m.u. Sept. :W,'(i5. 

Powers, Thos., e. Mar. 31, 'tU, died Feb. lS,'i;,5. 

Rjivles, Jacob, e. Jan. 31, '05, m.o. Sept. 30, 'G5. 

Williams, S. N., e. Mar. 22, '(14. 

Yerker, Wm., e. Dec. '25, 'Ol. 

Hainlinc, tieo., e. Dec. 2, '01, in Co. G., v., m.o. 

July 14, '&5. 
Abbey, A., e. Feb. 29,'tU, in Co. G., m.o. July 



Second Lieutenant. 
Andrew T. Linbarger. 

Henry Pratt, e. Dec. 6,'Cl, d. Dee. 22, '04. 

Barraton, Jos., e. Nov. 29,'ei, d. Dec. 22,'r)-4. 
I-cnard, Peter, e. Nov. lO.'Ol, v.,m.o.Sept.30,'G5. 
Murphy, P. M., e. Nov. 7, '01, m.o. Sept. 3o,'05. 
Stamm. Jno., e. Nov. 10, '01, m. o. Sept. 30, '05. 
Humphrey, Milt., Mar. 1,'02, m.o. Sept. 30,'05. 


Crain, Frank, e. Feb. •29,'04, m.o. Julv 8,'C5. 
Doty, Sidney, e. Mar. ;!1,'W, died July 22,'04. 
Humphrey, Jno.,e. Mar. 31, '04, m.o. Sept. 30, '05. 
Hiimphrey, N., e. Oct. 4. '04, m.o. Sept. 30,'O5. 
Hcjward, G. W., e. Jan. 26,'t)4, m.o. Sept. 30,'05. 
Kenneily, Isaac, e. Mar. 24, '04, m.o. Sept. 30,'05. 
Owens, Funis M., e. Jan. 30, '04, m.o. Sept.30,'05. 
Parsons, E. L. e. Fob. 1,'04, m.o. Sept. 30, '05. 
Princeton. Wm., e. Dec. 16,'G3, m.o. May 22, '05. 
Pemberton, J. K. e. Jan. iy,'04, m.o. Sept.30,'05. 
Pemberton,.\lvin,e. Jan.l'J,'04,m.o. Sept.30,'G5. 
Rose, Chas., e. Dec. 19, '03, m.o. Sept. 30, '05. 
Speers, J. F., e. Feb. 27, '05, m.o. Sept. 30,'05. 
Sakers, Henry, e. Dec. 15, '03. 
Winklebleck, J., e. Oct. 4,'04, m.o. Sept. 30,'65. 
Wright, Alfred, e. Sept. ■2S,'04, died Julv 12,'05. 
Westfall, J. H. e. April 1,'04, m.o. Sept. 30,'65. 
Pemberton, B., e. Feb. 5,'W, m.o. Sept. 30,'05. 


Humphreo, W. H., e. Nov. 7, '61. 

Shay, John, e. July 1,'02, m.o. June 9, '05. 

Taggart, David, e. Feb. 23, '62, died Aug. 10,'G2. 


Farran, Geo., e. Feb. '2.3, '01. 

Murphy, Pat., e. Oct. 27,'01. 

Green, John, e. Jan. 7,'0-l, m.o. Sept. 30,'65. 

Frye, Henry .V., e. Feb. 27, '05, m.o. Sept. 30,'05. 

Manlion, D. F.. e. Feb. 1.S,'65, m.o. Sept. 30. '75. 

Powers, A. C, e. Feb. 18, '65, m.o. Sept. 30, '05. 


Brady, J. W., c. Feb. 27, '(U, m.o. Sept. 30, '65. 
Delanev, Thos., e. Feb. 'i/.'Oo, m.o. Sept. :50,'0o. 
Ickes, W. J., e. Feb. 27,'C5, m.o. Sept. 30,'05. 

Unassigned Recruits. 

Barrett, M. v. B., e. Nov. 16,'6'2. 

Bowlsby, John. e. Nov. IS, '02. 

Biggins, Patrick, e. Jan. 12,'63. 

Betty, Joseph, e. Jan. 12,'03. 

Brown, Edward, e. Dec. 19, '6:?. 

Cufaude, Hugh, e. Nov. 14, '04, m.o. May 29,'65. 

Crosby, Hugh, e. Jan. 10,'6:i. 

Eibe, Conrad, e. April 4,'6o. 

Howard, C. M., e. Nov. 16, '62. 
King, John, e. Oct. 7, '64. 
Strong, Jason, e. Dec. 3, '63. 

12th CAVALRY. 

Carey, Edward, e. Jan. 1.'62, in Co. E. 

I'na.t.'^igned Recruits. 
Blanche, Charles, e. Sept. 2S,'G4. 
Cook. John, e. Sept. 2.S,'64. 
James, Thos., e. Sei)t. 28, '04. 
Layhe, Michael, e. Sept. 28, '64. 
McGovern, John, e. Sept. '28,'0-l. 

14tli CAVALRY. 


Polland, J. P., e. Nov. 31, '62, missing in action 

Aug. 3, '04. 
Kolb, John, e. Sept. 11, '62, d. dis. Dec. 5, '63. 


Amnion, John. 

Baldwin, Erwin, e. Feb. 10. '64, m.o. July 31, '65. 


Johi) Buxton, e. Nov. 1,'62, d. dis. June S,'65. 


Highland, Culberton, e. Sept. 17,'62, died at 
Andersonville Pris., Nov. 17,'64, No. grave 

Pippin, R., e Jan. 26,'G3. m.o. July 31, '6.5. 

Pippin, Thos., e. Jan. 22, '03, m.o. July 31, '65. 

Pippin, -Arnold, e. Feb. 22,'t'>4. m.o. Julv 31, '05. 

Rittenour, J. P., e Sept. 22,'02. in Co. G. 

Miller. Henry, e. Sept. 14, '02, in Co. K. 


Benj. Kaunnan, e. Sept. 15,'62, died Feb. 9,'64. 


John Probasco, e. Sei)t. 15,'62, m.o. July 31, '65. 
J. J. Ferguson, e. Sept. 15, '62, m.o. July 31, '65. 


Casev, J. M., e. Sept. 15, '62, m.o. July 31, '65. 

Stinlev, Wm. J., e. Sept. 15, '02. 

Kellogg, David, e. Oct. 0,'64. 

Burk, Thomas, e. Sept. 27, '6-1. 

Hass, Jacol), e. Oct. 5, '03, in Co. D., 17th, m.o. 

Dec. 20, 'Cm. 
Howard, D. ^i., e. Jan. 15,'61, in Co. D, 17th, m. 

o. Dec. '20, '05. 
Vorhees, David, e. Jan. 28,'64, in Co. D, m. o. 

Dec. 20, '05. 


Gillett, Chas. S., e. Dec. 30,'63, in bat. F., 1st 

kid. Aug. 3,'64. 
Richardsdii, Thos., e. July 3,'62, tr. to V.R.C. 
Betterliiig, Geo., e. April 19,'01, in bat. A. 2d 

Art., il. <lis. 
Wehner, Henry, e. July 17, '61, in bat. A, 2d 

An., (lied Feb. 14,'02, wnds. 
Brown, James, e. Sepi. •23.'64, in. bat. G. 'Jd Art., 

m.o. May 30, '65. 


Corsley, Wm. H., e. Sept. 21, '6-1, in Co. B.,m.o. 

Sept. 30,'(iu. 
Hall, Geo. M~e. Sept. '21, '64, in Co. B. 




Ashby, Wm. J., e. Sept. 21,'64,m.o. Nov. e.'Oo. 
Ashbv, Miirehall, e. Sept. 21, '04, m.o. Sept.30,'()5. 
Ashbv, Wm. H., e. Sept. 21, '04, m.o. Sept.30,'05. 
Day, iMorgan, e. Sept. 30,'e4, died Sept. G,'60. 
Heiirv, Wm., e. Jan. 27, '05. 
Lewis, Edward, e. Sept. 2.s,'64, m.o. May23,'05. 
Price, Wilson, e. Sept. 30,'e4. 
Tumbleton, Thos. M., e. Sept. 30,'64. 
McGee, Benj., e. Mar. 7,'65. 


Davis, Noah, N., e. Feb. 21, '0.5, m.o. Feb. 21, '06. 

(Jrabtree, A. J., e. Feb. 2S,'0.3, m.o. Feb. 2S,'0.5 

Carr, Taos., e. Feb. 28,'65, m.o. Feb. 28,'66. 

McClure, J. A., e. Feb. 27,'65. 

Work, Husli A., e. Feb. 24,'6.5, m.o. Feb. 24,'n.5. 

Sandburn, W. H., e. Feb. 3,'05, m.o. Mar. 3,'O0. 

Crooks, Lawsoii, c. Mar. 6,'6.5. 

Powers, (,'ha.s., e. Feb. 28,'0.5, m.o. Feb. 2S,'66. 

Schermere, A., e. Mar. 23,'e5, m.o. Mar. 23,'eC. 

Hill, Thos., e. Mar. 29,'6.5, m.o. Mar. 27,'66. 

Harsh, Phillip, e. Mar. 30,'tw,"ui.o. Mar. 29,'00. 

Simno, Francis, e. April 0.5. 

Gibbs, W. J., e. April 5, '65, m.o. April 13, '66. 

Hess, Peter, e. April 5,'65, m.o. April 13, '66. 

Steinkoff, G., e. April 5,'65, m.o. April 13, '06. 

Bliss, James, e. June, '65. 

Dean, Henry, e. Sept., '64. 

Donelson, James, e. Feb., '04. 

Havs. R,, e. Sept., '04. 

Newkirk, I. N., e. Oct., '04. 

Price, Geo., e. Sept., 64. 

Scott, John, e. Sept., '64. 

Wilson, Charles, e. Sept., 64. 

Young, Charles, e. June, '65. 



Montgomerj-, Samuel, e. Mar. 18, '62, v. 
Newbauks, C. H., e. Mar. 29,'05, m.o. Oct. 15,'65. 
Stanton, Mrchael, e. Oct. 12,'04, recruit. 
Linton, A. R., e. Mar. 12,'64, kid. by R.R. acci- 
dent, July 29, '04. 
Wanttand John, e. Mar. 5,'64, m.o. Aug. 12,'05. 
Wood, John, e. Dee. 21, '04, m.o. Aug. 12,'05. 
Burns, Peter, e. Oct. 6, '64, recruit. 
Femes, M., e. Oct. 6,'64. rejected by board. 
Long, J. C, e. Oct. 0,'64, rejected bv board. 
Dodson. R. S., e. Feb. 22,'65, v., m.o." Julv 31, '66. 
Dod.son, M., e. Feb. 22.'6.5, v., m.o. July31,'65. 
Smith, William, e. Sept. 3,'61. 
Myers, Henry, e. Mar. 6, '.52, v., m.o. Julv 12,'05. 
Rouse, T. J., e. April 2,'02, m.o. April 12,'65. 
EdmLston, J., e. Sept. 10,'61, m.o. June 11, '62, 

CoUins, N. M., e. Sept. 20, '64, Co. E., 73d inf., 

m.o. June 12, '65. 
Morris, B. J., e. Aug. 5,'02, Co. F., 73d inf., d. 

Jan. 13, '63, dis. 
Horton, N., e. Feb. 9,'64, 73d inf., Co. K. 
Newberry, A., e. Sept. 29,'04, 73d inf., Co. K. 
Clegg, J. C, e. Aug. 13,'02, 77th inf., Co. IL, 

kid. Vicksburg, Mav 19, '63. 
Poga, A. B., e. Aug. 9,'02, 77th inf., Co. H., ra. 

o. June]7,'05' pri.s. war. 
Stewart, W. H., e. Aug. 12,'02, 77th inf., Co. H., 

d. May 27, '03, dis. 
Hauck, John, e. 77th inf.. Co. K., as recniit. 
Bagler, J. R., e. Aug. 12,'02, 81st inf., Co. D., m. 

o., Aug. 5, '65. 
Wilson, David, e. Feb. 41, '65, 81st inf., Co. K., 

Groff, Joseph E., e. Aug. 1,'62, 85th inf., Co. I., 

m.o. June 5, '65. 
Price, Fredrick, e. Feb. 5,'63, 2d oav., unas- 

signed recruit. X> 

Hayner, Christian, e. Dec. 17,'63, unassigned 

recruit, cav. 
Clark, Lewis, e. Dec. 10,'64, 3d cav., Co. A., re- 
cruit, m.o. Oct. 10,'05, as sergt. 
Ansell, Joseph, e. Oct. 11, '64, 3d cav., Co. D., 

m.o. Oct. 10,'C5. 
Dalbv, Milo, e. Oct. 10,'fri, 3d cav., Co. E., m.o. 

Oct. 10,'05. 
McCance, G. R., e. April 12,'65, 3d cav., Co. E., 

m.o. Oct. 10, '65. 
Morris, Geo., e. Feb. 13,'65, 3d cav., Co. E., m. 

o. Oct. 10, '0.5. 
Larish, Da\id, e. '01, in sappers and miners, 

kid. in battle. 
Moody, Albert, e. '61, in sappers and miners, 

m.o. at close of war. 
Ramige, W., e. Aug. 15,'62, 85th inf., Co. K., m. 

o. June 5,'65. 
Speicht, M., e. Aug. 15,'62, 85th inf., Co. K., 

died Oct. 30, '62. 
Eaton, F. L., e. Aug. 11, '62, 8Cth inf., d. as hos. 

Chauncy, W. W., e. July 18,'62, 86th inf., Co. 

H., d. Dec. 28, '02, dis. 
Howland, C. A., e. Oct. 13,'64, 92d inf., Co. K., 

Sloan, J. L., e. Aug. 1,62, 94th fnf., Co. F., m.o. 

July 17, '65. 
Cathar," William, e. Mar. 3,'65, 97th inf., m.o. 

Julv 29, '05. 
Hand, Wm. B., e. July 26,'62, 99th inf., Co. A., 

m.o. Julv 31, '65. 
Hand, WiUis, e. July26,'62, 99th inf., Co. A., 

m.o. Julv 31, '65. 
Fitzpatrick, John, e. Mar. 9,'65, 103d inf., Co. 

E., m.o. Julv 24, '65. 
Vanmeter, J. B", e. Julv 22,'62, 106tli inf., Co. 

C, m.o. Julv 12,'0.5. 
Vanmeter, S. G." e. July 2,'62, 106th inf., Co. C, 

m.o. July 12, '65. 
Smith, James, e. Jan. 23, '64, unassigned re- 
cruit 113th inf. 
Holmes, Samuel, e. Sept. 22,'64, 113th inf., Co. 

D., recruit, m.o. Aug. 3, "65. 
Nale, William, e. Sept. 22, '64, 113th inf., Co. D., 

recruit, m.o. Aug. 3,'65. 
O'Conor, Peter, e. Sept. 22,'&4, 113th inf., Co. 

D., m.o. Aug. 3,'65. 
Thompson, J. W., e. Sept. 22,'&4, 113th inf., Co. 

D., m.o. Aug. 3, '65. 
Carter, Wm., e. Oct. 6,'64, 115th inf., Co. K., 

died Camp Butler, Jan. 8, '65. 
Lee, Chas. K., e. Sept. 27, '64, in 116th inf., re- 
cruit, Co. C, m.o. Jan. 7,'65. 
Hamilton, Pa.schal, e. Oct. 11,'64, 116th inf., Co. 

E;., recruit. 
Smith, J. K. P., e. Sept. 20,'62, 116th inf., Co. 

F., m.o. June 7,'05. 
Harbinson, S. J., e. Aug. 12,'01, v., 2d cav., Co. 

B., accidentally kid. Oct. 10,'65. 
Collison, Madison, e. Oct. 1,'64, 2d cav., Co. B., 

d. June 12, '65. 
Jones, WilUam, e. Oct. 1,'64, 2d cav., Co. D., d. 

June 12, '65. 
VanMeter, Newton, e. Feb. 20,'Cl, v., 2d cav., 

Co. D., m.o. Nov. 12, '05. 
Kemp, Abraham, e. Mar. 25, '64, 2d cav., Co. 

K., m.o. Nov. 22, '65. 
Hodges, Wm. J., e. Feb. 28,'65, Co. H., 14th regt. 
Hammond, J., e. Feb. 28,'05, Co. K., 14th regt. 
Wells, Marcus P., e. May 24,'ei, in Co. K., 16th 

inf., died Mav 26,'02. 
Hodgson, Hugh D., e. Dec. 14, '63. 
Cadwell, W., e. June 17,'61, in Co. F., 19th inf. 
Ketz, Fred., e. Mar. 8,'65, in Co. A., 20th inf., 

m.o. July 22, '65. 
Scholotour, John, e. Mar. 8,'65, in Co. A., 20th 

inf., m.o. Julv 10, '05. 
Miller, Wm. H.. e. June 13,'61, in Co. E., 20th 

inf., died. 
Kelly, Thos., e. Jan. 23, '65, in Co. F., 20th inf. 
Kelly, James, e. Jan. 23, '65, never reported. 



Donghert\', James, e. Jan. 16,'65. 

Rotze, Fre<l., e. Mar. .s,'65. 

Bviiuin, IsiUic, e. Sept. •J9,'G4, m.o. Aupr. t.'GS. 

Bond, C. C e. Feb. 2.s,'65, m.o. Nov. 6,'(>.5. 

Brown, Jackson, e. Aug. 'iO.'Gl, v., in Co. G., 

3:kl inf. 
Davis, Jonathan, e. Oct. 7,'G4, in Co. H., o3d inf. 
Oliver, R., e. Feb. 1.'),'(;.5, in Co. 1, drowned. 
Kagan, H. W., c. Oct. 7,'64, in Co. I, m.o. Oct. 

Carr.'Mark, e. Sept. 7,'61, v. in Co. I., 34th inf., 

missing in action. 
Sullivan, C.. e. Dec. 30, 'G3, in Co. I., 34th inf., 

m.o. July 12, '(■).'). 
Muller, J. B., e. Aug. 30,'61, in Co. G., 39th inf., 

d. Julv4,'63, dis. 
Neef, Fred., e. Aug. 30,'fil, in Co. G. 39th inf. 
Heintz, P. H., e. Aug. 30,'61, v. in Cy. G., 39th. 

Kuchule, M., c. Sept. 
Leatherwood, Alex., 

43d inf., died May 

1,'61, in Co. G., 43d inf. 
e. April 5,'G5, in Co. K., 
Spradley, A. J., c. April r>,'&o, in Co. K., 43d 
inf.," m.o. May 11, 'G5. 

Roberts, Newman, e. Oct. 1,'6-1, in Co. E., 120th 

Inf., died Mav 2,'G.\ 
Bloonishine, Fred., Dec. 8,'C3. 
JlcCullertv, James, e. Oct. 10,'G4. 
Anderson", \Vm., e. Feb. 22,'65, in Co. B., 12Gth 

Inf.. m.o. July 12,'G5. 
Henderson, \Vm.," e. April 5.'65, in Co. E., 12Gth 

Inf., m.o. Julv 12, 'G.'). 
Mueller, A. II., A"pril 5,'G,"i, in Co. E., 126th Inf., 

m.o. July 12, 'G.'). 
Peninger, Washington, e. March 21, 'G5. 
James, John T., e. Mav20,'G4, in Co. G., 134th 

Inf., Oct. 2.'^,'G4. 
Robison, Geo. F., e. Mov 20,'G4, in Co. G., 134h 

Inf., m. o. Oct. 25,'G4. 
Willard, Erasuis II., e. June 21, '64, in Co. E., 

:!Sth Inf., is 1st lieutenant. 
Zanies, Samuel A., e. T*Iav 1G,'64, in Co. I, 442d 

Inf., m.o. Oct. 2G,'G4. 
Armstrong, Thos., e. Nov. 1.5, '64, in Co. K., 

144th Inf., m.o. Julv 14, '65. 
Houghton, Tnos. B.. e. Feb. 3,'65, in Co. A., 

150th Inf., m.o. Jan. 16,'GG. 



As the prosperity and well being of every community depends 
upon the wise interpretation, as well as upon the judicious framing 
of its laws, it must follow that a record of the members of the Bar, 
to whom these matters are generally relegated, must form no unim- 
portant chapter in the county's history. Upon a few principles of 
natural justice is erected the whole superstructure of municipal law 
tending; to relieve the wants and meet the desires of all alike. But 
where so many interests and counter interests are to be protected and 
adjusted, to the judiciary is presented many interesting and complex 
problems. But change is every-where imminent. The laws of 
yesterday do not compass the wants and necessities of the people of 
to-day. The old relations do not exist. New and satisfactory ones 
must be established. The discoveries in the arts and sciences; the 
invention of new contrivances for labor ; the enlargement of indus- 
trial pursuits, and the increase and development of commerce, are 
without precedence, and the science of the law must keep pace 
with them all ; nay, it must even forecast events and must frame its 
laws as will most adequately subserve the wants and provide for the 
necessities of the new conditions. Hence the lawyer is a man of 
the day. The exigencies he must meet are those of his own time. 
His capital is his ability and individuality. He cannot bequeath 
to his successors the characteristics that distinguished him, and at 
his going the very evidences of his work disappear. And in com- 
piling this short sketch one is astonished at the paucity of material 
for a memoir of those who have been so intimately connected with 
and who exerted such an influence upon the county^s welfare and 
progress. The pecvdiarities and the personalities which form so 
pleasing and interesting a part of the lives of the members of the 
Bar, and which, indeed, constitute the charm of local history, are 
altogether wanting. Unlike the fair plaintiff in Bardell vs. Pick- 
wick, we have no pains-taking sergeant to relate " the facts and cir- 


cumstances " of the case. The Court records give us the facts, but 
the circumstances surrounding and giving an interest to the events 
are wanting. 

Tazewell, like all pioneer counties, suffered much in the stability 
of her judiciary owing to the numerous contests concerning the loca- 
tion of the county-seat and the consequent bitterness and local 
prejudice attending the various removals. The county-seat was 
first located at Mackinaw, March 22nd, 1827. Tazewell county, 
at that time, for judicial purposes, formed a part of the Second 
Circuit. The first term of the Circuit Court ever held in this 
county was at Mackinaw, May 12th, 1828, and presided over 
by the Hon. Samuel J. Lockwood. The first case docketed was 
entitled Bryan and Morrison vs. Wm. Eads, action of debt. The 
first indictment presented was against William Herbert for assault 
and battery. 

Samuel J. Lockwood. — The Hon. Samuel J. Lockwood was one 
of the justices of the Supreme Court of Illinois and assigned to 
circuit duty in the Second Circuit. He was a man of good ability 
and discharged his duties very acceptably. 

Stephen T. Logan. — The Hon. Stephen T. Logan was the next 
presiding Judge for several years and afterwards was Judge in the 
Sangamon Circuit. He now resides in Springfield, Illinois, having 
retired from active life. He was one of the ablest lawyers in the 
State, and one whose ability and legal knowledge placed him in the 
front rank of his profession. The Judge had a mania for whittling, 
and Court never moved smoothly until the Sheriff had placed a 
number of white pine shingles beside the wool-sack, when the 
evolution of law and pine shavings proceeded Avith equal dignity 
and composure. 

John Pearson. — The Hon. John Pearson succeeded Judge Logan. 
He is spoken of as a man of good ability and a good Judge, but 
was not popular with the people on account of his inability to 
accommodate himself to their ways and primitive civilization. The 
court-houses were rude buildings with but few of the conveniences 
considered necessary at the present time, and Judge Pearson, not 
content with the chair provided for the Court, refused to sit until 
a rocking-chair was procured for his use, which desire for personal 
comfort led to a great deal of unfavorable comment among the 

Jesse B. Thomas. — The Hon. Jesse B. Thomas was the next 


Judge and presided for several years. He was one of the most 
active men ever upon the bench. He allowed no delays, and his 
executive ability is highly praised. At one term of Court in this 
couutv he cleared the docket of some 500 cases and did much to 
avoid the delays so tedious to litigants. Judge Thomas was Presi- 
dent of the first Constitutional Convention of the State, and in 
whatever position called served with distinction. 

William Thomas. — The Hon. William Thomas served as Judge 
but few terms owing to some change in the judicial circuit, and was 
scarcely identified with the legal interests of this county. 

Samuel H. Treat. — The Hon. Samuel H. Treat next came on 
this Circuit and served until 1848, when the Judges were elected in 
accordance with the provisions of the new constitution then adopted. 
Judge Treat was afterwards appointed to the bench of the United 
States Court, at Springfield, which position he still holds. He is a 
close observer of men and times, and is considered one of the ablest 
and most upright judges in our entire judiciary. 

David Davis. — The Hon. David Davis was elected Judge of 
this Circuit in 1848, and so remained until 1857. On first coming to 
Illinois Judge Davis settled in Pekin, but shortly afterwards re- 
moved to Bloomington. Early in Lincoln's administration he was 
appointed to the United States Supreme Court from which he re- 
signed in 1877, being elected in that year to the United States 
Senate from Illinois. He was much inclined to indolence while 
Judge of this Circuit, and required a great stimulus to exertion, but 
he discharged very acceptably the onerous duties of his office. 

James Harriott. — The Hon. James Harriott was elected to suc- 
ceed Judge Davis in 1857. He came to this county in 1849, having 
previously served a term in the State Legislature from the district 
surrounding Jerseyville. He was the first Judge of the old 21st 
Circuit, including the counties of Tazewell, Mason, Menard and 
Cass. He filled the office for over 10 years and was highly respected 
for his sterling good sense and discernment, and was well liked by 
the Bar and the people. He died at his home in Pekin in the year 

Charles Turner. — The Hon. Charles Turner was elected over 
Judge Harriott in 1867. Judge Turner came to this State from 
Ohio, 1851, and practiced law until 1862, when he entered the army, 
serving three years and attaining the rank of Brev. Brig. General. 
On his return he again pursued the practice of law, and was elected 


CountyTrcasurer in 1865, when he resigned to accept the Judgeship 
in 1867, and served until 1873, when the circuit was changed from 
the 21st to the 12th. 

John Burns. — Hon. John Burns in 1873 was elected over Judge 
Turner, and is now one of the three Judges of what is known as 
the 8th Circuit, being composed of the counties of Tazewell, Peoria, 
Woodford, Marshall, Putnam and Stark. His term expires in June 
of this year, and he is now (April, 1879) a candidate for re-election. 
He is an able lawyer, an upright judge, and has proven very accept- 
able to the people of this circuit. 

Among the lawyers who were prominently known at this Bar 
during and previous to the time when Judge Treat held Court at 
Tremont were, Lincoln and Douglas, whose names and history have 
become a part of that of our country ; George Farquhar, at one 
time Secretary of State ; John T. Stewart, now of the firm of 
Stewart, Edwards & Brown, Springfield, Illinois, and for many years 
in Congress ; Daniel Stone and Thomas Nealc ; A. F. Hubbard, 
during 1826 ad interim Governor of the State, and who precipitated 
the celebrated case of Ewing vs. Farquhar, which called into ques- 
tion the construction of Art. 3 of Sec. 18 of the then Constitution; 
Edward Baker, Senator from Oregon, who was killed at Ball's Bluff 
during the war for the Union ; Col. John J. Hardin, killed during 
the Mexican War at Buena Vista ; Wm. A. McDougal, afterwards 
United States Senator from California; Judge Dunmur, David Pick- 
ett, Alexander Herring, A. L. Davidson, W. H. Purple, O. H. 
Merryman and others whose history is coeval with that of the early 
days of the county. 

Among those of a later day who have either died or removed from 
the county are the following : 

Echcard Jones, who came to this county about 1830 and was 
among the first Circuit Clerks. He was a captain in the Mexican 
War, a man of fine education, a natural lawyer, and in the days of 
the strict common law pleadings was without a peer at the local 
Bar. He died at an early age, the victim of those habits which are 
too frequently the accompaniment of brilliant and distinguishing 
qualities of mind. 

B. F. James, who was County Judge in 1850, in 1852 moved to 
Chicago, but now lives in Washington, D. C. 

W. D. Briggs, who was among the first County Judges, was a fine 
business lawyer and a man well liked. He died in 1854. 


Wm. Furguerson, a very able and talented man, but was unfortu- 
nately killed in a duel in California. 

Ashiel Gridley and Wm. Holmes, who moved to Bloomington, 
some years since. 

A. H. Saltonstall, who practiced several years in Tremont, and 
died in 1855. 

William B. Parker and his son Edward Parker, men of fine edu- 
cation and good abilities, but who lacked the perseverance so neces- 
sary to the success of a lawyer. They died respectively in the years 
1873 and 1874. 

Samuel W. Fuller, who came from the East in 1851, and was 
elected to the State Senate in 1856. In 1858 he removed to Chicago, 
where he resided up to the time of his death, in 1873. Mr. Fuller 
was an able and accomplished lawyer, and at the time of his death 
had a reputation second to none in the State. 

Samuel P. Bailey settled in Pekin about 1830 and practiced law 
up to the time of his death in 1869. Mr. Bailey was an omnivorous 
reader, and was probably the most widely read lawyer at the Bar, 
but he lacked practical application and could in no way utilize the 
immense stores of his knowledge ; and the learning which would 
have given him the highest place as an advocate, was rendered val- 
ueless because it availed him but little in the practical discharge of 
the duties of his profession. 

Richard W. Ireland came to Pekin about 1848 or 9 and was Clerk 
of the County Court. At different times in his life he was associated 
with prominent attorneys as a partner and was a very successful 
office lawyer. He removed to Tremont a short time previous to his 
death, in 'l 869. 

James Roberts was admitted to the Bar in Missouri, in 1849, but 
removed to Pekin in June, 1852. He was a man of fine abilities, to 
which he united the most studious habits. He prepared his cases 
with the most painstaking accuracy, and his knowledge of the law 
was such as could only be gained by the severest application. He 
built up one of the largest and most lucrative practices ever con- 
trolled by any one lawyer, but his career was cut short at the early 
age of 33 years by his death from overwork. He practiced in the 
Supreme Court of the United States, being engaged in the cases 
concerning the patents of the Illinois Harvesters, which at that 
time attracted great attention. 

Hon. Sabill J), Puterbaugh wag admitted to the bar in Pekin, and 


in 1857 formed a partnership with Samuel W. Fuller, and after its 
dissolution he removed to Peoria where he still resides. He was 
elected Judge in that circuit for one term of six years. He is the 
author of Puterbaugh's Pleadings and Practice, a work of merit 
and which is in general use throughout the State. 

Joseph Hanna came to this county from McLean about 1859 as 
a partner of Hon. J. B. Cohrs, under the name of Cohrs & 
Hanna. Mr. Hanna was a young lawyer of great promise, but on 
the breaking out of the war he enlisted in the army and was killed 
at Fort Donelson. 

Richard W. Williams, one of the finest educated men, and one of 
the best speakers at the Bar, came from the South to Pekin in 1866, 
He died suddenly in the summer of 1873. 

Abram Bergen came to Pekin in 1862, and shortly afterwards was 
appointed States Attorney to fill the vacancy caused by the absence 
of Major Fullerton in the army. In 1865 he moved to Minnesota, 
and was there elected to the State Senate. He again moved, going 
to Kansas, and from there was appointed to a judgeship in New 
Mexico, but finding the position distasteful he resigned and returned 
to Kansas, where he now resides. Mr. Bergen is an excellent law- 
yer, and the various distinguished offices he has filled mark him as a 
man of no ordinary ability. 

Cassius G. Whitney was admitted to the Bar in 1869, and was 
elected States Attorney of the 21st Circuit in 1868. In 1872 he 
removed to Cass county, taking a very prominent part in the county- 
seat contest between Virginia and Beardstown, which was finally 
decided in favor of Virginia, where Mr. Whitney now resides. He 
is a young man of talent and a leading lawyer in his county. 

Charles Tinney was admitted to the Bar in 1870, practiced in 
this county awhile and then removed to Virginia, and is now the 
junior partner in the firm of Whitney & Tinney. 

Frank Purple read with Messrs. Roberts & Green and after his 
admission to the Bar, in 1869, became a partner in the firm. He 
finally removed to Peoria and has since forsaken the law for other 

Thomas W. Mehan was admitted to the Bar in 1868; was elected 
to the office of City Attorney for one term and remained here until 
1876, when he removed to Mason, and is now States Attorney for 
that county. 

William A. Mehan v^as admitted in 1870. He still resides in this 
county though not engaged in active practice. 


JSIias C. Brearley was admitted to the Bar in 1861 in the State of 
New Jersey. He practiced in Pekin several years in the firm of 
Brearley & Henry, then at Jacksonville and Washington City. 
He is now located in Leadville, Colorado. 

M. 31. Bassett was admitted in 1870, and removed to Peoria 
where he is still engaged in the practice. 

Henry P. Finnigan was admitted to the Bar in 1868. He had 
served as Circuit Clerk in this county. He removed to Lincoln, 
Nebraska, about 1870, where he resided up to the time of his death, 
in 1878. 

Albert J. Ware came to this Bar in 1868, and was for some time 
associated as a member of the firm of Prettyman & Ware. He 
practiced here until the spring of this year when he removed to 
Leadville, Colorado, his present home. 

George B. Foster was admitted to the Bar in 1869, and practiced 
in Pekin until 1877, when he moved to Peoria and became a mem- 
ber of the firm of Johnson & Foster. 

The Bar of the county has always maintained a high standard of 
legal excellence, and that it has not diminished will be seen by the 
present able representation. 

Hon. B. S. Prettyman came from New Castle, Delaware, in 1831, 
and commenced the practice of law in 1845. Mr Prettyman's inter- 
ests have always been identified with those of Pekin, which has been 
his home since coming to this county. He is an able lawyer and in 
the matter of real estate law has scarcely an equal in the State. 

Wm. A. Tinney came to this State from Kentucky in 1833, and in 
1834 he was elected to the office of sheriff, which he held until 1840, 
but was beaten in "the coon-skin campaign." He then removed to 
Washington where he opened a country store. In 1846 he enlisted 
for the Mexican war. On his return he opened the Eagle House, 
and at one time owned and conducted the Bcmis House. In 1861 
he was elected Justice of the Peace and also Police Magistrate, 
which he still retains. In 1865 he was admitted to the Bar but has 
practiced but little, being principally occupied in the discharge of 
the duties of his office. 

Judge David Kyes was Sheriff of the county in 1852. At the 
expiration of his terra he moved to Washington where he carried on 
a grocery store until 1857, when he was admitted to the Bar. In 
1860 he was elected to the State Legislature, and in 1865 to the 
office of County Judge, which he hel4 for 12 years. He is now en- 


gaged in the practice of the law, having discharged the duties of his 
various offices to the entire satisfaction of his constituents. 

Hon. Ccesar A. Roberts came to Tazewell county from Missouri 
in 1850, and practiced medicine up to 1858. In 1859 Mr. Roberts, 
in company with a large number of the citizens of Tazewell, was 
attracted to Colorado by the promising mining prospects. At a 
convention on the 11th of July the same year, and of which Mr. 
Priscoif, the present Mayor of Denver, was president, he was ap- 
pointed to and drafted a code of mining laws, many of which are 
still in force, and was then elected Recorder of Claims in the district 
surrounding Central City. Later in the same year he returned to 
Illinois, and in 1860 was admitted to the Bar. In 1864 he was 
States Attorney for the 21st Circuit, and in 1870 became a member 
of the State Legislature and served through the long session of the 
27th General Assembly, engaged in revising the statutes in accord- 
ance with the new constitution of 1870. 

Judge Wm. Don Maus came to Illinois from Pennsylvania and 
was admitted to the Bar in 1857. He was appointed Master in 
Chancery by Judge Harriott, and filled that office for ten years, or 
during the entire term of that Judge on the bench. In 1863 he 
was elected County Judge, to fill the unexpired term of Wm. 
Tackaberry, then recently deceased. 

Nathaniel W. Green came to Illinois from New Jersey and was 
admitted to the Bar in 1856. He practiced in Delavan, in this coun- 
ty, until 1865, when he removed to Pckin and became a member of 
the firm of Roberts & Green. Although frequently solicited, Mr. 
Green has refused to accept any official position, and has confined 
himself exclusively to the practice of the law. 

Hon. John B. Cohrs was born in South Carolina, and at an early 
age removed to New York where he received a collegiate education. 
He then came to McLean county where he engaged in farming, but 
shortly afterwards sold his farm, read law in Bloomington, Illinois, 
and was admitted in 1859, when he came to this county as a mem- 
ber of the firm of Cohrs & Hanna. In 1864 he was elected to the 
State Senate. He is now a prominent candidate for the Judgeship 
in this Circuit. 

Hon. Abial B. Sawyer was admitted to the Bar in 1861. He has 
made a specialty of Real Estate and Collection law. In 1877 he was 
elected Mayor of Pekin, which he held one term. 

Capt. Wilbur F. Henry came from Ohio to Illinois, and was ad- 


mltted to the Bar in 1866; is a graduate of the Ohio State and 
Union Law College. He served three years in the Army and was 
Captain of Company "B," 108th Illinois volunteers; was Master 
in Chancery from September 1867 to 1873, and was States Attorney 
for this county from 1872 to 1876. 

William S. Kellogg was admitted to the Bar in this county in 1869 
and practiced until 1876, when he was appointed Deputy Circuit 
Clerk, in which capacity he now acts. 

Collins J. Elliott was admitted to the Bar in 1862. He has sever- 
al times filled the office of City Attorney, and is still engaged in the 
law practice in Pekin. 

Henry T. Spoonhoff was born in Amsterdam, Holland, in 1834. 
He came to America and was admitted to the Bar of this county in 

Gurdon T. Saltonstall was admitted to the Bar in 1866, and in 
1877 was appointed Master in Chancery for this County by Judge 
Burns, which position he still holds. 

Judge A. W. JRodecker was admitted to the Bar in 1868, and in 
1877 was elected County Judge as successor of Judge Kyes. Judge 
Rodecker was a member of the Board of School Inspectors for 7 
years, and to his energy and ability may be attributed much of the 
excellence of the public schools of Pekin' 

John H. Pirkey was born in Virginia and came to Illinois at an 
early age. In 1862 he enlisted in the Army under the " 600,000 
call," and served three years. In 1875 he was admitted to the Bar 
in the State of Missouri. Shortly afterwards he came to Illinois 
and engaged in school teaching, and in 1879 he was admitted to the 
Bar in this county. Mr. Pirkey has been principal of the public 
schools for several years, but contemplates soon to engage in the 
active practice of his profession. 

James Haines, Sr., came to Pekin about 1849 and was admitted to 
the Bar in 1850. He practiced several years when he engaged in 
the Banking and Insurance business, and since then he has not 
resumed the practice of the law. 

William T. Stansberry came to this State from Ohio, in 1848, and 
was admitted to the Bar in 1849. He has engaged but little in 
the practice, having turned his attention to mercantile pursuits. 

Cornelius Mihigan was admitted to the Bar in 1876. 

Hon. William R. Hall was first admitted to the Bar in this State 
in 1871, and went to Missouri but returned to the Bar of this county 


in 1871. He was elected City Attorney for one term, and is a 
member at present of the House of Representatives from this district. 

W. L. Preityman was admitted to the Bar in 1871, and was elect- 
ed to the office of States Attorney for this County in 1876. 

George C. Rider came from New York to Illinois in 1870, and 
was admitted to the Bar in 1873. He was first elected to the office 
of City Attorney in 1873, which office he has filled for 5 years, and 
has now entered upon his fourth term. 

Chsar A. Roberts, Jr., was admitted to the Bar of this State in 
June, 1878. 

The Bar at Delavan is represented by Mr. M. D. Beecher, who 
was admitted to the Bar in 1869 ; by W. R. Curran, who came to 
this county from Livingston county in 1876, and by Edward 
Reardon, who was admitted to the Bar in 1876, and associated with 
Mr. W. R. Curran under the name of Curran & Reardon. And at 
Washington, Illinois, by Matthew Craig, who was admitted to the 
Bar in 1870; by J. W. Dougherty, who was admitted in 1875 and 
acted as Master in Chancery in this county for four years, and by 
Mr. William Dougherty, who was admitted in 1877, but who is now 
engaged in teaching in the College at Quincy, Illinois, 

Thus closes the complete roll, as we believe, of judges and attor- 
neys who have presided at the courts of Tazewell county or pleaded 
at its Bar. * 


Among the notable days in the early history of the county, was 
court day. The convening of Court was one of the events of the 
year. On that day nearly everybody gathered at the county-seat. 
If a settler happened not to be on a jury, or a witness, or a suitor, 
he felt it his bounden duty to " go to Court," to see and hear what 
was going on. It answered the place of the shows and circuses of a 
later day, and perhaps was as instructive if not as entertaining. 
When Court was over, in the evening the Judge, lawyers and citi- 
zens congregated in the bar-rooms of the taverns, where stories 
were told and the evening spent in conversation. These seasons 
were accounted the most enjoyable of pioneer life, and when we 
consider the men who were there to edify and please the crowd, with 
their stories and anecdotes, we may well consider court days as pos- 
sessing an interest of no little merit. There was Lincoln and 
Douglas, two of the greatest statesmen the world has ever known. 


and both of whom possessed an inexhaustible fountain of anecdotes. 
It is said the immense fund of anecdotes possessed by the late Pres- 
ident Lincoln was largely derived from collections made while " on 
the circuit." Then there was Baker, Stewart, Lockwood, Farquhar, 
the comical Hubbard, Hardin, Treat, Logan and Davis, and 
others who could relate as good a story as ever was heard. Who 
would not love to sit at the feet of such men and listen to their 
arguments, their general conversation and their stories. Abraham 
Lincoln was attending Court at Tremont, in 1842, when Gen. Shields 
sent him the challenge to fight their famous duel. Many of the 
older citizens remember this exciting: occurrence. 

In speaking of the Circuit Courts in the very earliest settlement 
of this part of the State, before Tazewell county was organized, 
Nathan Dillon said: "In those days (1824) when we could not get 
the store room of Hamlin or Allen, or the dwelling house of John 
Dixon, we held our courts on the river bank ; not being as wealthy 
or strong handed as in Sangamon, we had to do without a court- 
house. Judge Sawyer was our circuit Judge, and it was some time 
before we could scare up a jury. At that date there was not a 
cabin on the site of the city of Pekin, and perogues were the only 
crafts we had to freight our whisky, salt and iron from the State to 

Nathan Dillon was a Justice of the Peace for many years in the 
early history of the county, and in an action for debt always ren- 
dered decision in favor of the plaintiff. He did so on the grounds, 
as he would say, " that if the defendent had never owed the plaintiff 
he certainly would not have sued him." That was his logic, which 
overruled good evidence to the contrary. 

'squire tinney as an instructor. 

At the June term of the County Commissioners' Court the Judges 
placed 'into the hands of a young aspirant of the legal profession 
the following commendation : 

" Whereas, J. Farnham is a gentlemen of respectability, honest, 
and of good repute ; and, whereas, he is desirous of practicing in 
Court, therefore, he is recommended to the Justices of the Supreme 
Court as a man worthy to be admitted to practice in said Court." 

Armed with this document Farnham was admitted. No doubt 
he was a promising young sprig of the law, or else we believe the 
Commissioners had refused to grant him a recommend. But he 


had some practical knowledge to gain, and this essential part of his 
education 'Squire Wni. A. Tinney undertook to supply. It is true 
he received but one lesson from the 'Squire, but let us hope that it 
was so eifective, and made so strong an impression upon his mind, 
that he never needed another. 

It was in a suit for debt that Farnham received this lesson. 
'Squire Tinney was at the time Sheriff of the county, and had levied 
upon a fine team and carriage belonging to the defendant in the 
suit. He proceeded to call a jury of disinterested persons to decide 
the matter. The defendant had secured the services of Farnham 
to defend his interests. The latter, being but just admitted to the 
bar, endeavored to show off his legal knowledge, and consequently 
was a great stickler to red tape. As might have been expected, he 
used the privilege of objecting to one of the jurymen. This, of 
course, delayed the case for several days, for it must be remembered 
a petit jurv could not be gathered so quickly as at the present time. 
The Sheriff was put to considerable trouble in impaneling another 
jury, but finally the case was again opened when Farnham objected, 
as usual. Of course, this was mere pettifogging, and merely done 
to provoke and harass. A third jury w^as called, and Farnham 
began, "I object" — but forbearance could endure no more, and 
Sheriff Tinney gathered up a chair and laid the legal gentlemen 
sprawling upon the floor. That trial was ended. Farnham soon 
thereafter sought the exhilerating atmosphere of Oregon, and was 
never heard of afterwards by any of the Tazewell county Bar. 



THIS township is situated in the southern portion of Tazewell 
county. In point of acres under cultivation it is not surpassed 
by neighboring townships, and when we take into consideration the 
fact that Boynton, but a quarter of a century ago, contained but 
little tillable land, the result is marvellous. It was attained only 
through unflagging energy on the part of its enterprizing citizens 
and an admirable system of tile drainage. The first settlement was 
made by Joseph Grant on Section 9, in 1839; the first birth, in 
1842, w^as Albert, son of Robert Houston, who settled here about 
the year 1840. Benjamin Roe also came during that year, G. W. 
Clamon located 6 years later. Among those who settled prior to 
1852, we find Samuel Falor, John Blair, Andrew Kerr, and Wm. 
Benton. In 1850 Wm. Milner, Charles and Richard Holden and 
John T. Scates, Wm. and Peyton Alexander, John Jacobus and 
others. In 1854 the township was organized and the following 
persons, some of whom are now prominent in the affairs of the 
township, met at the residence of James Huston as a committee on 
organization : James Crawford, Wm. Wooters, Daniel Bennett, 
Ira Judy, Wm. Burton, John T. Scates, John Jacobus, Philip 
Wade and others were present. The majority of the citizens assem- 
bled on this occasion declared in favor of township organization. 
Many were the names suggested with which to christen their town- 
ship, in consequence of which a ballot was taken. After the lapse 
of considerable time spent in discussion, it finally received the name 
of Boynton, in honor of an Eastern gentleman of that name. 

There is a post-office kept in the center of the township. Mail is 
received three times a week. The character of the schools and 
school-houses are good, and every improvement in the township adds 
its testimony to the enterprise, thrift and culture of the people. 
Among the representative farmers of Boynton, those who make its 
history and mold its destiny, we call attention to the following 
gentlemen : 


E. Atkinson, farmer and stock raiser, Sec. 14 ; P. O., Boynton. 
The subject of this sketch was born in Ohio in 1844. During the 
same year his parents moved to Tazewell county, where Mr. A. has 
since resided, and where he was united in marriage to Miss Sarah 
Farmer, a daughter of John H. Farmer of Logan Co., Kentucky. 
Two children blessed this union — Emma A. and Martha Jane. 
Mr. Atkinson has witnessed many changes in the beautiful county of 
Tazewell, wrought by the swift hand of Time. In this Township 
he has acquired a farm property of 80 acres and few are of a more 
hospitable disposition than he. 

George Bcnhler was born in Baden, Ger., near the banks of the 
historic river Rhine, on the 16th of Feb., 1832; turned to farm life 
from his earliest days. He acquired a good common school educa- 
tion, and at the age of 25 crossed the ocean ; after a short delay in 
New York made his way to Chicago, and thence to McLean Co. 
111., and finally to Tazewell Co., where he first procured employment 
as a farm hand. He worked early and late to procure enough to get 
a start in life. In 1865 he was married to Miss Delilah Burton, 
daughter of Wm. Burton, of this township. In 1867 Mr. B. suc- 
ceeded in purchasing an 80-acre tract of land on sec. 9, which he 
has improved greatly by tiling. Of his marriage with Miss Burton 
five children were born, four of whom are living — Esther, John, 
Emma and William. Post-office address, Boynton. 

Christian Beaver, farmer and stock raiser, Sec. 6 ; P. O., Delavan. 
Although not ranking among the original pioneers of this county, 
Christian Beaver is worthy of more than a passing notice. He was 
born in Adams Co., Ohio, in the year 1808. His father, Michael 
Beaver, was a native of Penn., and in an early day, at a time when 
Daniel Boone ruled, in a measure, the destinies of Kentucky, 
Michael Beaver, then but a youth, accompanied his parents to the 
then wilds of Kentucky. When we take into consideration the fact 
that not a steamboat plowed our AVestern waters, and Kentucky the 
home of wild beasts and still wilder men, this was indeed a bold 
step on the part of these daring pioneers. He resided many years 
in Kentucky, and in 1808 located in Ohio at a time when Ohio 
was the home of the red men, and was inhabited by few white 
men, save the hunter and trapper in search of new scenes and inci- 
dents. During his 19th year the subject of this sketch, with his 
parents, moved to Fountain Co., Indiana, where the head of the 
family passed the remainder of his days. We now follow the 
fortunes of him whose name heads this column and from whorn 
our narrative is obtained. In 1831 he was united in marriage 
to Miss Lydia Heuston, a native of Indiana. Here Mr. Beaver 
continued to reside until 1862. One year previous Mrs. Beaver 
was laid at rest in Fountain Co. Of this marriage thirteen chil- 
dren were born, 6 of whom are living, Daniel, Sarah, Mary, Samuel, 
Simon, Phoebe, Asa, Ann, Abraham, Jacob, Mahala, Eliza, Ellen. 
In 1862 Mr. Beaver was married to Miss Phrana Livingood, a 


native of North Carolina. One child blessed this union — Christian. 
During the year above mentioned Mr. B. located in Boynton town- 
ship, where he now resides. 

John Beezley, farmer and stock raiser, Section 21 ; P. O., Boynton ; 
was born in Shelby Co., O., on the 15th of April, 1843. He is the 
oldest son of William Beezly, a native of Clark Co., O., now a 
resident of Iowa and a farmer. John came to Illinois — Logan 
Co. — in 1859, and was quietly pursuing his farm duties when the 
war broke out. He then enlisted as a private in Co. F., 38th III. 
Infantry. He participated in the battles of Perryville, Stone River, 
Chickamauga, Franklin, Nashville and in Sherman's Atlantic Cam- 
paign. He was promoted for meritorious conduct, March 23, 1864, 
to 1st Lieutenant, which he served till he was mustered out April 9, 
1866. When Gen. Rosecrans had charge of the army of the Cum- 
berland he organized a corps of honor to which Mr. B., as a veteran, 
belonged. After the war he returned to Logan Co. and engaged in 
farming until he came to Boynton, in 1868. In 1867 he was mar- 
ried in DeWitt Co. to Mattie, daughter of Edward and Margaret 
Morris, natives of England and Virginia, respectively. Three 
children were born of this marriage — Jennie May, Margaret A. and 
Alice G. 

L. C. Blair, farmer and stock raiser. Section 18; P. O., Delavan. 
The subject of this biography is a native of Tazewell Co., where he 
was born in 1851. His lather, J. J. Blair, was a native of New 
York State ; he was a farmer by occupation, and there married Miss 
Elizabeth Clark. About 1850 he came West and settled in Taze- 
well Co., where he followed farming until his decease, which occurred 
in 1858. Mrs. Blair survived her husband several years, being laid 
at rest in the Delavan Cemetery in 1866. The survivors of the 
family are seven in number — Emily, Allie, Winfield, Anna, Bessie, 
L. C. and Susan. L. C. Blair grew to mature years in this Co., 
where, in 1876, he was united in marriage to Miss Rosa E. Verbryck, 
by whom he had one child — Warren. The homestead property 
consists of 120 acres. 

Daniel Brenneman, farmer and stock raiser. Sec. 3 ; P. O., Hope- 
dale. The subject of this sketch is one of the oldest and wealthiest 
agriculturalists of Boynton township. He was born in Germany, 
in the year_ 1804. His father, Jacob Brenneman, was a well-to- 
do farmer in his native land, and on the old farm homestead 
young Daniel grew to manhood, and there married Miss Elizabeth 
Jutzic. In 1832 he first landed in America, and subsequently, for a 
period of 22 years lived in Warren Co., O., where he resided until 
the spring of 1854, when he located in McLean Co. In 1855 he 
settled in Boynton township. By this union they had seven sons 
and six daughters, namely — Jacob, Mary, Peter, deceased, Eliza, 
Joseph, Phoebe, deceased, Ella, John, Christian, deceased, Anna, 
William, Amelia, and Edward. Mr. B. began his agricultural 
career in poverty, but after a long and successful career he now en- 


ioys the fruits of a well spent life. Mr. Brenneman lias succeeded, 
*bv the characteristic energy of the German people, in acquiring a 
farm, consisting of 320 acres in Boynton township. 

Jacob Brenneman, farmer and stock raiser, Sec. 4 ; P. O., Hope- 
dale. Jacob Brennaman ranks among the more opulent farmers of 
Bovnton township. He is a native of that portion of Germany 
ceded to Prussia at the close of the war of 18(36, and was born in 
1827. Five years thereafter his parents, whom we shall find occa- 
sion to mention, concluded to cast their lot in America, and after the 
usual voyage landed in Baltimore. They remained but a short 
time when they moved near Cincinnati, where young Jacob received 
a liberal education. On the 20th of Nov., 1853, he was united in 
marriage to Miss Jacobinia Jutzic. It was during the spring of 
1854 that Mr. B. moved flirther west, coming to McLean Co., 111. 
He remained there until 1855, when he became a permanent resi- 
dent in Tazewell Co., locating in Boynton. Like nearly all settlers 
at this time his means were limited : so much so that he did not 
purchase property till 1856, when he bought 160 acres on Sec. 9. 
Since this period, when the financial horizon appeared none the 
brightest, Mr. B. has prospered, even far exceeding his most 
sanguine hopes of a quarter century ago. At the present writing he 
is the owner of 520 acres of land unsurpassed in the county. For- 
tune has smiled bountifully upon him, but it has by no means 
dwarfed his naturally enterprising spirit of liberality. Of the mar- 
riage above referred to seven children were born, six of w^iom are 
living and whose names are — Maria L., Julia A., Albert I., Amelia 
E., Minnie S. and Wm. C. Mr. B. represents this township in the 
Board of Supervisors. 

Joseph Brenneman, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 1 ; P. O., Hope- 
dale. Although of German parentage, as the name implies, yet he 
was born in Warren Co., O., Nov. 22, 1833. There he passed his 
early youth and grew to manhood. The year 1854 found the fami- 
ly enroute for the fertile prairies of Illinois, where, in Tazewell Co., 
and this township, they settled on farm property. It was here he 
embarked in life for himself and has proven himself the possessor of 
good business ability. He ranks among the liberal and progressive 
farmers of the county. In 1858 he was united in marriage with 
Miss Eliza Ensmann, daughter of Peter Ensmann, of Bureau Co., 
111. In 1865 Mr. B. made his first purchase of farm property, 
consisting of 160 acres in Boynton, where, and in Hopedale, he 
now owns 300 acres. The marriage refered to has been blessed 
with three children — Otitia F., William A., and Sidney. 

Wm. M. Burton, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 8 ; P. O., Delavan. 
William Burton is a well known agriculturalist of Boynton town- 
ship, and among the early pioneers of this Co. He was born in 
Adams Co., Ohio, in March, 1811, where he received, so to speak, a 
round log-cabin education, and passed his boyhood amid the associ- 
ations of pioneer life. Hearing many glowing accounts of the 


fertility of Illinois, thither he directed his footsteps in 1837, and first 
located in Peoria, here, however, he remained but a short time, as 
the following morning he proceeded on foot to the village of Peru. 
Shortly after he went to Groveland, where he secured employment 
as a rail-splitter, where he afterwards married Miss Rebecca Staples, 
a daughter of Joshua vStaples, of New York State. Mr. B. made 
his first purchase of land in 1850, in Boynton township, consisting 
of 160 acres. 

Robert Collins, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 28 ; P. O., Boynton. 
Robert Collins was born in Ohio, April 5, 1841, and spent his 
boyhood days upon the old farm homestead. His father, Barnabus 
Collins, was a native of Pennsylvania, and in an early day came 
to Ohio, where he married Miss Aimee Miller, by whom he had six 
children, of whom Rob't is the fourth. He came to Boynton in 
1865 and first secured employment as a farm hand. He purchased 
his present farm of 80 acres in 1869. When the war broke out he 
enlisted in Co. B, 106th Ohio Infantry, and was honorably discharg- 
ed in 1864 and returned to his home in Tazewell. 

James Crmrford, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 16, P. O., Boynton. 
Mr. C. is a well known resident and prominent farmer of the town- 
ship. He was born in Rochester, N. Y., Feb. 29, 1832. He is the 
third child of David Crawford, a native of Ireland, and who came 
to America during the autumn of 1830. He was then married, 
having united his fortunes with Miss Margaret Alexander. He set- 
tled at Rochester, N. Y., and afterwards moved to Iowa where he 
died, leaving to the care of his estimable wife five children — Mary 
A., Margaret, David, Samuel and James. The latter grew to man- 
hood in the States of Ohio and Indiana, and during the spring of 
1851 directed his footsteps to Tazewell Co., where he first Avorked as 
a farm hand, receiving therefore 50cts. per day. In 1855 he was 
married to Elizabeth, daughter of Samuel Falor, of Penn. Of 
this marriage seven children were born, all of whom are now living. 
— Margaret J., Emma, Samuel, Eliza A., Byron, Clara and Mary 
Mr. C. has succeeded well in the agricultural walks of life. In 
1876 he served the township as Assessor. 

Henry Curtis, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 18; P. O., Boynton. 
The above named gentleman was born in Fountain Co., Ind., April 
26, 1839. He is the oldest son of Henry and Elizabeth Curtis. 
Henry Curtis, Sr., is a native of New York State and came to 
Tazewell Co. at an early day, and in 1854 located in this township. 
Henry, whose name appears at the head of this article, grew to 
manhood in Boynton township, and on Feb. 11, 1864, was united 
in marriage with Mary E. Matthews, daughter of Eli W. Matthews, 
deceased. Their children number four — Ida A., Angie M., Ruble 
E., and Florence. Mr. C. ranks among the more liberal, progressive 
farmers of the township, and owns 240 acres of well improved and 
tilled land. He is a consistent member of the M. E. Church. 

Robert W. Darah, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 9 ; P. O., Delavan. 


He is a native of New Jersey, where he was born August 15th, 
1833. His fother was born in Pennsylvania; was a stone mason 
by occupation, who acquired his trade in New Jersey, where he 
married Miss Martha Severns, of that State. Of eight chiklren 
born of this marriage the subject of this sketch is the eklest. He 
lived with his parents in N. J. until he was fourteen, when he went 
with them to Indiana, where, fourteen months later, the head of the 
family passed away from earth. Upon Robert, then scarcely sixteen, 
devolved the support of a mother and a family of eight children. 
With a resolution beyond his years he rented a farm and for many 
years "roughed it," living in a log cabin and enduring all the hard- 
ships of pioneer life. After working hard for 37|cts. a day, and 
board, when the day's labor was done the youth applied himself 
diligently to his studies, acquiring thereby a liberal education, that 
subsequently turned to good account. On attaining his majority he 
secured a school, which he taught for several winters, farming 
during the summer season. While engaged in the latter the war 
broke out, he enlisted in Co. F., 52 Ohio Inf and afterwards to the 
53d. He remained until after the battle of Shiloh, where he 
escaped with a slight wound. When the smoke from the guns of the 
ever-to-be-remembered Shiloh had cleared away he was discharged, 
and returned to his home in Indiana, where he was married to Miss 
Amanda Freeman. In 1864 he moved to Logan Co., 111., and in 
1870 located in this township. 

James Donley, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 8 ; P. O., Delavan. 
The whole-souled gentleman whose name heads this page was born 
near Rochester, in the State of New York, on the 30th of April, 
1829. At an early day his parents, George and Elizabeth Donley, 
settled in Jefferson Co., Ohio, where the head of the family found 
employment in a woolen factory. Young Donley grew to man- 
hood in Ohio, and at an early age also secured employment in a 
woolen mill. In 1852 Mr. D. was united in marriage to Miss M. 
C. McCary. In 1854 he set out for Illinois, and first found em- 
ployment in McLean Co., subsequently settling in Delavan town- 
ship, Tazewell county, where he rented farm property. At the end 
of two years he purchased the property of Milner Brown, consisting 
of 160 acres, the property he now owns, brought to a high state of 
cultivation. Of the marriage above mentioned six children are 
now living — Lizzie, Samuel, Mary B. D., Frank, Laura, and Nellie. 
Samuel Donley, farmer and stock raiser. Sec. 15; P. O., Boynton. 
Samuel Donley is a native of Belmont county, Ohio, where he was 
born in 1855; is oldest son of James Donley, a patron of this work. 
Samuel grew to the mature years of manhood in this county. In 
1878 he was united in marriage to Miss Florence Ireland, a daugh- 
ter of a well known farmer of this township. 

Michael Fanning, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 16 ; P. O. Boyn- 
ton. Michael Fanning, as the name implies, is a native Irishman, 
and ranks among the more generous agriculturalists of this town- 


ship. He was born in the County of Tipperary, Ireland, about 
1815. Growing to manhood in Ireland, he acquired a good com- 
mon-school education at such odd times as the duties of the farm 
would permit. While still a young man he crossed the Atlantic for 
the New World, landing in New York City during the Spring of 
1835, and for sometime worked in the Metropolitan City at SOcents 
per day. From thence he went to Savannah, Georgia, where he 
hired as a steamboat hand, thence to New York and Pittsburgh, 
from whence he took passage on the Wisconsin, the only steamboat 
then plying the Illinois River, for Pekin, then but a small place, 
that Mr. F^ decribes in the following manner : Landing from the 
boat I discoverd but few dwellings, mostly log cabins, on what is 
now the main street. The village probably contained, at this time 
about 25 inhabitants, mostly Frenchmen and Southerners. Mr. 
F. afterward made the acquaintance of Mr. Tharp, Wm. Mosley, and 
others, many of whom have passed the dark river. In 1851 Mr. 
F. joined an expedition enroute for California. After some months 
of weary travel he reached the golden coast, where he remained 
some 13 months and became quite successful as a miner. Return- 
ing to Tazewell Co., he again worked as a farm hand for a time. 
In 1852 he was married to Miss Bridget Ann Phcan, of Ireland. 
During this year Mr, F. leased property until enabled to purchase. 
He is now the owner of 280 acres, and one of the most generous of 
men. Of this marriage eight children were born, seven of whom 
are living — James, Thomas, AVilliam, Mary, Sarah, Ellen and 

Henry Fehrmann, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 27 ; P. O., 
Boynton. He was born in Germany, July 28, 1837. In his native 
land he followed farming and received a liberal education. In 
Julv, 1868, he crossed the Atlantic for the New World, landing in 
the city of New York. From that city he went to St. Louis, thence 
to Waterloo, Monroe Co., 111., where he worked as a farm hand for 
space of the two years. From there he went to Macoupin Co., and 
finally brought up in Tazewell Co., Boynton township, where, Oct. 
5, 1874, he was married to Susan N. Rosenthall, by whom he has 
one child — Henry J. 

John Freeman, deceased, was born in New York State. In his 
22nd year he was united in marriage to Miss Margaret Fowler. Of 
this marriage eleven children were born, nine of whom are living. 
Early in life Mr. Freeman became a convert to religion, and his 
hospitable home was always open to all of God's people, and many 
happy meetings were held at his residence. Over 38 years ago this 
consistent Christian cast his lot with the Church of Christ. His 
lather was a soldier during the struggle for National Independence, 
in 1776. In religious matters John Freeman took a deep interest, 
and on all occasions it pleased him greatly to hear the word of God 
read, and it was his custom frequently to call his family around him 
and have some one read a chapter in the Bible, and lead in family 


prayer. Shortly before his death he called his family around him, 
and commending all to God, passed peacefully away. Thus ended 
the life of one whose eventful career furnishes a moral for the ris- 
ino- generation. The funeral discourse was preached by the Rev. J. 
I. Judy, from Rev. xxii, 14. There were gathered together on 
this solemn occasion many relatives and friends of this veteran in 
the Lord's service, who attentively listened to the pastor, whose lips 
uttered a just tribute to one whose life had not been in vain. 

Franklin Freeman, farmer, sec. 11 ; P. O., Hopedale. This whole- 
souled gentleman was born in Butler Co., O., Dec. 25, 1833. 
There he passed his youth. He then removed to Indiana where he 
was united in marriage with Miss Lucinda Bartholomew. Four- 
teen vears ago Mr. F. came to Boynton township, where he owns 
80 acres of choice land. The marriage referred to has been blessed 
with four children, only two of whom are now living — Ashian and 
Effie M. 

Joseph Gilchrist, was born in Logan Co., 111., Feb. 10, 1853. 
His father, James Gilchrist, was a prominent agriculturist of that 
county; was born in Scotland; a farmer by occupation, and was 
there married to Miss Jane Clark. In an early day he crossed the 
ocean for America, and directed his footsteps to Logan Co., where 
he became prominently identified with agricultural affairs. He died 
at the age of 58 years, universally respected. Mrs. G. died many 
years prior to her husband, and their remains lie interred in Union 
Church cemetery. Joseph grew to manhood in Logan Co., received 
a good common-school education and became identified with the 
farming and stock raising interests from his earliest years. At the 
age of 19 he was married to Miss INIartha Chenoweth, by whom he 
had three children — Charles E., Burtie W. and Pearl. In 1877 
Mr. G. moved to Boynton and resides on sec. 25; P. O., Boynton. 
Jacob Hauler, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 9 ; P. O., Hopedale. 
Few have succeeded better in life than the genial gentleman whose 
name stands at the top of this column. He is a native of Germany, 
where he was born in 1824, and there passed his childhood, youth 
and grew to manhood. Attaining his majority he concluded to seek 
his fortune in the New World, and accordingly sailed for America, 
arriving during the. summer of 1845 in New York city, where he 
remained a short time, and then proceeded to Ohio where he pro- 
cured employment as a farm hand, and there married, in 1853, Miss 
Mary Brenneman, a daughter of Daniel Brenneman, a well-known 
resident of this township. For seven years Mr. Hauter worked in 
Ohio, and then plunging still further westward, he located in Put- 
nam county. 111., where he remained three years, when he moved 
and settled in Boynton township, where, in 1858, Mr. H. made his 
purchase of land in Illinois, consisting of 160 acres, now the 
property of Jacob Brenneman, Esq. At the present writing Mr. H. 
is the owner of 245 acres of land unequaled in this Western country, 
on which he erected four years ago a handsome farm residence. 


Francis Ireland is numbered among the progressive agriculturists 
of the township. He was born in Salem township, AVarren Co., O., 
Sept. 18, 1830, where at the old farm homestead he also passed the 
days of his childhood and grew to manhood. During the winter 
seasons he succeeded in acquiring a good common school education, 
and then, perhaps, laid the foundation for future success in life. In 
1853 he was united in marriage to Miss Ruth Coddington, daughter 
of Wm. Coddington, of Ohio. In 1856 Mr. C. concluded to move 
farther west and eventially located in Delavan township, this Co., 
and soon after moved to Boynton, where he erected a small frame 
building in which he suffered many inconveniences during the win- 
ter, sometimes finding nearly as much snow inside the dwelling as 
outside. The fare at this time, humble as it was, however, was 
enjoyed by the family and the occasional visitor. Times proved 
very discouraging, and not until the flush war times did Mr. I. 
begin to prosper in his new home, since then he has been extremely 
fortunate. They have four children — Florence, William F., John- 
athan and Monroe. Mr. I. holds the position of Road Com., and 
takes a deep interest in educational matters. 

Thomas J. Ireland, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 10 ; P. O., Boyn- 
ton. Thomas Ireland was born iji Ohio, May 17, 1832. He is the 
eldest son of James Ireland, a native of Virginia, and who moved 
to Ohio during its early settlement, and where he united his 
fortunes to Miss Naiicy Coyle, by whom he had eight children. 
James Ireland became an exceedingly prosperous farmer in Ohio, 
where, in the year 1852, he was laid at rest. His estimable wife 
still survives and resides in Indiana. Thomas left Ohio in his 
twentieth year and made his way to Shelby Co., Ind., where he 
turned his attention to farming. In 1 855 he united in marriage 
with Miss Ann Coddington, daughter of Wm. Coddington of War- 
ren Co., O. Of this marriage seven children were born, only three 
of whom are living, whose names are — Allen, James and Cora. 
Ten years ago Mr. I. disposed of 120 acres of land he had in 
Indiana and set out for Illinois, and located in this township, where 
he has since been identified with the farming interests. Mrs. 
Ireland died in 1870, and was laid away in Orendorff cemeterv. In 
1874 Mr. I. was united in marriage to Mrs. E. Pultz, of Ind., by 
whom he had two children — Katie and Edgar. 

Frederick A. Intzi, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 2 ; P. O., Hope- 
dale. The above named gentleman, as is well known, keeps pace 
with the present times, and is a progressive farmer of Boynton 
township. He was born in Butler Co., Ohio, on the 26th of Dec. 
1841, where he lived upon the farm homestead until attaining his 
majority _, when he became employed as clerk in a general furnishing 
store, and at Dayton, Ohio, he ran, so to speak, a Yankee notion 
wagon. In 1868 he acee})ted a situation as traveling agent for farm 
machinery. He remained with this firm but a short time, as the 
game year found hini a resident of this township, where he was 


united in marriage during the autumn to Miss Amelia Brenneman, 
a daughter of Daniel Brenneman, whom we have mentioned, by 
whom he had five children — Laura, William, Augusta, Edward 
and Emma. Since his residence here INIr. Intzi has acquired a prop- 
erty of 80 acres brought to a high state of cultivation through an 
admirable system of under-drainage. 

J. I. Judy, minister of the Gospel and farmer, sec. 25 ; P. O., 
Boynton. The courteous gentleman whose name heads this biogra- 
phy is a native of ISIackinaw, Tazewell Co., where he was born on 
the 16th of Sept., 1832. His father Daniel H. Judy, a well-remem- 
bered and prominent citizen of this county, is worthy of more than 
a passing notice, although owing to a limited space we cannot enter 
into particulars of his eventful and energetic life. He was born in 
Greene Co., Ohio, and made his way to Tazewell Co. prior to the 
deep snow. Like all pioneers he suifered many inconveniences, but 
made the best of his humble lot and lived an exemplary Christian 
life. He was one of the original members of the Hittle Grove 
Christian Church. At an advanced age, he resides on his farm near 
Atlanta, Logan Co. 

James I. Judy, whose sketch we here append, passed his boyhood 
days amid pioneer associations, and at the early age of 16 w^as con- 
vinced of the necessity of leading a Christian life, and since this 
period has been proniinently identified with the Church and Sun- 
day-school. In 1853, he crossed the plains for the gold fields of 
California, and after a year of moderate success returned to his 
old home in Illinois; during the autumn of 1854 moved to Atlanta, 
and entered into the mercantile business. During this time he was 
married to Mary E. Campbell, daughter of G. R. Campbell of Ky. 
In 1855 Mr. J. settled on his present form, and here he has lived 
and labored for the salvation of souls during all those years, and 
no one meets with more universal respect than Elder Judy. In 
order to show to some extent the estimation in which he is held, we 
copy the following : ^'A visit to Haw Grove and a visit to the Sun- 
day-schooL'' — After school the house began filling with people. 
Elder Judy preached his last sermon for the old year. We never 
heard a more beautiful address than he gave his attentive listeners. 
At night he bade his congregation larewell, although we know it is 
not final. He has won to himself a place in the hearts of the 
people that cannot be filled by another. He is accomplishing much 
good in the world. Surely his life would seem just begun, and 
God in his infinite goodness and mercy seemed to be blessing him 
in every way, and tlie sincere wishes of the people are for his future 
success and return to Haw Grove." 

Michael Judy, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 26 ; P. O., Boynton. 
Mr. Judy ranks among the more liberal fiirmers of this township. 
He was born on the old homestead of his parents, John and Chris- 
tiana Judy, near Hittle Grove, April 22, 1837. John Judy, the 
head of the family was a native of Ohio, and a farmer by occupa- 


tion. While a young; man he wended his way to 111. and was 
among the first to settle at Hittle Grove, this county. This period 
of time, about 1826, marked an era in the settlement of this coun- 
ty. Indians were then a numerous and powerful people and tliose 
few adventuresome settlers suffered many inconveniences from their 
depredations. In subsequent years, Mr, J. who is mentioned in our 
township history became a prosperous and respected farmer. He 
died in Aug. 1861, in the 65th year of his age and his ashes repose 
amid the scenes of his early labors. Michael grew to manhood in 
Hittle township, received a common school education, or in other 
words a log-cabin education. In Livingston Co. Feb. 8, 1858, Mr. 
Judy was united in marriage to Miss Elvira Steers, a daughter of 
Hugh Steers, of Ky. They have five children — Charles, John, 
Christian, Hartzel and Hattie. Eleven years ago Mr. J. moved 
to Boynton where he purchased 250 acres of land. 

S. A. Knott is the oldest son of Wm. Knott, one of the original 
pioneers and wealthy men of the county. He was born in Randolph 
Co., Ind., 1847. He was but five years of age when his parents 
settled in Delavan township, this county, where they remained some 
eight years, when they came to this township, where our subject 
attained his majority. In February, 1862, he mas united in mar- 
riage to Mrs. Sarah Jane Pence, daughter of Thomas Pence, of Ohio. 
Of this marriage two children were born — Viola R. and Maggie 
Cordelia. Mrs. Knott passed from earth on the 26th of Sept., 1865. 
In 1869, on the 4th of March, Mr. K. united his fortunes with Miss 
Clarissa Ellen Morley, daughter of 'Squire Morley, a well-known 
resident of this county, and who has held numerous offices of trust 
and respectability. Of this marriage four children have been born — 
Elmer, Ernest, Troy E. and Elizabeth A. Mr. K. is engaged in 
farming on sec. 13; P. O., Delavan. 

Nicholas Martin, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 3 ; P. O., Hopedale. 
The above named gentleman is worthy of more than a passing notice. 
He was born in France on the 15th of March, 1834. Growing to 
manhood upon the farm homestead he acquired a liberal education. 
At the age of 20 he concluded to better his fortune in America, and 
accordingly sailed for this country during the spring of 1854. Land- 
in New York city he remained there but a short time, when he made 
his way to Illinois, locating in the town of Pekin, this Co., and first 
worked as a farm hand. In 1855 he was united in marriage to Miss 
Catherine Lytwiler, by whom he has five children — Barbara, Joseph, 
Mary M., Emma and Catherine. 

Daniel B. Meeker, farmer, sec. 1 ; P. O., Delavan. Mr. M. is a 
well-known resident and prominent farmer of Tazewell Co. He 
was born in Essex Co., N. J., on the 19th of August, 1819. His 
father, Benjamin Meeker, was a native of Ncav Jersey, as was also 
Phoebe, his wife. In 1859 he first set foot in Tazewell Co. He has 
passed the greater portion of his life in the AYest. He is well known 
for liberality and kindly manners, and )\q,b been financially successful 


In 1841, while in New Jersey, he was united in marriage to Miss 
Eliza, daughter of John N. Baldwin, of N. J., and now a wealthy 
citizen of Delavan township, and ujiwards of 80 years of age. Six 
children blessed the union of Mr. Meeker and Miss Baldwin — Celia, 
born Sept. 3, 1845; Anna K., born June 6, 1853; Charles B., Dec. 
22, 1855; E. W., Nov. 25, 1859; Harvey C, Dec. 20, 1862, and 
John E., Sept. 23, 1866. 

Peter J. Nafziger was born in Germany Aug. 31, 1829, and is the 
oldest son of Jacob N., a farmer in his native land. During the 
infancy of Peter the elder Naifzigcr thought he could better his for- 
tunes in America. He accordingly crossed the Atlantic, during the 
spring of 1831. He landed with his flimily in New York city, and 
from there moved to Ohio, where he resided six years. He then 
moved to Woodford Co., 111., where he now lives, and is in the far 
decline of life, being over four score years of age. Peter grew to 
manhood in Woodford Co., where he acquired a common school 
education. In 1854 he was united in marriage to Miss Magdalena 
Naffzigcr, by whom he has eight cliildren — John W., Jacob A., 
Henry E., Samuel, Joseph, Daniel, Kate and Barbara. Eight years 
ago Mr. N. disposed of his property in Woodford Co. and came to 
Boynton, where, on sec. 1, he owns 80 acres of valuable land. P. 
O., Boynton. 

Andrew Peters, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 2 ; P. O., Hopedale. 
Andrew Peters was born in Pa. on the 23d of April, 1826. During 
his infancy his parents moved to Ohio, Guernsey Co., where young 
Andrew passed his boyhood upon the farm homestead. In 1854 he 
was united in marriage to Miss N. Egger, a daughter of Samuel 
Egger. In 1858 Mr. Peters came to Illinois, settling in Tazewell 
Co., Boynton township, where he bought 120 acres in Boynton and 
adjoining township. 

John E. Powell, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 15; P. O., Boynton. 
He is a native of Logan Co., 111., where he was born May 19, 1838 ; 
is the oldest son of Wm. Powell, a native of Green Co., O. He 
acquired a liberal education, and while a young man made his way 
to this county, where he taught school and secured employment as 
clerk. While residing in this county he married Eliza, daughter of 
Sanford Quisenbery, who was among the early settlers of Tazewell. 
In 1850 he settled 'in Logan Co., where he held many responsible 
local offices, and where he passed the remainder of his life. John 
passed his boyhood in Logan Co.' Left an orphan at the age of 
fourteen he came to Tazewell Co., where he has since lived, with the 
exception of some years spent as a farm hand in Logan Co. In 
1862 he purchased 160 acres of land in this township and is now the 
owner of 375 acres. 

Bryan Reardon, fiirmer and stock dealer, sec. 22 ; P. O., Boynton ; 
is a native of Ireland. He was born July 14, 1836, and is the oldest 
son of Daniel and Margaret (Keefe) Reardon. Daniel Reardon was 
a farmer in Ireland, where he married Margaret Keefe, who bore 


him nine children. In 1850 the family, inchuling Bryan, sailed for 
America, and in due course of time landed in New York city, from 
whence they proceeded to Providence, R. I., where they remained 
until 1857, when they came to this township. One year previous, 
however, our subject came. He was then unmarried, and secured 
employment as a farm hand. In 1860, with other members of the 
family, he purchased 360 acres of land. In 1867 he was united in 
marriage to Miss Anna Fleming, daughter of Edward Fleming, a 
native of Ireland. Thev have five children — Edward, Michael, 
Daniel, Bryan and Wene. For several years Mr. R. held the posi- 
tion of Town Clerk, and for ten years Justice of the Peace. 

Capt John Reardon, sec. 14; P. O., Delavau. Capt. R., a well 
and favorably known agriculturist of this county, is a native of 
Thomastown, in the County Tipperary, Ireland, wliere he was born 
in 1840. His father, Daniel Reardon, crossed the Atlantic in 1850, 
and eventually settled in Rhode Island, where our subject passed 
his boyhood days, and became employed in one of the numerous 
cotton mills that dot the little State. In 1875, John, Bryan and 
Thomas Reardon directed their footsteps to Illinois, and located at 
Delavan. Here they became employed as farm hands, and in time 
became farmers. In August, 1862, when the great civil war had 
reached a fever heat, Mr. R., true to his adopted country, and the 
stars and stripes, assisted in the organization of Co. H, 115th 111. 
Inf. Although he enlisted as a private, he was appointed, at organ- 
ization, second lieutenant. Proceeding to the front, he participated 
in some the great battles of national renown. He was promoted to 
first lieutenant, and soon to captain. After the war he returned to 
this county, where he has since resided. Although of a retiring 
disposition, he was once nominated for the office of sheriff of this 
county, and was twice elected Supervisor. In 1870 he married Miss 
Mary Murphy. They have three children, Nellie, Geniere and John. 

Daniel Reardon, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 14 ; P. O., Delavan ; 
was born in the county of Tipperary, Ireland. During his child- 
hood his parents moved to America, as elsewhere given, and settled 
in Rhode Island, eventually settling in Tazewell Co. Here young 
Reardon grew to manhood, and received a good common school 
education. In 1860, since the decease of his father, and the neces- 
sary division of property, our subject received 240 acres, in the 
township. In drawing this sketch to a close, we can say of the 
Reardon boys, that few in Tazewell Co. have succeeded better in life. 

Samuel Roles, although not among the earlier residents of Taze- 
well Co., is worthy of more fhan a passing notice. He was born in 
Luzerne Co., Pa., in 1818. Of his father, James Roles, but little 
is known. He was an Englisman by birth, and on moving to this 
country settled in Pennsylvania, where he married Miss- Esther 
Miller, by whom he had 13 children, of whom the subject of this 
sketch was the sixth child. Growing to manhood in Pennsylvania 
Samuel early became apprenticed to learn the blacksmithing trade, 


and subsequently worked as a journeyman for many years. In 
1841 he was married to Miss Surah, dauij;hter of George Davison, 
of Pennsylvania. On moving to this county, which he did in 1854, 
he farmed for one year, when he purchased a shop, and when his 
skill as a workman became known he received a large patronage. 
In 1859 he received the iirst jiremium at the Logan County Fair, 
for skill disylayed as a nail worker and horse shoer. At the present 
writing he resides on his farm, on sec. 23 ; P. O., Boynton. 

Lewis Scarborough, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 15; P. O., Dela- 
van; was born in New Jersey, in 1836, his father, Thomas Scar- 
borough, was also a native of New Jersey. He was a farmer by 
occupation, and married Miss Charity Burroughs, a daughter of 
Andrew Burroughs, bv whom he had 9 children, 6 of whom are 
living — Mary Ann, who married John Fish, and now resides in 
Pennsylvania; Wilson T., who married Miss Sarah Hunt, and now 
resides' in Trenton, Jersey Co. ; Howell, who married Miss Rebecca 
Dallas, and now resides in Mercer Co., N. J. ; Comelia, who married 
Francis Duffield, and now resides in Trenton ; Jacob, who married 
Mary Servas, and resides in Pennsylvania ; Lewis grew to manhood 
in Xew Jersey, where he followed farming, and where he was united 
in marriage in the year 1860, to Miss Margaret Snedeker, a daugh- 
ter of Jas. W. Snedeker. In 1871 Mr. S. moved to Pennsylvania, 
where he resided until his removal to Boynton township, Tazewell 
county, two years ago. 

John Scoff, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 22 ; P. O., Boynton. He 
was born at Delavan, Tazewell Co., 111., May 2, 1850; is the oldest 
son of John and Mary Scott, natives of Scotland and Ohio, respec- 
tively. George grew to manh<iod in this county ; received a good 
common school education ; in 1874 was married to Miss Alice Paul, 
daughter of John and Mary Paul. They have one child — Clara, 
born in March, 1877. 

Kennard Siailei/, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 28 ; P. O., Boyn- 
ton ; was born in Adams Co., Ohio, on the 23d of October, 1834. 
He is the oldest son of Nathaniel and Fliza (Shields) Smiley. His 
father was born in Kentucky, and in an early day moved to Ohio, 
where he married and there })assed the remainder of his days. 
Kennard grew to manhood in Ohio, where he received a common 
school education. While employed upon the farm homestead, the 
war broke out and Mr. Smiley enlisted in Co. E, 179th Ohio Infant- 
ry, for one year, proceeded to the front and participated in the 
famous battle of Nashville; was honorably discharged when the 
war closed ; returned to Ohio, where he remained but a short time, 
as the same year of his return to his Ohio home found him a resi- 
dent of Tazewell Co., 111. Here he was married, Oct. 3, 1872, to 
Miss Catharine Sparts. Their children are William and Franklin. 
During the autumn of 1870, Mr. S. purchased his present farm. 

John Lufcr, tlirmer and stock raiser, sec. 1 ; P. O., Hopedale ; 
was born in Bavaria, Germany, March 27, 1825. He is the son of 


John Luter, who is now upwards of eighty years of age and a resi- 
dent of this township. John grew to manhood in his native land and 
where, owing to the excellent government of the German people, he 
received a liberal education at such times as the duties of the farm 
would permit. For a short time he served in the regular army of 
Bavaria. On the 6th day of Nov. 1851, John Luter and parents 
landed in the city of New York and from thence came direct to 
Tazewell Co. where he has since resided, engaged in agricultural 
pursuits in Boynton township. He own 240 acres of land the 
greater portion of which is tile-drained. In 1837 Mr. L. was mar- 
ried to Magdalena Gute by whom he has eight children — John, 
Andrew, Crist, Jacob, Amos, Barbara, Lizzie and Susan. 

William H. Woolf, farmer, sec. 22; P. O., Boynton. He was 
born in West Chester Co. N. Y. Oct. 25, 1837. He is the third 
child of a family of four. His father, Andrew Woolf, was a native 
of N. Y. and a farmer by occupation and married in that State to 
Miss Mary Devoe. Wm. passed his boyhood in New York State 
and on attaining his majority came to 111. and located in this town- 
ship, where he has since resided. In 1867 he was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Mary Reed, daughter of John and Rebecca Reed, by 
whom he has two children — Letitia and James. 

William Wooters, was born in Muskingum Co., O., July 24, 1828. 
He is the second son of Nathan and Deborah Wooters. Nathan 
Wooters was born in Maryland and moved to Ohio in an early day, 
where he followed farming, and moved to Indiana about the year 
1835, wUere our subject grew to manhood. In 1850 he made his 
way to Illinois, and located in this county, where he has since resided, 
following agricultural pursuits. In 1857 he was married to Miss 
Isabel Rouse, daughter of Peter and Elizabeth Rouse. Of this 
marriage three children were born. Mrs. W. died Sept. 17, 1865. 
In 1876 he was married to Miss Mary Lightwine. They have 
two children — Nellie M. and Walter. Mr. W. is a farmer and 
stock raiser, resides on sec. 29 ; P. O., Boynton. 

George Zehr, farmer and stock raiser, sec. 2 ; P. O., Hopedale. 
George was born in Germany in an early day, probably about 1813. 
He crossed the Atlantic for the New World, and first located in New 
York State. Afterwards he moved to Ohio, where he was united 
in marriage to Miss Barbara Lytwiler, a daughter of Joseph Lyt- 
wiler. In 1846 tie located in Green Valley, Tazewell Co., thence 
removed to Hopedale township, where he rented farm property. 
He is now the owner of over 300 acres, and takes a leading position 
among the farmers of the county. Of the marriage above referred 
to five children are living — Joseph, Christopher, Malinda, Barbara 
and Peter. Christopher, who has passed the years of his life in this 
county, was born in 1855; married in 1877, Miss Anna Kaufman, a 
daughter of Christian Kaufman, of Germany. 

James Zumwalt takes a leading position among the agriculturists 
of this township. He resides upon sec. 30 ; P. O., Delavan. He 


was born in Fountain Co., Ind., on the 8th of October, 1847. His 
father, Henry Zumwalt, deceased, was born in Harrison Co., Ky., 
in 1810. In an early day he moved to Indiana, where he was united 
in marriage to Miss Nancy Davidson. Their children were — 
Wm., John, Daniel, George, Levi, Edwin, Mary, Emma, Sarah, 
Hattie, Alice and Susannah. In 1851 Mr. Z. moved to Tazewell 
Co., where he purchased farm property. He died in May, 1875, and 
was laid at rest in the Patterson cemetery. A handsome monument 
marks the spot. It should be stated in this sketch that Mr. Z. was 
united in marriage three times. His first marriage we have men- 
tioned. His second wife was Miss Elizabetli Pearson; his third 
wife Mary Dilly. James and John own the farm property, which 
consists of some 500 acres. James entered the army at the last call 
for troops. John enlisted for three years. 

The following gentlemen have served the township since its organ- 
ization in the various official capacities named, with the year of hold- 
ing the position : 


Philo Baldwin 1854 .John N. Snedeker 1866 

R. B. Marley 1855-56 William Slaughter 1867 

Andrew KeVr. resigned. John Reardon 1868 

Stephen K. Hatfield 1857 William Slaughter 1870-72 

Ellis Dillon 1859 John F. Beezley 1873 

Wm. Lafever 1860-61 Wm. Morehead 1874 

Ellis Dillon 1863 .John F. Beezlev 1875-78 

R. B. Marley 1864 Jacob Brenneman 1879 

John Shurts 1865 


Wells Graves 1854 Bryan Reardon 1873-74 

Samuel Graves 1855-57 Wm. Coddington 1875 

John W.Graves 1859-60 Bryan Reanlon 1876 

J. D. Woolf 1863-68 Wrn. Coddington 1877 

John F. Beezley i. 1870-71 Bryan Reardon 1878 

John W. Graves 1872 Hiram Morehead 1879 


Andrew Kerr 1855-56 Jacob Brenneman 1870-71 

Jesse Evans 1857 John F. Beezley. 1872 

John Shurts 1859 Jacob Brenneman 1873 

Wm. Morehead 186tV61 Thomas T. Heaton 1874-75 

John Shurts 1863 .James Crawford 1876 

Henry Carpenter 1864 Henry M. Shipton 1877 

Joseph Brenneman 1865-66 Wm. Coddington 1879-79 

Wm. Morehead, sr 1867-68 


Jacob Baker 1854-54 James Morehead 1871 

Jacob Blake 1856 AVesley J. Martin 1872 

T. T. Heaton 1857 John D. Woolf 1873 

Wm. Slaughter 1859 Wm. Coddington 1874 

E. T. Orendorff. 1860-61 Bryan Reardon 1875 

Henry Carpenter 1863 Wm. Coddington 1876 

R. Weller 1864-65 Edward Reardon. 1877 

Joseph Ball 1866 M. Fredeker 1868 

Reuben Wells 1867-68 Samuel Donley 1879 

Kersey Cook 1870 



This township comprises a fine body of land. During the grow- 
ing season of the year, when the various cereals of this latitude are 
waving in summer's breezes, it is said that more grain can be seen 
growing here than in any section of similar size in Illinois. There 
are no swamps, no marshes, or anything to obstruct a free and easy 
cultivation of the soil. The vast tract of prairie land in Spring 
Lake, Sand Prairie and Cincinnati townships, were known in the 
early day as the sand prairie. It includes all the territory from the 
bluffs to the river bank. The soil is very sandy, hence the name, 
sand prairie. About the year 1834, Commodore Morris, of the U. 
S. Navy, came from the East and entered, on behalf of himself and 
the officers of the Navy, a large portion of this prairie for speculat- 
ing purposes. They expected a large influx of settlers and a sudden 
rise in the price of the land of this section. That their bright hopes 
were not fully realized the history of the following dozen years 
clearly proves. There were at that time a few settlers here and there 
over the township, but they wore scarce and far between. As the 
officers of the navy owned a large portion of the remainder and held 
it at such high figures, it could not be, and was not, purchased by 
actual settlers. These gentlemen held this land and paid taxes upon 
it until about 1845, when, seeing no marked increase in value and 
no immediate prospect of any, they commenced selling, and by 1848 
had disposed of about all of it. They paid the regular price, $1.25 
per acre, for it, held it for over ten years, and commenced its sale 
at $2 per acre. ,It soon advanced to $2.50, $2.75 and $3 per acre, 
and ere they had disposed of it all it went up to $10 to $15 per acre. 
During the following decade it advanced rapidly, and when the rail- 
road found its way through its sandy prairie it tilled up rapidly with 
a good and thrifty class of agriculturists, and to-day it will compare 
favorably in kind of improvements and value with any section of 
our great State. 

There are two streams in the township, one of which is of consid- 
erable size, and both of them have cut some queer freaks. The 
•larger is the Mackinaw river. It enters the township near the center 
of section 19 and flows in a northeasterly course to the Illinois. 
Near the southwestern corner of section 8 it divides and what is 
known as the main stream courses northward and has its outlet on 
section 5, and the " cut-off" strikes the river from section 9. What 
was formerly the main river, after leaving the place of forking, on 


section 8, is now scarcely a brook, and, indeed, is dry much of the 
time. The cut-off, which a few years ago was the smaller, now car- 
ries the main current. Another of its freaks is noticed of late years. 
A short distance from the place where it enters the township, a branch 
has started from it and flows over the prairie through Spring Lake 
township, to the Illinois, Several years ago there was noticed a low 
flat place through this portion of the prairie, but no indication of a 
running stream. The strong current of the Mackinaw, however, is 
enabled to force its way through the sandy soil of this region and 
make a stream where it will. 

The other principal stream is known as Lost creek. It derives 
its name from the fact of it losing itself in the sandy soil. It will 
course along, a clear, flowing stream, and soon disappear. In some 
places not a drop of water can be seen on the surface during the 
entire summer season. It again comes to the surface and forms a 

In the northern part of the township, on section 12, and section 1 
of the old part of the township, is a beautiful lake. It is known 
as Bailey's lake. It is situated about one-hundred feet above the 
surface of the ground upon which the business portion of Pekin is 
built. It has no visable outlet, but it is supposed that there is a 
bed of clay leading from it to the Illinois, through which the 
water finds its way to that river. This theory is partly substantia- 
ted by the flow of water in wells that are sunk in what is supposed 
to be this channel. For instance, there is a well near the freight 
depot of the Pekin Lincoln and Decatur Railway, which has afford- 
ed water for twenty years, and is only ten feet in depth. Mr. W. 
S. Rankin has a well higher up and about one-hundred yards from 
the above, which is thirty-nine feet deep. About midway between 
these two wells is another, which affords water at the depth of 
twenty feet. It is supposed these wells are on the line of the chan- 
nel, the shallowest being better located and not as high up as the 
others. In other places water is not found short of one-hundred 

The timber along the bluffs in this township is of young growth. 
We are told by old settlers, who were acquainted with this section, 
that where the timber is now thick and trees as high as forty feet, 
they have seen the deer grazing, nothing to obstruct the view for 
miles save a cluster of bushes here and there. 

In the eastern portion of the township are some coal mines which 


afford a good article of fuel. Norman C. Hawley has an extensive 
mine in operation here. The P. L. & D. Railway have construct- 
ed a track from the main line to his mines, a distance of about half 
a mile. 

In 1850, on the eve of adapting the township mode of conducting 
affairs, the commission appointed to divide the county into town- 
ships, laid off Cincinnati a full congressional township, which 
included 36 sections. Subsequently the northern tier of sections 
was cut off and added to Pekin township. In this portion of the 
township, near where the P. L. & D. Railway shops are now 
located, Jonathan Tharp settled in 1824. He was the first settler 
both in the city of Pekin and in this township, in that that 
section he located upon, was afterwards included in Pekin. Jacob 
Tharp Sr., came in 1826 and erected the second house, south of the 
corner of Broadway and Court streets. Jonathan Tharp laid his 
farm off into town lots, and named his prospective village Cincin- 
nati, whence the present name of the 'township. Pekin was laid off 
and the two places so close together, were known as Pekin and 
Cincinnati. Finally they were united under the name of Pekin. 
Willian Woodrow then came, about 1824, and settled on the south- 
east quarter of section 36. It is said, he had the pick and choice 
of any of the land on the sand prairie, as he made the first selection, 
and decided upon that quarter. Robert T. Copes came and located 
on section 26. Aaron Hackett, his son, Dr. Hackett, and son-in- 
law, by the name of Conover and a man by the name of Hinges, 
settled on section 14. Joseph Haines, who came in 1827, located 
on section 13. Alfred Haines, son of Joseph, erected his cabin on 
section 14. This was among the most thickly settled portions of 
the county at that time. Samuel and Hugh Woodrow came in 
1835, and settled upon section 35. These were about all the set- 
tlers for many years in this township. It was settled up slowly 
until 1848, Avhen a new start was given to settling the township, by 
the sale of the land held by the naval officers, and the opening of 
the Illinois and Michigan canal. 

William Woodrow was a native of Pennsylvania; removed in 
early life to Ohio, and came to Tazewell county in 1824, locating in 
Cincinnati township, where he remained until 1863, when he went 
to Knox county, where, Wednesday, Aug. 15th, 1866, in the 74th 
year of his age, he died. 

The township is now occupied by a good thrifty class of agricult- 





uralists. Among those which are especially identified with its 
history, and who take a deep interest in all matters for the public 
weal, we will mention the following : 

Gerd AJfi, of Germany, came to this county in 1865. He was 
born in Hanover in 18'25. His parents, Joiin and Gretchel Alfs, 
were Germans. He was educated in his native country. He was 
married to Mary Hendricks. They have eight children. Mr. Alfs 
is engaged in firming very extensively in this township. He 
resides on section 10; post-office address, Pekin. In politics Mr. 
A. is liberal in his views. 

Bennett Bailey, a native of Coshocton Co., Ohio, came to this 
county in 1843 and resides on section 16 of this township. His 
parents were Thomas Baily of Ohio and Rachel (Smith) Bailey a 
native of Green county, Penn. He was educated in the common 
and select schools. He has held the offices of School Director, 
Commissioner, Assessor, etc. On 23rd of February, 1863, he was 
united in the bond of wedlock with Mary A. Seiwell. They are 
the parents of seven children. Their names and dates of birth are 

Aug. 29, 1874; Talitha C, born Aug.27, 1876 and Ella,' born Dec. 
22, 1878. Politically, Mr. Bailey is identified with the Democratic 
party. Post-office, Pekin. 

Sarah Jane Bailey was born in Union county, Penn. She is the 
daughter of Henry and Sarah (Haas) Blooni, of Pennsylvainia, 
and came to this county Jan. 1, 1849 and in January 1850, married 
Jonathan Bailey, of Ohio. This union was blessed with three chil- 
dren. William was born Nov. 18, 1850, Theodore, born Oct. 16, 
1852, and Mary born Sept. 25, 1855. She is the wife of John 
Worth and resides at Peoria, 111. William, married Mollie Dalby 
and at present resides in Pekin. Theodore married Miss Ella Cope- 
land and resides near the old homestead. Mrs. Bailey formerly 
belonged to the Lutheran Church but at present attends the Metho- 
dist. She resides on section 31. Her post-office address is Pekin. 

Leonard A Beck, Justice of the Peace, was born in Franklin Co., 
Pa., in 1840. His parents were John and Margaret (Sweavel), 
natives of Hesse Darmstadt, Germany. Mr. Beck came to Taze- 
well county in 1846, and is self-educated. He resides on section 
27, where he is engaged in farming. Nov. 16, 1865, he was joined 
in matrimony with Mary Sherrer. Their children are Annie E., 
born Feb. 28, 1869; Mary, born Sept. 2, 1873; Philip S., born 
May 13, 1876, and John, born March 21, 1878. In politics Mr. 
B. is identified with the Democratic party. Post-office address, 

James C. Bequeaith, was born in this township, in 1853, June 6. 
He received his education in this county, and is engaged in agricul- 


tural pursuits. Dec. 24, 1873, he was married to Clara Jane Iliff, 
of Marshall county, Iowa. John M., their first child, was born 
March 9, 1875, and March 26, 187G, AVilliam Wesley was b()rn. 
The former is not living. Mr. Bcqucaith is a Republican in political 
views. Post-office address, Pekin. 

John Bequenith, farmer, residence, section 18; was born in Knox 
Co., O., in 1820. At the age of twelve he was brought from Indi- 
ana, whether his parents had moved five years previous. His father, 
Joseph Bequeaith, was a native of Scotland, his mother, Elizabeth 
Conkle, was born in Pennsylvania, July 29, 1846. Mr. B. was 
married to Elizabeth King.' Their children are — Anna, born in 
1848, since deceased; Emma L., born March 11, 1851, James C, 
June 6, 1853; Alice A., April 29, 1855; Laura J., April 9, 1858; 
Louis C, Feb. 2, 1866. Mrs. Bequeaith is the daughter of Thomas 
and Elizabeth (Beninger) King. Her fiither was a native of Mary- 
land, and died in 1861, at the age of 70, and her mother was born 
in Westmoreland county. Pa., and died in 1864. Mrs. B. was born 
in New Philadelphia, Ohio. Her parents came to this county in 
1844, and it has been her home since. She is a member of the 
American Reformed Church, and made a profession of religion at the 
age of 17. Their children — James and Laura Jane Loid, are 
married and live near the parental roof; Emma L., Owen and Alice 
A. Iliff, live in Marshall county, 111 ; the youngest, Louis, lives 
with his parents. Mr. B. owns 800 acres of land, and is a success- 
ful farmer. Post-office, Pekin. 

WilUam Fletcher Copes, farmer, sec. 35; post-office address, 
Pekin; born in McLean county, 111., in 1828. He is the son of 
Robert T. Copes and Mary D. Tharp, of Ohio. Was brought to 
this county when a child of two summers, where, in the common 
schools, he received his education. He has held the offices of 
Deputy-Sheriff, Constable and Town Clerk for about twenty years. 
Mary Woodrow, his wife, and to whom he was married in 1851, has 
born him six children — Laura A., born in 1853, Clara E., born in 
1855 ; Ira O., born in 1857 ; Mary A., born in 1859, since deceased; 
Adaline A., also deceased, was born in 1861 ; Ella A., born in 
1863. Mr. C. united with the Methodist Church in 1844. He 
votes with the Republicans. 

Charles W. Corey, farmer and dairyman, sec. 9; was born in 
Ithica, Tompkins Co., N. Y., in 1827. His parents, David and 
Elizabeth (Williams) Corey, were from Orange Co., N. Y.. Mr. 
C. came from New York to Mason county, 111., and from there to 
this county in 1864. He received his education in Ithica and 
Newfield, N. Y. He was married to Eliza Sutton, in 1855. Her 
father's name was Benjamin Sutton, her mother's Elizabeth Roub, 
natives of New Jersey. They moved to Michigan, where Mrs. C. 
was born, thence moved to Cass county, 111., in 1834, where her 
father was almost the first settler. ^Ir. and Mrs. Corey are the 
parents of five children — C. Wilbur, born Nov. 7, 1856, died Jan. 


6,1873; Victoria D., born Aug. 5, 1859; Charles L., born Jan. 7, 
1864; Rupert D., born Nov. 16, 1866; and Catharine S., born 
Nov. 1, 1868. Mr. C. joined the M. E. Church in 1852. His wife 
has been a member since 1862. The entire family, from oldest 
down to youngest, are strictly temperance in principle and practice. 
Republican. Post-office, Pekin. 

Andreio Crooks, farmer, son of AVilliam and Elizabeth Crooks, of 
Maryland, was born in Washington county. Pa., in 1809. All the 
advantages for an education he enjoyed was attending subscription 
schools three months in the year. Mr. C. came to this county Oct. 
17, 1864, and resides upon section 36. His son, Alexander, served 
four years and ten months in the late war, in the 90th Ohio. Mr. 
C. was united in marriage with Elizabeth Anderson, of Pennsylva- 
nia, in 1832. They are the parents of fourteen children, ten of 
whom are living. Their names are Mary J., Matilda, Terrisa H., 
(deceased), Henry H., William, Thomas A., Alexander, Robert H., 
Franklin P., D. H., I^ouis A., James B., Andrew and Samuel. 
Mr. C. united with the Old School Presbyterian Church, in 1832, 
and belongs to that religious denomination at the present time. 
Post-office address, Pekin. 

John Eidmann, who is rather extensively engaged in farming in 
this townshij), and who lives on section 32, is a native of Hesse 
Darmstadt, Germany. He came to Tazewell county Feb. 6, 1848. 
His parents were Frederick and Catherina Elizabeth (Weyruch) 
Eidmann. Mr. Eidmann has held the offices of Supervisor, School 
Director, etc. In 1858 he was married to Margaret Sherrer, of 
Hesse Darmstadt. By her he had three children — John, born in 
'1863; Margaret, born in 1865, and George, born in 1868. In 1871 
he was united in marriage to his present wife, Christina Edenmiller, 
who has borne him three children — Mary Ellen, born in 1874; 
Emma M., born in 1876, and Frances, born in 1878. In politics 
Mr. E. is a Republican. P, O. address, Pekin. 

John Gainer, farmer, post-office address, Pekin, was born in Wit- 
tenburg, Ger., April 13, 1830, and came to this country in May, 
1834. His parents were George and Mary Maria Gainer, of Ger- 
many. He was educated in common schools and embarked in the 
agricultural pursuit, and resides on section 25. He does not belong 
to any church, but inclines to Presbyterian belief. In 1867 he chose 
for his wife Anna Fredcrika Reiling. Emma Elizabeth, John 
Martin and Mary Alice Magdalcua arc their children. 

Gainalid W. Hatch, farmer, and who resides upon section 5; was 
born in Medina county, Ohio, in 1839. His parents were Hiram 
and Amanda Hatch, of Ontario county. When a young man of 
fourteen years of age he came to Tazewell county, and four years 
later, 1857, was married. He is the parent of three sons — William 
M., George H. and Albert Eugene. Mr. H. is identified with the 
Democratic party. Post-office, Pekin. 

John Christopher Hawkins was married to Elizabeth Coleman, a 


native of Harrison county, Ohio, May 20, 1857. Mrs. H.'s parents 
were John Coleman, a native of Pennsylvania, and Rhoda Johnson, 
of Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Hawkins have seven children living, two 
dead. Their names and dates of birth are as follows : Emma, born 
Aug. 11, 1859 (deceased), Elnora, born May 11, 1861 (deceased), 
Margaret, born Aug. 13, 1863, Dallas, Nov. 11, 1865, William, 
April 9, 1868, Mary, Nov. 25, 1869, John, May, 1872, Kate, Nov. 
5, 1974, James, Nov. 13, 1876. 

John Christopher Hawkins was born in Hampshire county, Va., 
in 1831. His parents were William and Mary (Orr) Hawkins. He 
came to this county in 1831 and was educated in the free and sub- 
scription schools of the county. P. O., Pekin. 

N. C. Hawley. In 1837, June 6, Gideon and Elizabeth Hawley, 
while residing in this township, had born unto them a son, Norman 
C, the subject of this sketch. His father was a native of Vermont, 
and his mother, Elizabeth (Caldwell) Hawley, was born in Kentucky. 
This couple came to the State in 1819, and were among the earliest 
settlers in Tazewell county. Mr. H. received his education in the 
common schools. Jubilee -College, Peoria, and Wesleyan University, 
Bloomington. He has been quite successful in life, and now owns 
one thousand acres of land, much of which is underlaid with a fine 
vein of coal, which he is working. April 1, 1867, he married Miss 
Mary E. Martin, of Logan county. Their children number four — 
James M., Gideon L., Prairie Ellen and Freddie S. Politically Mr. 
H. may be found with the Republican party. Post-office, Pekin. 

Adam Heilmann, farmer, is a native of Hesse Darmstadt, Ger- 
many. His parents were Adam and Margaret (Weidman) Heilmann. 
He came to this county in December, 1852; was educated in the' 
select schools of Germany. He has a fine farm. He was married to 
Elizabeth Repper in 1854. They have three sons — Charles, born 
May 23, 1855; Philip, born Feb. 14, 1857, and Leonard, born Oct, 
9, 1859. Mrs. Heilmann's parents were Adam and Eve (Fornof) 
Repper, who came to this county from Germany the year after Mr, 
H, did, and engaged in farming. Mrs. Repper has been deceased 
for fifteen years, and her husband for two years. Post-office, Pekin. 

Michael Hollywood, miller and fiirmer, came direct from Ireland, 
(where, in Armagh county, in 1842 he was born), to this county 
in 1852. His parents were Daniel and Margaret (McShaul) 
Hollywood. He was educated in the common schools of this 
county.. He is a widower. Mr. H. owns and runs a saw-mill in 
this township, which does mostly custom work. He saws at this 
mill an average of 150,000 feet of lumber per year. It has been 
run by him for fourteen years, and is a great convenience to this 
section of the county. Black walnut and oak are the kinds of 
wood that are mostly sawed here. P. O., Pekin. 

August Kastens, a native of Brunswick, Gr., born in 1839 ; came 
to Tazewell County in 1832. He lives on section 13, where he is 
engaged in farming ; post-office address, Pekin. He is the son of 


James P. Martin, retired farmer, is worthy a notice in this vol- 
ume. His generosity and public spirit in all worthy matters are 
unquestioned. He was born in the county of Donegal, Ireland, 
Sept. 15, 1804. His father was Alexander Martin and Avas born in 
the same county in 1782 ; but little is known of his early life. He 
was raised a farmer-boy and on attaining his majority he was united 
in marriage with Miss Mary McCorkle. She was born in the same 
county, and was a daughter of James McCorkle. There were born 
of this marriage nine children, four of whom grew to mature years : 
AVilliam, deceased ; Alexander K., married Miss Hoblett, of Logan 
county; Mary A. married David Gibbs, and now a resident of 
Iowa. Alexander Martin, who is deceased, was a man of unusual 
force of character and energy ; he crossed the Atlantic and landed 
in Philadelphia, from where, with his family, he proceedad to Bed- 
ford county and there passed the remainder of his life, as also did his 
wife. Our subject, James P., received a good common school edu- 
cation, and at the age of 25 was united in marriage with Miss Ellen 
Skeen, of Westmoreland county. Pa. Previous to his marriage, he 
learned the trade of weaver, and for a while worked at this vocation 
in Pa. and Ohio. He then turned his attention to farming, and in 
1845 settled in Logan Co., 111., where he purchased a farm. He 
resided there till 1850, when he located upon the Delavan Prairie 
in this county, where he purchased land at from 90 cts. to $30 per 
acre, amounting in all to 1100 acres. This, by the exercise of unu- 
sual energy, he brought to a high state of cultivation, and planted 
25 miles of hedge fence, which is still in a thriving condition. For 
many years he was the largest hedge-grower in the State, and took 
a just and an especial pride in advancing and improving the agri- 
cultural districts of Tazewell county. He bent his powerful energ- 
ies to the accomplishment of this one laudable object and well 
did he succeed. His life-work speaks in language both stron- 
ger and more fitting than we can express in words. Eight 
children have blessed the union of Mr. and Mrs. Martin, five of 
of whom grew to maturity ; William H., married Miss Jane Quin- 
senberry ; Thomas A., married Miss Alice Mountjoy, and is now a 
resident of Kansas ; James A., married Caroline Hoblett ; George 
B., married Matilda Merrill, and now lives in Missouri; Mary E., 
married Mr. Hawley, a prominent farmer of this township. In 
1862 Mr. M. made an equal division of his pr()})erty among his 
children, and after a life of great activity and unusual success, 
determined to rest from labor, as consistent with his wealth and time 
of life and spend the remainder of his days in quietude. At 
present he is living with his son-in-law% Norman C. Hawley, 
a man who is prominently identified with the interests and wellfare 
of Tazewell county and of whom we speak elsewhere in this volume. 
In drawing this sketch to a close we cannot refrain from referring 


to Mrs. M. as a pioneer wife aud mother. She was born in Penn. 
in 1811, and is a fine type of the pioneer woman. She has been an 
ernest worker in the Christian Church for nearly 40 years. She 
was formerly a member of the Presbyterian Chnrch. Mr. Martin 
is also a consistant member of that Church and is respected and es- 
teemed by all who know him. There are but few men living in the 
county who have done more to advance its interests than Mr. James 
P. Martin. The very fact of his accumulating in a short life time 
such a vast property as he has is the best evidence in the world of 
a well spent life. It is a source of pleasure for the biographer to 
meditate upon a life thus useful and passed, that while he did much 
good in his strong and vigorous manhood and while in the decline 
of life he still, by example and precept, is found battling for the 
right his works will live long after the last sad rites have been paid 
him by those who loved and esteemed him life, and will not forget 
to honor his memory when he is no longer in their midst. Now, in 
the evening of life, as both Mr. M. and his good wife are beckoned to 
that brighter and better land, we realize that the